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Dilation and curettage procedure which is commonly referred to as D&C is a minor surgical procedure where the cervix is dilated while a special instrument is used for scraping out the lining of the uterus. It is important to know what you can expect before, after and during the process so that you can stay ahead of unnecessary worries and help the process to be smooth and fruitful.
When do doctors recommend dilation and curettage process?
You may be required to undergo the dilation and curettage procedure for one of many reasons. It can be used for removal of tissues in the uterus during or after an abortion or miscarriage or to remove little pieces of placenta after delivery. This process aids in preventing infection as well as heavy bleeding. On the other hand, it can help in diagnosing and treating abnormal uterine bleeding including polyps, fibroids, hormonal imbalances and even uterine cancer. A sample of the tissues in the uterus is tested under a microscope to check if there is any abnormal cell present.
What can you expect during the dilation and curettage process?
The D&C procedure is a minor one and takes about 15 minutes even though you will have to spend about 4 to 5 hours in the healthcare facility. Before the procedure, your doctor would check complete history, and at this point, you should tell your doctor if you suspect that you are pregnant, you are sensitive to latex or any medicines or if you have a history of bleeding disorders. You will then be given anesthesia so that you don’t feel any pain or discomfort during the procedure. Before this procedure, you will have to empty your bladder.
The D&C procedure comprises two main steps, dilation, and curettage.
Dilation involves opening of the lower part of the uterus or the cervix for allowing insertion of a slender rod. This is done to soften the cervix so that it opens and allows curettage to be performed. Curettage involves scraping of the lining and removal of the uterine contents with the help of a spoon-like instrument known as a curette. This may cause some amount of cramping, and a tissue sample would be taken out for examination in the laboratory.
After the completion of the procedure, you may experience slight bleeding and cramping. In some rare cases, adhesions or scar tissues may start forming inside the uterus, and this condition is termed as Asherman’s syndrome which can cause changes in the menstrual cycle along with infertility. This problem, if arises, can be solved with the help of surgery and therefore, you should report any abnormality in your menstrual cycle to your doctor. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Studies have shown that those who beging their sex lives before the age of 17 years have many partners, are very much susceptible to cervical cancer. Cervix is the neck of the womb or uterus. Women between the age of 50 to 75 years who are or show signs of hypertension, or are sterile can suffer from endometrial cancer. Endometrium is the lining of the uterus. It rarely occurs before menopause.
Pap test is performed to detect cervical cancer. A thin wooden spatula spatula which is smaller than the tongue depresor is inserted into the cells. These are cancerous or otherwise. Pap test should be done every year for the first three years after a women becomes sexually active. A visual examination can be made by the aid of calposope by which little portions of the tissue are taken to perform.
Surgery cryosurgery or laser therapy is used to destroy abnormal areas of the cervix. In more serious cases, the cervix, uterus, tubes & lymph nodes of the areas are removed.
Sir mere father ko liver cancer hua hain or wo lungs ir gall balldar me poch gya h kya app meri help mrenge mujhe kya krna hain.
बच्चेदानी में गाँठ, कई महिलाओं के लिए परेशानी का कारण बन जाती है. इस दौरान गर्भाशय की आंतरिक परत की कोशिकाएं आवश्यकता से अधिक मोटी और बड़ी हो जाती हैं. फाइब्रॉइड होने के कारण जो लक्षण प्रकट होते है वो इस बात पर निर्भर करते है की ये किस जगह स्थित है , इनका आकार कैसा है और इनकी संख्या कितनी है. यदि फाइब्रॉइड बहुत छोटे हों और कम हों तो किसी प्रकार की तकलीफ नहीं होती और मेनोपॉज होने के बाद या अपने आप सिकुड़ कर मिट जाते है. लेकिन यदि फाइब्रोइड बढ़ जाते है इस प्रकार की परेशानी पैदा हो सकती है. गर्भाशय आकार में नाशपाती जैसा होता है. बच्चेदानी, महिलाओं का वो ख़ास अंग है जहां जन्म से पहले बच्चे को रखती हैं. आप इसे दो भागों में बाँट सकते हैं. एक तो है गर्भाशय ग्रीवा का पहला भाग जो योनी में खुलता है, वहीँ दुसरा भाग जो गर्भाशय का उपरी हिस्सा है जिसे कॉर्पस कहते हैं. महिलाओं के गर्भाशय में गाँठ का एक कारण कैंसर भी हो सकता है. आइए बच्चेदानी के गाँठ के कारणों और इसके संभावित उपचारों पर एक नजर डालें.
