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I am a 62-year-old male. I am suffering from Polycythemia Rubra Vera (due to JAK 2 mutation) for last 8 years. First 3 years I was put on treatment with low level of aspirin, amlodipine and periodic venesection. Last 5 years I am on Hydroxyurea along with the above mentioned drugs. The dose of hydroxyurea is adjusted periodically based on FBC. My questions are: 1. What are the adverse effects of long term treatment with Hydroxyurea? 2. I get occasional muscle cramp. How do I get relief from it? I would like to know 1. What is the adverse drug effect of long term intake of Hydroxyurea. 2. I suffer from painful muscle cramp occasionally. What I should do to get relief from it?
If you are concerned about liver cancer, you should know that most people do not experience signs and symptoms of the cancer in the early stages. Liver cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cells of the liver. There are various types of cancer which can develop in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer which begins in the hepatocyte, which is the main liver cell.
Usually there are no specific primary stage symptoms of liver cancer. Some symptoms which may develop include the following:
Unusual weight loss is observed
Loss of appetite and developing food aversion
Pain in the upper abdomen
General weakness with intense fatigue
Swelling in the abdomen
The skin may become yellow
White and chalky stools are likely
In most cases, the causes of liver cancer cannot be clearly determined. In some cases, the cause is known, such as chronic infection with the hepatitis virus, which may lead to liver cancer. Liver cancer occurs when the liver cells undergo changes or mutations in their DNA structure. DNA mutations lead to changes in instructions of chemical processes taking place in the body. The cells may grow out of control and develop into a cancerous tumour.
There are several factors which enhance the risk of liver cancer. They are as follows:
A progressive and irreversible condition known as cirrhosis leads to scar tissue formation in the liver, increasing the risk of liver cancer.
Certain inherited liver diseases such as Wilson’s disease and hemochromatosis also increase the chances of liver cancer.
People with diabetes are also at a greater risk of having liver cancer.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the accumulation of fat in the liver, also increases the chances of getting this condition.
Excessive alcohol consumption is another factor which causes irreversible damage to the liver and the chances of getting liver cancer get boosted.
Exposure to aflatoxins, which are poisons produced by molds growing on poorly stored crops, make you more likely to get liver cancer.
Several tests and procedures are carried out for the diagnosis of liver cancer. These include blood tests for diagnosing liver function problems, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan and MRI scan.
One of the most common problems faced by ageing men is benign prostatic hypertrophy. Prostate is the gland at the base of the urethra near the bladder and when it enlarges it can lead to symptoms, mostly related to urination.
1. Frequent urge to pass urine
2. Prolonged urination
3. Frequent nocturnal visits to the toilet
4. Intermittent urination
5. Difficulty to start urinating
6. Inability to completely empty the bladder
7. Urinary tract infections
There are medications available to manage this, but offer only temporary relief. Many men therefore prefer to have the surgery undergone to manage these bothersome symptoms. However, like any surgery, the risks and benefits need to be considered along with other conditions like age, overall health status, other comorbid conditions, etc.
1. Patients who do not respond to medications
2. Presence of blood in the urine
3. Associated bladder stones
4. Frequent infections of the urinary tract
5. Associated damage to the kidneys
Procedure of Surgery
During the procedure, a tube is passed through the tip of the penis into the urethra towards the bladder neck. Once it is in the desired position, laser is passed through it to deliver energy that acts on the prostate to either completely or partially destroy it. There are two methods by which laser acts on the enlarged prostate and making way for free flow of the urine.
1. Ablation: Excess prostate tissue is melted away by the laser by using photosensitive vaporization of the prostate. This is also known as Greenlight laser therapy or KTP laser vaporization. Alternately, Holmium can be used as the source of laser energy to ablate the prostate tissue.
2. Enucleation: Excess prostate tissue is cut and teased out through the urethra. Holmium laser is used to resect the prostate into smaller pieces, which are then removed out through a resectoscope. Another technique uses a tissue morcellator which grinds the enlarged prostate into smaller pieces to enable easy retrieval.
