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Dr. Kodeeswaran Marappan  - Neurosurgeon, Chennai

Dr. Kodeeswaran Marappan

94 (51 ratings)
MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)

Neurosurgeon, Chennai

17 Years Experience  ·  400 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
Dr. Kodeeswaran Marappan 94% (51 ratings) MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK) Neurosurgeon, Chennai
17 Years Experience  ·  400 at clinic  ·  ₹300 online
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I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family....more
I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family.
More about Dr. Kodeeswaran Marappan
Dr. Kodeeswaran Marappan is a reputed neurosurgeon with over 17 years of experience in his field. An MBBS from the prestigious Madras Medical College, Chennai, he went on to complete his MRCS (UK) from the Royal College of Surgeon of Edinburgh and got his MCh - Neurosurgery from Stanley medical College. He currently consults at most of the hospitals in and around Chennai. His primary consultation is at Boston Brain and Spine Care centre, Chennai and at BE WELL Hospitals, Kilpauk, Chennai. Some of his service includes Brain Tumor Surgery, Deep Brain Stimulation, Peripheral Neuro surgery, Brain Suite, Epilepsy surgery, Cerebrovascular Surgery, Aneurysm Surgery, Spinal Disorders, Fetal Medicine, Neurology clinic, Spine Clinic, Neurospine surgery, Minimally invasive spine surgeon, Keyhole Spine Surgery and Neurointensivismo. He has professional memberships in many of the word forums and some of them include the Neurological Society of India, World Federation of Neurology, WFNS, NTSI, NTSI and the AANS. As a testimony to Dr. Kodeeswaran work has been awarded with Best Paper Award Held in Neurosurgery Conference -NIMHANS, Bangalore for the year 2006. He is highly respected among his peers and he is well versed in English and Tamil. His charges are INR 400 for a clinical visit. His appointments can be easily booked online if you are from Chennai.

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Education
MCh - Dr. M.G.R Medical College - 2008
MBBS - Madras Medical College, Chennai - 2000
MRCS (UK) - Royal College of Surgeons, Edinburgh - 2007
Languages spoken
English
Awards and Recognitions
Best Paper Award Held In Neurosurgery Conference - NIMHANS Bangalore
Professional Memberships
Neurological Society of India
Neuro Spinal Surgeons Association India (NSSA)
American Association of Neurological Surgeon

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Boston Brain & Spine Care

80A/129AE, Fourth Avenue Shanthi Colony Main Road, Landmark : Opposite To Sundaram Medical Foundation Hospital - Old BuildingChennai Get Directions
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High Cholesterol Level - Can It Cause Carotid Disease?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
High Cholesterol Level - Can It Cause Carotid Disease?

Carotid artery disease occurs when an oily, waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the carotid arteries. These are arteries that supply oxygenated blood to your brain, face, scalp, and neck.
Carotid artery disease is very serious as it can cause a brain stroke. It, in fact, starts with damage to the inner layer of the carotid artery. To stem this damage your body starts a healing process and this leads to a build up of plaque at the point where the artery is damaged.

When this plaque ruptures, platelets are rushed in and these create an obstruction to the flow of blood to the brain. When the blood supply to the brain is cut off, which happens in carotid disease, the brain cells begin to die causing a stroke. This neural death impairs the parts of the body that these brain cells control. So, you can get paralyzed, become speech or vision impaired, have long –term effects like paralysis or even die due to a stroke.

Causes of carotid disease

  1. Smoking
  2. High cholesterol levels
  3. High blood pressure
  4. High levels of sugar in the blood due to diabetes

What’s even more worrisome is that carotid artery disease may not cause any signs or symptoms until the carotid arteries are severely narrowed or blocked. And what usually happens is that a stroke becomes the first sign of the disease.

How scary is that?
So, the next question that comes to the mind is - Can this condition be cured? Let’s learn more about management and prevention of the same-

Prevention
Lifestyle changes are key. Since hypertension, uncontrolled diabetes, sedentary lifestyles and imbibing too much fat are all risk factors, taking care of them minimizes the risk of carotid disease and strokes. Heart healthy lifestyle changes that include moderate exercise are a great way to prevent carotid disease.

