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Oral Health Complications During Pregnancy
Recent findings have reported that oral bacteria and their by-products can possibly pass the placental barrier keeping oral health at prime importance during pregnancy. An awareness related to oral health during pregnancy cannot be neglected or avoided in order to minimize the complications.
This article focuses on few points related to the necessity of oral health during pregnancy.
Pregnancy comes with many responsibilities making expecting mothers more concerned about their health. However, many pregnant women may not be aware of oral health and its effect on the developing child. Negligence of oral health is quite common during pregnancy due to lack of alertness of oral hygiene and its effect on systemic health.
Moreover, pregnancy discomforts like frequent bouts of nausea, increased physical demands, weight gain or certain dental problems like pregnancy gingivitis or inflammation of gums may be dangerous to developing fetus.
Risk of oral problems during pregnancy:-
Few common oral problems associated with pregnancy are as follows.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy leads to pregnancy gingivitis. It is a condition of bleeding gums, redness. Moreover inflammation, swelling and tenderness are also observed. Ignorance of such problems may lead to serious gum disease. Frequent cleaning can avoid such dental issues. Progesterone levels are elevated during pregnancy which stimulates the production of prostaglandins and leads to inflammation of blood vessels in gums.
Diet during pregnancy is of high importance. It is designed to nourish both mother and unborn baby. Diet rich in carbohydrates actually increases the risk of tooth decay. The morning sickness increases acid secretion in the mouth which is harmful to enamel.
Overgrowth of tissue on gums in pregnant women are called as pregnancy tumors. They are noncancerous and generally observed in the second trimester of the gestation period. It is nothing but swollen gums between teeth. The bleeding and reddening of gums observed in such conditions.
Periodontal disease and preterm birth:
Untreated gum disease or periodontal problems can development periodontitis characterized by inflammation and infection of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth.
This ultimately leads to loss of supporting material and finally the teeth themselves.
A study result has revealed that there is a relation between preterm birth and presence of gum diseases in the pregnant women. The reason is not yet known.
However, research study findings have evidence that oral bacteria or their byproducts can pass placental barrier. This initiate inflammatory response leading to preterm birth.
Another correlation exists between the gum disease and the increased rate of pre-eclampsia, a condition of high blood pressure during pregnancy. The positive correlation suggests that gum disease may cause stress to the blood vessels of the mother, placenta and the fetus.
The basic periodontal therapies like oral hygiene instructions, scaling, root planing and prophylaxis can substantially decrease the level of prostaglandin responsible for inflammatory response.
The regular treatment and follow-up in pregnant women can maintain good oral health and minimize the risk of preterm birth.
Dental treatment during pregnancy:
The dental procedures mostly include the use of X-rays and use of anesthesia. In the case of pregnancy, these procedures can be used with precaution.
Therefore, before sitting on dental chair patient should declare her pregnancy to the physician. Untreated dental infections can harm fetus as well as the mother.
The emergency situations request use of dental radiographs which can’t wait. The radiation of dental x-ray is generally very low and precaution is always taken for lowest radiation exposure. A leaded apron including collar, shields can be used to prevent abdominal exposure to the x-ray radiation.
Use of dental X-ray is not at all contraindicated in pregnancy when used with precaution.
The use of local anesthesia is also not contraindicated in the pregnancy.
A clinical trial result showed that there is no harm in the use of local anesthetics during pregnancy. It is not linked with increased risk for major medical problems like cerebral palsy, cleft lip and heart defect in newborns.
The medication prescribed during dental treatment mainly includes local anesthetics, analgesics, and antibiotics. Most of them can be used with safety precautions. Each drug has its own pregnancy category which should be considered during its use.
The antibiotic like tetracycline can permanently cause discoloration of developing teeth.
Dentists can educate patients with following points to avoid problems associated with oral hygiene.
- The patient should declare the pregnancy to the Dentist
- Follow routine oral checkup.
- Undergo all elective and emergency procedures.
- Follow good oral hygiene practice ask for a better toothpaste.
- In the case of morning sickness avoid sweets and snacks which increase the risk of tooth decay.
- Have healthy and balanced diet.
Awareness of oral health during pregnancy is a must to avoid complications.
Hi, my Bf ejaculated in his panty twice. N we were close to each other. But we have alys been In clothes, never been off clothes. Is there any chance of being pregnant.
Does eating chocolates during periods have good or adverse effects on mensuration cycle? How to regulate menstruation flow and be healthy.
I have taken an unwanted 72 pill on 19 Jan, Today I got my first period but the quantity of blood is very less only some drops, My period start before 6-7 days. Is there any sign of pregnancy. What should I do to get the perfect period Please help and suggest me. Thanks.
Hello doc, I had an unprotected sex last month. She missed her periods this month and pregnancy test came positive. We both are quite young and don't want this pregnancy. What options do we have. Please help.
Dear doctor: We lost our baby due to the diagnosis of HLHS at 6th month of pregnancy. The pregnancy was terminated on 30/03/17. Now, my wife is experiencing problems with lactation and is still lactating, having pain and firmness in the breasts. Sometimes, getting severe fevers. Doctor prescribed cabergoline tablets. Is it safe to take it? Any other ways are there to suppress lactation and get rid of these problems? This is our first baby. Heard that medications will suppress the lactation completely and there will be no milk production for the next baby. So, we are worrying about it.
My wife wants to have sex without condom on. Since we don't want any baby for a year what are our options for temporary birth control?
Does squats and leg press machines exercises in gym makes vagina loose or does it affect hymen? I am 22 virgin.
Menorrhagia is a medical condition in which a woman experiences excessive blood loss during menstruation. Though for some women, heavy bleeding might be normal, but Menorrhagia refers to such a condition in which a woman encounters anomalous bleeding. Generally, menstrual bleeding continues for a maximum period of seven days, however, in case of Menorrhagia, the bleeding continues for more than seven days.
Different causes are responsible for Menorrhagia. Some of the causes are mentioned below:
- In case of some women, miscarriage during pregnancy can lead to the development of Menorrhagia.
- Hormonal imbalance (especially Estrogen and Progesterone) can cause Menorrhagia.
- Any fibroid growth in the uterus region can also result in Menorrhagia.
- Birth control procedures like birth control shot, vaginal ring or intake of birth control pills can sometimes lead to a condition of Menorrhagia.
- For some women, anovulation (unable to ovulate at least once in a month) may result in Menorrhagia.
- Disorder related to platelet count can also cause Menorrhagia.
- Uterus cancer can also result in Menorrhagia.
- Maladies, related to kidney, liver or thyroid can also result in Menorrhagia.
- Sometimes, hereditary bleeding complications like Willebrand's disease (drop in the blood's clotting protein) can also cause Menorrhagia.
- At times, pelvic inflammatory diseases such as a fallopian tube infection can cause Menorrhagia.
The most common symptoms of Menorrhagia are as follows:
- Constant necessity to replace sanitary pads
- Unbearable menstrual cramps
- You may often notice passage of blood clots with regular bleeding
- Sometimes, the person may become anemic
- Body fatigue and drowsiness
Treatment for Menorrhagia: Menorrhagia is easily curable. Many treatment methods are available such as intake of iron tablets to prevent anemia, painkillers like Ibuprofen to control menstrual cramps and hormone therapy to cease excess bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.