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The cornea is a highly organized and advanced tissue present in the eye. It is one of the few tissues in the body that doesn't contain any blood vessels. It nourishes itself from the aqueous humor (or tears). The cornea has three different layers with two membranes embedded in it. Every membrane has its own set of functions.
Here is a list of 10 important facts about the cornea and corneal diseases:
- The cornea plays a pivotal role in helping the eye to focus on the light rays that enter it. Approximately 70 percent of the focusing power comes from the cornea. The cornea, along with the lens, is responsible for reflection and refraction in the eye.
- The epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea. It restricts the entry of foreign particles into the eye and absorbs oxygen. This membrane is followed by the Bowman's membrane. The third layer is known as the stroma. It is responsible for the eye's elasticity and strength. The fourth layer is called the Descemet's membrane. This is a protective layer that safeguards the eye from any injury. The last layer is known as the endothelium. The primary task of this layer is to pump excess fluid into the other layers of the eye.
- Tears play a key role for an eye to function properly. Tears have three layers, namely lipid, aqueous and mucin. It helps the eye to heal any possible wounds and infection.
- The cornea, for the most part, heals by itself. Deeper injuries of the cornea can result in vision loss. Some of the common symptoms of corneal diseases are light sensitivity, pain in the eye, redness and reduced vision.
- The most common of eye allergies are caused due to pollen. This often happens when the weather is dry or warm. Some common symptoms include burning sensation, redness, tearing and stinging.
- The eye encounters a condition called 'dry eye' wherein the quantity of tears reduces, thereby creating a problem for lubrication. An ophthalmologist should be immediately consulted if this condition is encountered.
- Corneal dystrophy is a condition that clouds the cornea. It is a gradual progression and often affects both the eyes. It is usually inherited and can affect healthy individuals as well.
- Keratoconus is an eye condition that thins the cornea over a period of time. It is mostly prevalent among young adults. This condition results in changing the shape of the cornea and development of an outward bulge.
- Shingles is a recurrence of the viral infection caused by the Vatic El - La Zoster Virus. This virus has the capability to remain dormant inside the eye. It can become active after many years of dormancy and affect the cornea by travelling through the optic nerve. Doctors mostly prescribe an oral antiviral treatment to avoid inflammation.
- Some advanced treatment for corneal diseases includes corneal transplant surgery, anterior lamellar keratoplasty and endothelial lamellar keratoplasty
I am suffering from eye ball problem. And my left eye (pupil) is not moving towards left I am feeling pain. On my left side of my eye.
I Am Facing Red Eye Problem For 2 Days. I Don't Go To Any Doctor And Don't Use Any medicine Yet. Is Anything Serious? Should I Check It Up?
Hi, I'm from Hassan Karnataka. My weight is 58 kgs. As compared to other parts my lower stomach is very big. I tried many things but no use from that. I'm drinking green tea also. But I should not see any difference. I requested you to suggest me that how to reduce my stomach.
I am 64 years old wearing specks -4.25 both eyes. Now I have noticed that sometime I feel tired without any stress as well the eye beats like HEART beat. Pl advice.
Every time when I am in my classroom I feel sleepy. My eyes feel irritation all time, Please help me.
My daughter is 4 years old. She has problem in her eyes .Her eyes got red frequently in 6-7 days.I consulted with eye specialist . He told me that she has some small hair in her eye brow due to which it used to get red.This problem is from last 1 years. Please suggest some diagnosis.
Hi doctor, my left eye has become swollen and red. It all started 5 days ago when I develop chicken pox. Still have it. Does chicken pox comes in eye? It discharges sometime tears and waste material in large quantity. My eye is feeling heavy and it is not showing any improvement. Can you suggest me how to cure it. It is painful.
I'm 19 female. My eye sight was developing day by day. My father also had the eye sight. I'm getting worried about my eyes. If laser treatment can help me or there is any side effects? How can we improve our eye sight please suggest me.
I have red eyes for more than two days. Sometimes there is pain in my eyes. What to do please tell me.
I could not see well. I wear specs nd my specs power is -4.50. What should I do to reduce my eyes power.
A sty is a tiny red bump in the eyes which looks like a pimple on the outer edge of the eye. This condition usually causes a lot of discomfort and a significant amount of pain. This pimple generally forms when the oil glands in the eyes get clogged with dirt and grime as well as excess oil, which created blockage due to the accumulation of bacteria. Too much tear production as well as swelling and pain are the most common symptoms of this condition, which must be shown to an ophthalmologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Read on to find out the various ways in which you can treat this condition:
- Well Cleaned Hands: Always ensure that your hands are properly cleaned and sanitised, as the hands can spread the maximum amount of germs and bacteria to your eyes. The hands are usually the most overworked part of the body which we use for doing a variety of tasks that involve touching, gripping, pulling, pushing and running them along a variety of surfaces. This causes a build-up of germs and bacteria on the hands which can easily get transferred to the face or the eyes, as one touches these areas constantly. So, it is important to keep your hands clean at all time to ensure that the sty does not get worse.