Treatments
Treatments for carotid artery disease include:

Medicines: Sometimes lifestyle changes do not stem the rot. You need medicinal help. Doctors usually prescribe statin medications to control your cholesterol levels. These lower the bad cholesterol that can narrow your carotid arteries and cause brain strokes and damage. Statins are usually prescribed for people who have:

  • Heart disease
  • Those who’ve had a stroke
  • Diabetes
  • High LDL or bad cholesterol levels

Medicines like Aspirin and Clopidogrel to prevent blood clots are the mainstay treatment if you suffer from carotid disease. They prevent platelets from clumping together inside your carotid arteries and forming blood clots. Apart from these, your doctor may also medicate you for conditions that can damage your carotid arteries and cause strokes. These medicines are for lowering your BP, blood sugar levels, preventing the formation of blood clots anywhere in your body including inside your heart, and preventing and reducing inflammation.

Medical Procedures
These are used to open narrowed or blocked carotid arteries.
The two common procedures are:
Carotid endarterectomy: It’s mainly for people whose carotid arteries are blocked 50 percent or more. In this, the inner lining of the carotid artery that is blocking blood flow is removed.
Carotid artery angioplasty and stenting: Here, doctors use a procedure called angioplasty to widen the blocked carotid arteries and restore blood flow to the brain. A stent is inserted into your carotid artery to broaden the lumen.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3581 people found this helpful

Epileptic Conditions - How To Deal With Them?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Epileptic Conditions - How To Deal With Them?

Epilepsy is a condition that starts in the brain and causes seizures in which the patient loses consciousness and has convulsions. He also jerks his arms and legs along with trembling and frothing from the mouth.
The lesser known fact about epilepsy is that there are many types of epileptic conditions-over 40 - and similarly, there are numerous drugs available to treat your epileptic disorder and prevent seizures. Your doctor will diagnose your type of epileptic disorder and prepare a treatment plan for it.

Types of epileptic seizures
Epileptic seizures are generally categorized as either partial or primary, generalized depending on where they originate in the brain. Partial seizures are less intense and they start in one section rather than the entire brain. If you have this type of seizure, you will be aware of what’s happening to you. The other type of seizure affects a larger part of the brain. Here you may have difficulty understanding what's happening to you. Since these spread to the entire brain, you lose consciousness and start convulsing.

Having a seizure can put you at risk for serious injuries including head injuries.
So, if you close to you suffers from epilepsy, it's critical to your health and well being to educate yourself about your condition and have an action plan in place to tackle the seizures which can happen anywhere, and sometimes with no one to assist you or him actively.

Here is what you can do to manage epilepsy-

  1. Educate yourself: You must know as much as possible about your condition. Know your symptoms and learn to recognize the symptoms preceding a seizure. Also, educate your friends and family about epilepsy so that they can support you during a seizure. Educate your family to do the right things when you have a seizure.
  2. Make a seizure response plan: This plan should list the names and numbers of your doctors and two emergency contacts.
  3. Other things you can do as an epileptic:
    • Antiepileptic drugs are quite successful in preventing seizures but they should be taken as prescribed. Don’t change your dosage before talking to your doctor.
    • Sleep properly as lack of sleep can trigger seizures.
    • Exercising regularly can help keep you physically healthy and reduce depression and also help in managing seizures.
    • Manage your stress levels, limit alcohol and cigarettes.

On the other hand, if your family member or friend has epilepsy, this is what you can do:

  1. Roll the person onto one side during a seizure.
  2. Place something soft under the person’s head.
  3. Loosen tie and top buttons.
  4. Don’t put an object in an epileptic’s mouth. It can hurt his/her teeth.
  5. Don't try to restrain him during a seizure.
  6. Clear away stones and other dangerous objects if the patient is thrashing around.
  7. Time the seizures and be calm during them.
  8. Don’t leave the patient alone.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3433 people found this helpful

What Are The Risk Associated With Brain Surgery?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
What Are The Risk Associated With Brain Surgery?

