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Treatment of Breast Cancer
Treatment of Tumors
Treatment of Testicular Cancer
Treatment of Blood Cancer
Treatment of Brain Tumor
Treatment of Lung Cancer
Treatment of Colon Cancer
Treatment of Cancer Pain
Treatment of Oral Cancer
Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Treatment of Throat Cancer
Treatment of Gastric Cancer
Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Treatment of Lymphoma
Treatment of Cervical Cancer
Treatment of Bone Tumors
Treatment of Leukemia
Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma
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I have painless lump on left hand side shoulder for the past 20 days. There is no other effects in my body. Whom am I suppose to consult?
My mother 58 years diabetic biopsy report is as follows. Clinical diagnosis - fibroepithelial polyp Nature of specimen - right tongue Gross morphology - specimen of single mucosa covered tissue bit measuring. 8*.5 cm. Cut n all embed (1) block. Microscopic description - section show a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma represented by invasive nests nd trabeculae of dysplastic cells wt keratinisation nd squamous pearls. Impression - rt tongue, :squamous cell carcinoma, grade 2 wt ulceration. What does it mean. I ws told cancer, but which stage, nd has been told for operation, what are her chances of recovering after operation. What is the stage of cancer. Please advise.
Are breast reduction surgeries safe? Is there any cream available in the market for breast reduction after delivery? Pls help.
The rising incidences of cancer have made it important for us to be vigilant about our health. It has been proven medically that if cancer is detected at an early stage -stage I & II , then the chances of cure and treatment along with full recovery are very high. For early cancer detection & for people at greater risk of cancer, PHC-Preventive Health Care plays a major role. Preventive Health Check is particularly important for the people who have a family history of cancer.
Almost all cancers are caused by damage or mutation in their genes, which, may be acquired from environmental exposure, dietary factors, hormones or through normal aging. In 90% of cases, these genes are not passed from parents to children. These are known as sporadic mutations and the cancers that they cause are called as sporadic cancers. But 5-10% of cancers are caused by gene mutations which are inherited from one or both parents & passed on to the children .These are hereditary or germline mutations & these cancers are known as hereditary or familial cancers.
People /children, who carry gene mutations have a higher risk of developing cancer at an earlier age or at some point in their life time.
Some of the common such cancers, which run in families, are:
- Breast cancer
- Ovarian cancer
- Colo-rectal cancer (cancer of large intestine )
- Prostate cancer
Breast, ovary & colo-rectal carcinoma have well established gene mutation studies.Mutation of BRCA 1 & BRCA2 Genes is responsible for 85% of hereditary breast cancers.
Estimated life time risk for developing breast cancer in woman with BRCA1 & BRCA2 mutation is 56-87% & risk for developing-bilateral /contralatral breast cancer is about 20-40%. These statistics make a preventive health check for women with breast cancer history in their family a necessity. Mutation in these genes confers about 20-40% increased life time risk for developing ovarian cancer. Hence the presence of gene mutation for breast cancer can trigger ovarian cancer.
However as stated above, other environmental and lifestyle factors can also cause breast cancer other than genetic BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutations.
- Increasing age
- Early menarche
- Late menopause
- First birth after the age of 30
- Atypical lobular hyperplasia or Atypical ductal hyperplasia
- Prior breast biopsies
- Long term postmenopausal estiogen replacement
- Early exposure to ionizing radiation
Other Familial Cancers:
Familial cancer syndromes associated with colo-rectal cancers are familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).It is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with more than 90% penetrance, manifested by hundreds of polyps developed by late adolescence .The risk of developing invasive cancer is almost 100% .So such patients should start getting colonoscopy at an earlier age- say by 20yr of age & should undergo Total Collectomy on development of significant polyps .
Other familial cancer syndromes are hereditary non -Polyposis Colo Rectal Cancer (HNPCC), Gardner's Syndrome, Turcot's Syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome, Juvenile Polyposis.
Cancer Assessment & Conclusion:
For breast cancer risk assessment, we have the GAIL model & IBIS model, which take into consideration ,all the risk factors, apart from BRCA1 & BRCA 2 gene mutation. These models calculate the over all life time risk of development of breast cancer for any lady. For this, you have to consult a specialist experienced in area of hereditary cancers, cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling & testing.
To conclude, all people with cancers in their family should undergo genetic testing & counseling, to detect high risk individuals should take adequate measures & treatment.
Neck cancer refers to the formation of cancer cells in the throat or neck region of your body. Neck cancer is commonly seen in people above sixty years of age .But people above forty can also have the chances of getting neck cancer. Though the symptoms of neck cancer can vary from one person to the other,
Some of the common symptoms are stated as follows:
- Neck cancer affects the voice box, so a change in your voice can be noticed.
- Weight loss is also a symptom for neck cancer.
- A person suffering from neck cancer can also suffer from dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing.
- Sore throat in some cases can be considered as a symptom of neck cancer
- Bleeding from mouth or through your nose is also a common symptom for neck cancer.
- Ear pain in some cases is a symptom of neck cancer.
- Coughing persistently is also regarded as a symptom of neck cancer.
- Sometimes a lump in the neck is also noticed and it is usually painless.
- Some people also encounter breathing problem.
- In some cases a swelling of the neck, jaw or eyes can also be noticed.
Neck cancer involves certain risk factors too. Neck cancer can be treated in many ways. The following are few treatments available for neck cancer:
- Surgery: Your doctor can conduct a surgery for removing the tumors from your neck region. The doctor may decide to do either a microsurgery or laser treatment or endoscopy.
- Chemotherapy: If the tumor spreads to other regions or is large in size, then your doctor may recommend chemotherapy.
- Radiation: It is used to destroy the malignant cells. It is usually conducted after removing the tumor.
These three are the common treatments followed by doctors. Your doctor may also take help of other treatments like administering drugs to control the growth of cancer cells. But, sometimes treatments fail to work if the process of metastasis starts. So you should not ignore it, as soon as you encounter any of the symptoms stated above, visiting an oncologist is highly recommended.