क्या है बच्चेदानी में गाँठ का कारण
अंडाशय में निर्मित होने वाले दो हार्मोन इस्ट्रोजन और प्रोजेस्ट्रोन के कारण हर महीने गर्भाशय में एक परत बनती है. जिसके कारण माहवारी होती है. ये हार्मोन ही इन परत के बनने के दौरान फाइब्रॉइड बनने की वजह भी बनते है.
अनुवांशिकता पारिवारिक कारण
यदि दादी, नानी, माँ या बहन को फाइब्रॉइड की समस्या है तो आपको भी यह होने की पूरी संभावना होती है.
गर्भावस्था के समय एस्ट्रोजन और प्रोजेस्ट्रोन हार्मोन्स का स्राव बढ़ जाता है. इसलिए ऐसे समय फाइब्रॉइड होने संभावना भी बढ़ जाती है.
वजन ज्यादा होने की वजह से भी गर्भाशय में फाइब्रॉइड बनने की संभावना बढ़ जाती है. इसका कारण गलत प्रकार का खान-पान, शारीरिक गतिविधि का अभाव तथा गलत प्रकार की दिनचर्या भी हो सकता है.
क्या हैं इसके लक्षण?
- माहवारी के समय या बीच में ज्यादा रक्तस्राव जिसमें थक्के शामिल होते है.
- नाभि के नीचे पेट में दर्द या पीठ के निचले हिस्से में दर्द.
- पेशाब बार बार आना.
- मासिक धर्म के समय दर्द की लहर चलना.
- यौन सम्बन्ध बनाते समय दर्द होना.
- मासिक धर्म का सामान्य से अधिक दिनों तक चलना.
- नाभि के नीचे पेट में दबाव या भारीपन महसूस होना.
- पैरों में दर्द.
- पेट की समस्याएं सूजन.
- सम्भोग के समय दबाव महसूस होना.
- फाइब्रॉइड का पता कैसे चलता है
यदि उपरोक्त लक्षण दिखाई दें तो महिला चिकित्सक से जाँच करानी चाहिए. जाँच करने के बाद यदि उन्हें गर्भाशय में गांठ यानि फाइब्रॉइड होने का शक हो डॉक्टर सोनोग्राफी कराने के लिए कह सकते है. सोनोग्राफी से गर्भाशय की सही स्थिति का पता चलता है. कहाँ, कितनी संख्या और कितने बड़े फायब्रॉयड है इसका भी पता चल जाता है. यह सोनोग्राफी दो तरह से होती है – पहली समान्य प्रकार से पेट के ऊपर से और दूसरी योनी के अंदर से जिसे ट्रांसवेजिनल अल्ट्रासॉउन्ड कहते है.
योनि के अंदर से सोनोग्राफी होने पर फाइब्रॉइड की स्थिति का ज्यादा स्पष्ट रूप से पता चलता है. क्योंकि उसमे मशीन गर्भाशय के ज्यादा पास तक पहुँच पाती है. डॉक्टर के बताये अनुसार सोनोग्राफी कराने से किस प्रकार का इलाज होना चाहिए यह पता चलता है. इसके अलावा एम.आर.आई., एक्सरे या सीटी स्केन की जरुरत के अनुसार कराने की सलाह दी जा सकती है.
क्या है इसका उपचार
यदि फाइब्रोइड के कारण किसी प्रकार की तकलीफ ना हो तो सामान्यतः किसी प्रकार के इलाज की आवश्यकता नहीं होती है. यहाँ तक की थोड़ा बहुत अधिक रक्तस्राव की स्थिति से निपट सकें तो कोई इलाज ना लें तो चलता है.
मेनोपॉज होने के बाद इसके कारण हो रही तकलीफ कम हो जाती है या कभी कभी बिल्कुल मिट भी जाती है. लेकिन यदि तकलीफ ज्यादा होती है तो इलाज लेना जरुरी हो जाता है.
फायब्रॉइड का इलाज उम्र , शारीरिक स्थिति , फाइब्रॉइड का आकार , उनकी संख्या और उनकी स्थिति के अनुसार तय किया जाता है. हो सकता है कुछ दवाओं से फाइब्रॉइड ठीक हो जाएँ अन्यथा ऑपरेशन की जरुरत भी पड़ सकती है. आपरेशन कई प्रकार से होते है. जिसमें मशीनों की सहायता से फाइब्रॉइड को बिना किसी चीर फाड़ के लेजर से नष्ट किया जाता है.