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.

Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
  3. Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
  4. Make a nerve free
  5. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  6. To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson's disease

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
3168 people found this helpful

Brain Surgery - What You Need To Know About It?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Brain Surgery - What You Need To Know About It?

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

3475 people found this helpful

How To Reduce The Risk Of Brain Stroke?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
How To Reduce The Risk Of Brain Stroke?

As the famous quote says, 'prevention is better than cure', let us take you through some preventive measures to keep you and your loved ones away from the dreadful brain stroke. Brain stroke occurs due to an interruption in the regular blood flow to the brain or bursting of a blood vessel or due to the bursting of blocked artery, which reduces the supply of oxygen and nutrients, leading the brain cells to die.

Top 8 things that will reduce the likelihood of having a brain stroke:

  1. Eat well: Having good eating habits are not just good for a healthy outlook of the body, but also benefits the body in many other ways. Eating a plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, fibre rich diet, reducing salt and fat content can prevent stroke.
  2. Stay Active: Regular exercising not just makes you feel and look good, but also reduces the odds of developing a brain stroke. Exercising regularly or keeping the physical activities regularly will keep you away from suffering a stroke. Pick any physical activity, but do work out to stay away from the brain stroke.
  3. Say no to Smoking and drugs: Yes! The more you smoke, the more are the chances of you of suffering the deadly brain stroke.
  4. Control your blood pressure: The ideal blood pressure for a healthy person is 120/88 mm HG. Regular check-up of blood pressure is advisable to control the chances of suffering a stroke as high blood pressure can result into damage of arteries, which causes brain stroke.
  5. Drink in limits: Limit the amount of alcohol you consume, as alcohol increases the blood pressure, which is one of the main reasons behind the stroke. The high amount of alcohol can increase the blood pressure to a higher level very quickly. Consulting a doctor is the best option in case you are not able to control your alcohol intake.
  6. Cholesterol: People suffering from high cholesterol are at higher risk of strokes as the cholesterol can travel to the arteries in the body making the arteries narrow and the body more prone to suffer a stroke. Choosing healthy lifestyle helps in reducing the cholesterol level.
  7. Diabetes: High level of diabetes is one of the most prominent reasons behind stroke. One should get his diabetes level checked and keep it under control since the arteries might get blocked because of fatty deposits because of higher sugar levels.
  8. Depression/Stress: Any kind of depression or stress, generally leads to avoidance of all or some of the points discussed above and hence becomes a reason for an unhealthy body, which is more prone to strokes. Consultation with a doctor and/or psychiatrist is advisable in case a person if suffering from depression.

Improving your health and taking charge of your life should be the top most priority and should never be ignored. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

3219 people found this helpful

Signs That Indicates You Might Be Suffering From Brain Tumor!

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Signs That Indicates You Might Be Suffering From Brain Tumor!

A Brain Tumour can be defined as an abnormal growth of the tissues in the brain, which can disrupt the proper brain functions. Generally, the cells in the human body die and are replaced by new cells, while in the case of a tumour, the old cells do not die and form an accumulation and continues to grow to form a mass as more and more cells are added to it.

Symptoms of Brain Tumour:

