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I have a tumor or ball like structure near my right testicle. I don't know if it's a tumor or not. Can it be testicular cancer? And In my city there is no sexologist.
Is nipple discharge 7 days beforehand of menstrual beginning normal?or a sign of breast cancer?i m also having a lump like feeling in one of the breast.I m very afraid please help.
One of my relative suffering from tongue cancer. Please Tell me the treatment. And I want to know whether it should be cure cancer is of second stage.
Infertility and hormonal treatments may influence the amount of dense tissue in the breast and increase the risk of developing breast cancer study from Karolinska institute in Sweden found that woman with a history of infertility had denser breasts than other women to was more pronounced in women who had undergone controlled ovarian stimulation.(cos), the hormone treatment required for in vitro fertilisation.
Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.
Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.
Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.
- A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
- Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
- Redness of your breast or nipple
- Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
- Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
- Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
- One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
- Hardened area under the breast skin
Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.
Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.
- Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
- Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
- Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
- Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
- Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.
Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.
- Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
- Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
- Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
- Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.
Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.
- Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
- In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
- Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
- Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
- Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.
Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
- Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
- Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
- Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
- In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).
Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.
My age is 23. Height 6 ft. Weight 76 kg. My question is that does adrenal gland cancer also reduces testicle size?
From the last day I am having complete loose motion with a little pain in various parts of my abdomen. It is showing no sign of stopping. Nearly its been 8-10 times from the last day. I have shown to a local MBBS doctor. He prescribed tablet named'Brakke' and a anti acidity capsule but they aren't working its nearly 24hours and it showing no sign of stopping. Please guide am getting nervous because my mom had a same condition which came to be discovered as liver cancer later.
I'm a 17 year old boy. Of late, I have been experiencing pain on my right nipple every time I touch it or there is even the slightest pressure. Also, I can feel a kind of lump behind it. My mom had breast cancer. Should I consult an oncologist or is this normal? I read in a few places that this is normal if it happens on both sides but on my left side I can feel little to nothing. Please reply ASAP. Thank you.
Doctor I am truly and deeply love with a girl our relationship have been 3+ months and she does not have mom and she had cancer and she was died and her father leave her mother and my gf her father married a new woman so he leave my gf it have been 3+ months I am truly and deeply fall in love with her she to loves me and the problem is that my parent's knows about it my parents tells me to leave her and it is impossible for me to leave her once she had suicide how ever she is alive she loves for me she loves and have cares for me doctor I am studying well after completing my test I meet her doctor my parent's are not understanding and doctor I can not live without her doctor please understand me I love her she loves me to my parents are so stick actually me and my gf are from different caste she is nepali and I am bihari my mom is very strict about it and I know am small now I told my mom I won't marry her when I complete my education I will marry her she tells me to leave her doctor understand me how to makes my parents understand doctor I need help I feel I will suicide help me.
My father was detected with localized prostate cancer last year and was followed by a heart attack later. His age is 61 years. He then have to undergo angioplasty with a non-drug eluting stent. Over one year has passed and his Stress test reports are excellent now as per cardiologist. Can he undergo a radical prostatectomy (prostate cancer surgery ) now or it will be risky for him to undergo surgery? Thank you.
Colon cancer is cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon). In most cases it begins as a non-malignant group of cells called polyps, which may turn cancerous over time. After the formation of the malignant tumors, the cancerous cells may spread to other parts of your body through lymph and blood channels. It can occur together with rectal cancer and is known as colorectal cancer.
Causes of Colon Cancer
The occurrence of colon cancer may depend on the presence of precancerous polyps in the colon. Adenomas polyps may turn cancerous, but are removable through colonoscopy. Hyperplastic polyps rarely become cancerous, whereas inflammatory polyps may become cancerous after the inflammation of the colon.
Other risk factors that may influence the occurrence of colon cancer are,
- Genetics: about 20% colon cancers are thought to be caused by mutation of the genes.
- Age: those over the age of 50 are more likely to develop colon cancer, though now it is also increasingly affecting younger people.
- Lifestyle: it is more likely to affect people who lead a sedentary lifestyle, smoke tobacco or are obese.
- Diet: it is more likely to affect those whose diets are high in red meats, calories, and fat while being low in fiber. Alcohol consumption may also affect its occurrence.
- Medical conditions: people who suffer from diabetes, acromegaly (growth hormone disorder) and colitis etc, may also be prone to develop colon cancer.
Warning Signs of Colon Cancer
Colon cancer generally goes undetected in the early stages. The symptoms vary with the location, spread and size of the tumor. In the earlier stages of cancer, most people experience no symptoms, but in the later stages they may experience one or more of these symptoms:
- Change in bowel habits such as diarrhea, constipation or change in consistency of stools; lasting more than a month
- Blood in stool or bleeding from the rectum
- Pain during passage of stool
- Pain, cramps or gas in the abdominal region
- Frequent urges to pass stool
- Irritable bowel syndrome
- Unexpected weight loss
However, these symptoms may not necessarily indicate colon cancer. They can occur in the absence of colon cancer too.