यदि इसके द्वारा इलाज संभव नहीं हो तो गर्भाशय को निकाल देना पड़ता है. उस स्थिति में माँ बनने की संभावना समाप्त हो जाती है. इस आपरेशन में ओवरी निकाल देनी है या नहीं यह डॉक्टर मरीज की परिस्थिति और जरुरत को देखते हुए निर्णय लेते है.
फाइब्रोइड होने पर डॉक्टर से इस प्रकार के प्रश्न किये जा सकते है. इनके जवाब समझने पर यह निर्णय करना आसान होता है कि अब क्या करना चाहिए. दवा लें या सर्जरी करायें. डॉक्टर की राय भी ली जा सकती है ताकि निर्णय लेना आसान हो जाये.
यदि गर्भाशय में मौजूद गांठ या रसौली प्रारंभिक अवस्था में हो या छोटी हों तो आयुर्वेदिक दवाओं से या होमिओपेथिक दवाओं से इन्हें ठीक करने की कोशिश की जा सकती है. ज्यादा बड़े फाइब्रॉइड होने पर और ब्लीडिंग अधिक होने पर सर्जरी जरुरी हो जाती है. सर्जरी के बाद महीने डेढ़ महीने कुछ परहेज रखने की जरुरत होती है. सर्जरी के बाद सभी तरह की परेशानियों से मुक्ति मिल जाती है.
Ayurveda is a form of medicine that has been practiced for thousands of years and has many effective cure for some of the most complex diseases. Cancer, in this day and age, is one such complex disease and its incidence is increasing rapidly. It is always recommended to consult a Ayurveda specialist for severe cancer. Some of the common ingredients for treatment of uterine cancer through Ayurveda are mentioned here.
- Turmeric: Already a staple spice in many Indian dishes, turmeric as a herb in raw form and as a spice in powdered form, is touted the new wonder herb all across the world. It has been used as a traditional healing herb in India since ages. It has also been seen to be a very effective anti-inflammatory agent and thus it is very effective in stopping the growth of cancer cells.
- Green tea from the Camellia Sinensis plant: Green tea has been known to be effective in treating multiple types of cancer, aid in weight loss and also facilitate detoxification. Regular consumption of green tea from the Camellia Sinensis plant is known to fight the growth of cancer cells within the body; thus is a very effective in treating uterine cancer as well.
- Ashwagandha: This herb is not only used in Ayurveda, but has also been adopted by homeopathy as conventional medicine to make extracts. Ashwagandha is an adaptogen, which means it can adapt to the requirements of the body and then make the changes to provide support to the necessary areas. It is also very good at preventing the growth of cancer cells.
- Garlic: This spice is known to be good for multiple forms of cancer as it contains allicin, which is being hailed as one of the best fighters of inflammatory diseases. It also contains other types of phytochemicals and thus helps in detoxifying the body. It is very effective in fighting cancer cells and can arrest the growth of cancer within the body.
- Ginger: Ginger is extremely effective in the treatment of many ailments, if consumed regularly in controlled amounts. It has been known to be very effective in the treatment of colon cancer. Due to its properties, it is also known to be effective in the prevention of uterine and many other forms of cancer.
Ayurveda, an enigmatic yet enthralling science offers numerous treatment methods for uterine cancer. Here are a few:
- Matra Basti: Matra Basti is a special treatment in traditional ayurveda for chronic constipation, low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, and various neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystrophy and atrophy of nerves and muscle. In this treatment, certain herbal oils and herbal extracts are applied through the rectum on a daily basis. Matra Vasti has a lubricating, balancing, nourishing, strengthening and pacifying effect. It also works as rejuvenator, immune-modulator and nutrient and subdues elevated vata dosha. The treatment lasts for a period of 3 to 7 days.
- Pichu Dharanam for Soothing at Advance Stages of Uterine Cancer: It is a special treatment modality in Ayurveda where sterile medicated cotton swab is kept inside the vagina for a specific period of time. This comes under local treatment modalities specific to gynaecological diseases in females and is also done in ante natal care. Pichu means “cotton ball”. Yoni pichu is the application of a sterile cotton swab soaked in medicated oil or ghee in the vagina.
- Abhyanham: Abhyanga is a form of Ayurvedic medicine that involves massage of the body with large amounts of warm oil. It’s a complete body massage and really effective. The Abhyangam massage therapy is very beneficial and prevents degeneration and ceases the aging process. This therapy needs more positions to massage and comparing to other massage therapy, Abhyangam is very special. It usually involves oils prepared with specialized Ayurvedic herbs and essential oils for lymph drainage, detox, and relaxation. It has seven positions and it treats the whole body. It assures new healthy physical changes.