  1. Headache: Having headache on regular basis, without any history of having such frequent headaches in past, which becomes worse because of other pressure related activities, such as sneezing, coughing, exercising might be a possible symptom of brain tumour and issues related to such sudden and frequent headaches should be taken up with the doctor without any further delay.
  2. Seizures: Seizures (fits) are amongst the most common symptoms of brain tumour, which might be limited to a particular body part or the whole body. Seizures might even continue after the treatment of brain tumour because of the left scar tissues in the brain.
  3. Numbness in arms/legs: Numbness in any body part, especially arms and legs should also be get evaluated timely, so that, if the possible reason behind them is a brain tumour, then the same could be treated well on time.
  4. Balancing problems: Poor coordination and balancing problems also arise as the most prominent symptom for the brain tumour and hence such small changes must be evaluated and the person suffering should be taken to a doctor immediately to get treated without any delay.
  5. Memory problems: Lack of concentration, poor memory and short term memory loss are few of the possible symptoms that indicate the presence of tumour.
  6. Nausea or vomiting: Nausea or vomiting might be the symptoms of many other possible health issues, but a headache supported by nausea and/or vomiting is one of the many symptoms of a brain tumour and hence should not be ignored.
  7. Facial paralysis: The inability to keep the facial activities under control also indicates the presence of a possible brain tumour and the same should also be diagnosed as soon as one experiences it.
  8. Change in vision: A person suffering from brain tumour might also experience changes in the vision, dizziness, blurry vision, among other sight related issues.
  9. Change in speech: The inability to speak properly and changes in the speech of a person may also indicate a possible presence of a tumour.
  10. Hearing problems: Sudden occurrence of hearing problems and other hearing related disorders might have the brain tumour as a possible reason.

Diagnosing a brain tumour may include one or more of many tests, including CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Angiogram and biopsy. One should never ignore the symptoms of the brain tumour and should get himself/herself checked since the brain tumours might result into permanent damages to the brain; hence such issues should never be ignored. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a neurosurgeon.

3120 people found this helpful

Few Warning Signs of Parkinson's Disease You Should Know!

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Few Warning Signs of Parkinson's Disease You Should Know!

Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative condition that affects your brain cells which produce dopamine and thus hampering all kinds of motor functioning and other emotional responses. After the disease is diagnosed, medication and therapy can help to provide relief from the symptoms to a large extent but a permanent cure is not possible.

Causes:

The disorder does not have a definite set of causes. A small percentage of the cases have been related to hereditary factors and others have a range of environmental causes associated with them.

1. Genetic factors:

Specific gene mutations and gene variations have been proved to cause Parkinson's, such as SNCA, PARK2, PARK7, PINK1 and LRRK2. These make or recycle proteins which are linked to the disease.

Research shows that men are at a 1.75 times greater risk of developing the condition than women are. Also, age plays a role with most cases occurring after the age of 60.

2. Environmental factors:

Regular exposure to inorganic insecticides, pesticides, herbicides and heavy metals or other toxins may cause the disorder. In rare cases, Parkinson's disease occurs in the aftermath of a severe head injury or immune disorders.

Symptoms:

The symptoms can be classified into two broad categories-

1. Motor symptoms:

  • The hand tremors when in resting position
  • The grip loosens
  • Walking slows down
  • Facial muscles freeze partially
  • Speech is slurred
  • Balance is disturbed
  • Swallowing is painful
  • Urination is abnormally frequent
  • Dementia-like symptoms are seen
  • There is involuntary twitching of the fingers and toes
  • Repetition of the same movement in quick succession is nearly impossible

2. Non-motor symptoms:

  • Dental problems
  • Vision impairment
  • Skin disorders
  • Panic attacks
  • Excessive secretion of saliva
  • Extreme weight loss or gain
  • Sexual problems
  • Loss of sense of smell
  • Lowering of the pitch of the voice
  • Fatigue

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

3146 people found this helpful

Alzheimer's Disease: How It Affects The Body?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Alzheimer's Disease: How It Affects The Body?

Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological problem that is characterised by a cognitive decline and memory loss. It is a type of neurodegenerative dementia. The symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease include not being able to absorb and retain new information, lack of reasoning and judging, not being able to take on complex tasks, impaired visuospatial abilities, problems in reading, writing and speech, among many others. If a person has at least two of these symptoms in a debilitating manner, then the diagnosis can be made in favour of Alzheimer's Disease. The main causes of Alzheimer's are shrinkage of the brain size and death of the brain cells. The immune system is also said to trigger this neurodegenerative disease.