- Avoid Makeup: When you are suffering from a sty, it is imperative to keep your eyes clean and clear. For this, you must avoid using makeup until the sty gets fully cured as the makeup may irritate the eye and the particles may further block the pimple. Also, you may want to avoid wearing contact lenses unless the sty gets better, and stick to glasses instead so that there is nothing in the eye that will obstruct its treatment.
- Warm Washcloth: This treatment will soothe the eye and help in sanitising the area with the warmth of the washcloth. Also, this kind of treatment for a few minutes every day will ensure that the swelling also reduces. Further, one must ensure that the washcloth is clean and lint free so that no dirt escapes into the eyes.
- Avoid Squeezing: One must avoid squeezing the sty as this action can make it even worse. Further, if the pimple bursts, the liquid or pus within can easily infect the eye and the area around it. The sty should be allowed to drain out on its own, or you can visit an eye doctor who will help in draining it out.
Getting professional help to treat the sty with medication and ointments as well as medical procedures is always more helpful.
My sister has a problem of continuous tears from eyes since last 3-4 months. From last 4-5 days she also has headache. Can anyone tell about it's reason?
A common headache can have a number of reasons behind it, such as defective vision, hetrophoria or convergence deficiency, etc. Now, the question arises as to how they can cause headache. Read on to know more...
Q. Why should defective vision cause headache?
To attain a perfect vision, eyes with defective vision have to make sustained extra efforts, which results in headache. Even if the refractive error is very small, it can be the cause of headache. More prolonged the working and smaller the print, higher the incidence of headache.
Q. Can this occur at all ages?
Yes, it can occur at all ages. However, with age, the resistance decreases and hence elderly people are more prone to get headache. More the use of computer, mobiles, TV or prolonged studies precipitates headache
Q What is Hetrophoria?
Normally, both eyes always remain parallel, but in some cases, eyes have slight tendency to develop minor squint, may be convergent or divergent. This is called Hetrophoria or Latent squint. Such patients have to take extra strain to keep the eyes straight
Q. What is convergence deficiency?
For reading, both eyes have to converge and if there is weakness of convergence, extra strain has to be put on the eyes, which cause headache.
Q. What is the ideal method of refraction in young patients, I,e below 40 years?
Ideal method is to dilate the pupil with Tropicasyl plus drops. This has the advantage that the doctor can see the retina and Optic Disc. This is important to exclude any involvement of brain as the cause of headache. It also relaxes accommodation and hence provides correct refraction. In cases of Hypermetropia, it is extremely essential to dilate the pupil.
Q. What is the role of Autorefractmeter (a computer) in refraction?
It is a very important instrument to provide correct refraction, but it cannot be totally relied upon. Some opticians rely on it and give wrong numbers.
Q. What is acceptance Test?
You have refracted the eyes with Autorefractmeter or Streak Retinoscope but exact power is what a patient accepts. This is very important.
Q. What is astigmatism?
There is a difference in refraction in different meridians and it is important that a cylinder number is prescribed in correct axis. This is a difficult task and needs lot of experience.
Q. Is it important to correct astigmatism?
To relieve headache and strain on the eyes, it is very important that exact cylinder is prescribed.
Q. What is the role of exact centring of Optical Lenses?
.You may give correct number, but if the centre of the Optical lenses and cornea do not coincide, satisfactory results are not obtained. To dispense correct lenses is a big art and the Optician must be qualified and well experienced.
Q. Does the quality of lens affect the visual comfort?
Yes, it is important that quality of lenses should be good, preferable fibre lenses which are Ant reflect coated. Crizal coating with capability to block the UV rays are very popular.
Conclusion: Refractive errors are important cause of headache and needs proper examination of the eyes, preferably after dilating the pupil. Astigmatic error even if too small may be the cause of headache. Spectacle dispensing is an art and a patient must select proper optician. Spectacles if advised for constant use must be used constantly to get full relief.
I am a 14 years old boy and I have spectacles, my eyesight is -3.5 in both eyes is there any way to improve my eyesight.
Puffy eyes are not a very welcome sight to see early in the morning. Lack of sleep, hangovers, poor diet, sinus, hormonal changes, stress, crying and even genetics are few reasons why one wakes up with puffy eyes.
Some very easy ways to get rid of them are:
1. Stay hydrated: drink water to stay hydrated and avoid puffy eyes.
2. Watch your diet: avoid or reduce the amount of salt you take in your food. It is a good idea to avoid cold drinks as well as caffeinated drinks.
3. Soothe your eyes: take chilled, thick slices of cucumber and place them on the closed eyelids until they become warm. It will effectively work to reduce puffy eyes.
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