- Nasyam: Nasyam or errhine therapy is an Ayurvedic treatment excellent remedy for chronic sinusuitis, headache, throat diseases, epilepsy, catarrh, migraine, voice constraint, eye diseases and cervical spondylitis. In Ayurveda, the application of medical oils or powders through the nostrils is called Nasya. It is said in classical texts that the nostrils are the doorway to the brain. Nasya is an important method of treatment for illnesses of the cranial region. Nasya treatment - the forehead and neck regions of the patient are gently massaged with a suitable oil to induce sweating. Thereafter the patient is made to lie down on his back with his head bent slightly back. Warm oil is then dripped into both nostrils which the patient draws in.
What is Bone cancer?
Bone cancer is malignant tumour of the bones which can spread to lungs or other parts of the body. It may have arisen primarily from the bone itself (primary bone cancer) or more commonly, may have spread to the bones (secondary bone cancer) from cancer of some other body organ like Breast cancer, Prostate cancer etc.
Primary bone cancer usually occurs in growing children and young adolescents, whereas, secondary bone cancer usually occurs in older age group. Usually, the patient experiences pain in the affected area, which over the time, gets worse and continuous. There may also be swelling in the involved region. It can cause weakening of bones resulting in fracture. Some patients may attribute these symptoms to any prior antecedent trauma. Unintentional weight loss may also be seen. Sometimes, these patients are wrongly being treated for infection, thus delaying the correct treatment which may have a bearing on the final outcome.
How common is bone cancer?
Secondary bone cancer is the most common type of bone cancer with bone being the third most common site of cancer spread (metastasis) from other organs. However, primary bone cancers are rare accounting for less than 1% of all cancers.
Causes of bone cancer?
There are no known environmental or other hereditary factors which cause bone cancer, however, certain patients are at a greater risk for bone cancer which include:
- Patients who have received prior radiation therapy
- Patients with a history of Paget’s Disease
- Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma - a type of eye cancer that most commonly affects very young children
- Patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome - a rare genetic condition
How is it diagnosed?
A patient suspected with bone cancer needs to be investigated thoroughly with blood tests, Xrays, MRI to look for local extent of disease. Since bone cancer can spread to lungs and other bones, staging of the disease is done either with whole body PET CT or a bone scan with CT Chest. Alongwith that, a biopsy (usually with a needle) is required to establish the diagnosis. It’s important to do biopsy from the correct site since wrong biopsy site can be detrimental in limb salvage and can result in amputation (cutting the limb). Therefore, it’s recommended that the biopsy should always be done by the surgeon (Orthopaedic Oncologist) who will be doing the final surgery for bone cancer.
Treatment of bone cancer is a multidisciplinary approach requiring an Orthopaedic Oncologist (Bone & Soft tissue tumour specialist), Medical Oncologist (Chemotherapy Specialist), Radiation Oncologist (Radiotherapy specialist) and Pathologist (Specialist in tissue diagnosis).
Usually in primary bone cancers, chemotherapy is given to the patient followed by surgery to remove the diseased bone which is further followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Limb salvage surgery is possible nowadays for bone cancers in which the part of the bone involved with tumour is removed surgically (rather than cutting the whole limb) and the defect is reconstructed with artificial joint, thereby saving the limb. In some cases, the cancerous bone so removed is given very high dose of radiation so as to kill all the cancer cells and the sterilised bone so formed is fixed back to the parent bone with the help of plates and screws, a technique commonly called as Extra Corporeal Radiation Therapy (ECRT). In children, since the artificial joint will not grow as the child grows leading to unequal limb lengths over a period of time, the defect can be reconstructed with expandable joint which can be lengthened as the child grows which allows to maintain limb length equality at the time of skeletal maturity.
Is cure possible in bone cancer?
With the current chemotherapy regimes and advanced surgical technology, cure is possible in upto 70-75% patients with primary bone cancer. In patients with secondary bone cancer, cure can still be achieved depending upon the primary cancer and the extent of disease. In advanced cases also, a lot can be done to control the disease and give a quality of life to the patient.
Is it possible to prevent bone cancer?
Since the exact cause of bone cancer is not known, as of now it’s not possible to prevent bone cancer.
Whom to consult?
First chance is the best chance when it comes to curing bone cancers. So, it’s advisable to seek treatment from a trained Orthopaedic Oncologist when confronted with a bone cancer to achieve maximum beneficial outcome.
You know that feeling after a long day when your feet are so sore or swollen that you can’t bear the thought of standing on them for any longer? once you take off your shoes and sit down, or even soak them in a warm bath, it’s still an unpleasant experience. Luckily, I’ve collected 10 natural remedies for such an occasion and I want to share them with you.