Let us find out what medical science has found so far:

  1. Connections: Many a times, in Alzheimer's disease, the memory and behaviour of the person changes because the brain is unable to make proper neural connections which can lead to memory loss of how a person behaved and the elements that formed the basis of the patient's cognition. Apparently, the immune system behaves in the same way within the brain and blocks the connection. This happens because there is constant communication between the brain and immune system along neurological lines, which is where the disease first emanates.
  2. Inflammation: The brain is prone to inflammation or swelling that is not the normal kind. This inflammation happens as a result of the activation of the infection fighting neurotransmitters and the chemical changes that happen in the brain when an infection strikes. The inflammation usually happens in the plaques or clumps which the brain tries to protect. These clumps are made up of a protein called Amyloid. The immune system is responsible for creating this inflammation in the brain of the patient.
  3. Pattern Recognition Receptors: Many of these receptors work in different manners and cooperate with each other to create a response in the brain. These PRRs can be found in the brain plaques, and they develop the signs of danger which further fuels the inflammation in the brain as a matter of protection.
  4. Activation of Cells Linked with the Immune System: When the PRRs begin to respond, it basically activates the immune system and the cells of the same. This is the basic reaction that causes the changes in brain which then leads to the attachment of the protein to the tissue that is diseased, in which case Alzheimer's Disease starts. The inflammation that we had spoken about earlier basically happens in the nervous tissue.

It is important to recognise and act on the initial signs of Alzheimer's Disease before it progresses beyond one's control. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.

2867 people found this helpful

For 58+ F with Hypothyroidism & Hypertension, does regular intake of Folvite over past 4-months affect brain activities (e.g. Seizures etc? What are the risks if "complex partial" seizures left undetected (e.g. Confused with syncope etc) & untreated with necessary medicines?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Folvite will not produce seizures. Can continue it. Complex partial seizures - if not treated properly it will lead increase in frequency and decrease neurological functions So it has to be treated properly.
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Severe Epilepsy - How To Deal With It?

MCh, MBBS, MRCS (UK)
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Severe Epilepsy - How To Deal With It?

The word epilepsy brings to mind visions of people frothing at the mouth and rolling on the ground. However, epilepsy affects each patient in a different way. This can make it hard to recognize at times. In the more serious cases of epilepsy, an epileptic attack can make a patient injure himself or develop other life threatening conditions. In rare cases, epilepsy can even cause death. Thus it becomes imperative to understand how to deal with epilepsy.

Treatment options for epilepsy can be categorized as medication, surgical procedures and dietary changes.

1. Medication: Medication for epilepsy is prescribed on the basis of the symptoms presented and the type of epilepsy the patient is suffering from. In most cases, seizures can be controlled with a single type of medication, but in others, the doctor may need to prescribe a combination of medicines to control epilepsy. These forms of medication do have side effects and hence any reactions to the medication must be immediately brought to the doctor's notice. The dosage for epilepsy medication may need to be varied with time. An epileptic patient should never discontinue medication on their own.

2. Surgery: Depending on the type of seizures and the area of the brain affected, a doctor may advise surgery in cases of severe epilepsy. Surgery can help reduce the number of seizures experienced or completely stop them. Surgery to treat epilepsy is of many types. Some of the common procedures are:

  1. Surgery to remove tumor of any such conditions that may be triggering the epileptic attacks
  2. Surgery to remove a small section of the brain from where a seizure originates. This may also be referred to as a lobectomy.
  3. Multiple subpial transaction or a surgery that involves making a series of cuts in the brain to prevent the seizures from spreading to other parts of the brain.
  4. Surgery to sever the neural connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
  5. Surgery to remove half the brain's cortex or outer layer

3. Dietary changes: A diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates can help reduce seizures. This is known as a ketogenic diet and aims at making the body break down fats instead of carbohydrates. It can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body and thus should be practiced only under the guidance of a dietician. In cases where epileptic attacks are triggered by malnutrition and birth defects, taking vitamin supplements can help lower the frequency of seizures. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a neurosurgeon.

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