Important: regular swelling vs potential health risks
When experiencing swelling in the feet and legs, apply pressure to the area with a finger. If the dimple created by the finger remains for more than a couple of seconds, it may indicate oedema, which can be the result of heart, liver, or kidney problems. When this occurs, see a doctor at the first possible opportunity.
If you experience swelling in one leg but not the other, you should also see a doctor as this may be an indication of deep venous thrombosis (a blood clot blocking the blood vessels).
If the swelling is accompanied by shortness of breath, fever, bluish skin, and chest pains, get immediate medical attention.
10 natural remedies:
1. Soak your feet in epsom salts
Pour 250g of epsom salt into a hot bath, and take a nice long soak. You can also add essential oils to the mix for enhanced relaxation. Your feet will thank you, your body will thank you, and you’ll emerge from that bath a happier person.
2. Massage the area
Massaging the painful area increases blood flow and moves the fluids that accumulate and cause the swelling. If you want to indulge, get someone to massage your feet for you, preferably with hot essential oils.
3. Stop smoking
If you smoke tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, etc.), you should know that one of the many negative effects of nicotine is constriction of blood vessels, which can lead to sore feet.
4. Stay hydrated
When the caffeine and sodium we consume accumulate in the body, they can cause swelling and pain in the limbs. The best way to dilute them and flush them out is by drinking water. If you want to maximize the efficiency of hydration, squeeze a lemon or lime into the glass of water for a boost of vitamins and antioxidants.
While we need salt for our body to function well, when we overdo it, it can have adverse effects. Reduce the amount of salt you consume every day, and consider cutting down on caffeine as well.
6. Elevate the legs
If you’re suffering from chronically sore legs/feet, try keep your legs elevated for 30 minutes, three times a day. You will notice a difference within a couple of days. Also, when you’re in bed, use a couple of pillows to prop up your feet. Elevating the legs helps to drain the excess fluids that causes the swelling and pain.
7. Avoid sitting for prolonged periods
Whether you’re flying, taking the bus, or just sitting in an office all day, keeping your legs stationary can lead to pain and swelling. If you know you’re going to sit for a long period of time, make sure to stand up, stretch, and walk around every 20 minutes or so.
8. Use compression socks when traveling
If you’re going to fly overseas, another excellent solution is to use compression socks. These socks apply pressure to your feet, preventing fluid from building up – the main cause of swelling and pain in the feet.
Exercise will help boost your cardiovascular system, which in turn will reduce the possibility of swelling in the limbs. Exercise increases blood-flow in the body and reduces weight.
10. Take magnesium supplements
Magnesium is essential for our body’s function. That said, many people suffer from a magnesium deficiency. By adding magnesium to your system, you will improve your overall health, reduce hangover symptoms and suffer less pain in your extremities
A mammogram is an imaging test where an X-ray is taken to recreate the internal imagery of your breasts. This is a screening test that is widely used to find the earliest signs of cancer. There have been instances where the early signs of cancer have been found up to three years before the actual development of the same. There are a number of benefits and risks in this screening method. So let us find out more about getting a mammogram, and whether or not you should get one.
- Procedure: A special X-ray machine is used for conducting a mammogram. There is a clear plastic plate on which the specialist will place the breast while another plate will press on the breast from above. While both the plates serve to flatten the breast and hold it still, the X-ray will be taken. Some pressure will be felt and the same steps will be repeated so as to get the side view of the breasts. The same procedure will be repeated for the other breast. Meanwhile, once it is done, you will need to wait so that the technician can check for clarity, and whether or not the procedure needs to be done again. The results of this procedure cannot be relayed by the technician, and all the images will be different because all breasts are slightly different from each other.
- Preparation: You will need to remember that the process can be a slightly painful one, especially once the pressure gets applied. Many women complain of discomfort and pain. Yet, this discomfort gets over before you know it. The pressure and pain will depend on the size of your breasts and how much they will have to be pressed in order to get a picture. The skill of the technician will also come into play here. One must remember not to get this procedure done a week or so before or after the menstrual cycle, as the breasts tend to be tender around this time, and the pain will be much more.
- Radiologist: Within a few weeks after the procedure, the radiologist will usually deliver the result. This is the professional who does an accurate reading of the X-ray.
- Normal and Abnormal Readings: If your mammogram result has a normal reading, then you can resort to getting one done every once in a while. But an abnormal reading will require further X-ray and tests so as to be able to tell for sure.
- Why should I get one: If you are over 40 and have a family history of such ailments, then you will have to get a mammogram done regularly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.