More men now opt for laser prostate removal as it has the following advantages:
1. Reduced risk of bleeding: This becomes essentially important in patients who are on blood thinners.
2. No hospitalization: This can be done either as an outpatient or with minimal one day stay at the hospital
3. Immediate symptom relief: As compared to medications, the relief is felt almost immediately after the surgery
4. No catheter: With laser surgery, a catheter may be required for less than 24 hours unlike in open surgical cases.
As noted above, as with any surgery, once enlarged prostate symptoms set in, have a detailed discussion with your doctor to identify if you are a suitable candidate for laser surgery.
The formation of malignant cells in the larynx tissues leads to laryngeal cancer. Most tissue malignancy occur in the squamous cells (flat, thin cells inside the larynx lining). Men are more susceptible to laryngeal cancer.than women.
Laryngeal cancer falls under the category of neck and head cancer. The risk factors of laryngeal cancer include:
- Using tobacco based products
- Drinking excessive alcohol
- Exposure to asbestos and sulphuric acid
The symptoms of laryngeal cancer are:
- Coughing or sore throat that does not heal (know more about Whooping Cough)
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Pain in the ears
- Throat or neck lumps
- Hoarseness in the voice
Ayurvedic treatment can be used together with conventional therapies. Ayurvedic remedies have minimal side-effects and as such are safe. Usually, conventional therapies weaken the body. Fatigue is a common side-effect of harsh treatments like radiation and chemotherapy. As such, Ayurveda aims to bring the body back to balance by fighting the effects of harsh treatments that cause imbalances in the body. It hopes to achieve harmony through natural methods. It can increase energy, promote wellbeing, balance the body, mind and spirit, reduce stress and prevent the disease from returning.
Eating certain healthy food, herbs and professionally prescribed Ayurvedic remedies can help with cancer treatment. Besides healing your body from the inside, there are other important beneficial remedies that can prove to be useful. They include:
- Meditation can reduce blood pressure, anxiety and improve all around well-being.
- Yoga and pranayama is supremely helpful
- Oil massages with healing herbs and essential oils are good for the body and mind
Cancer treatment requires time and patience. You cannot hasten the process. If you are recovered or you are in the recovery phase, it is important not to fall back to the bad habits that put your body out of balance. So if you are on treatment, or done with the treatment, do not start smoking or drinking again. smoking and drinking harms the good effects and can lead to recurrence of the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.
Sir/madam, I am getting some blood on my tongue near the throat in the night time while sleeping. While washing some blood is coming. In the day time it is not coming. What is the that problem please. Is it cancer or due to heat in body it is coming.
I had total thyroidectomy due to Thyroid cancer, Parathyroids were preserved, Done with Rai therapy of 100 mcg it's almost 20 days, currently using Calcium supplement of 2000 mg and Eltroxin 200 mcg, problem is my body is hot but there is no fever, also there are body pains since 4 days, what could be the reason?
Sir, I am bhanu my great grand father died due to thought cancer. Years passed my father's big brother died in 2014 due to thought cancer. Later my father effected with brain tumour in 2014 and done operation and radiation later again same treatment after 1 year and he died 1 month back. This straight in my mind that I will also get the cancer ah or not my age is 22. Is the cancer is effect to generation wise tel me. Will cancer will come to me or not and how can I check my total body.
Pain in breast from some days, want to know why its happening, this for the first time m facing this problem. What could be the problem. Do I need to consult doctor for this .pls help me.
One of my female friend had some pain in breast. She thinks becoz of a fall in childhood. It does not pain now. But one of the breast is smaller than other. She is scared of breast cancer. Just married and not a mom. Please suggest. Age 20.
My mother is suffering from esophagus cancer locally advanced. Three cycles of chemotherapy given. As cancer is not spread I want to know can radiation help her and if yes then how quickly we should give them?
I got a tumour like thing on my right hand. But I do not feel pain. What is it? It is getting bigger.
Hello doctor I m 20 years old. My breast size is 32, I don't find it growing. What should I do? 2 years before I had lump in both the breasts and it was mobile but now i am safe.
Diagnose root cause of your pain at an early stage because improperly diagnose & treated pain can create lot of problems in future.
I have already undergone prostrate gland operation in 2006. Recent USG shows prostratomelagy. Please let me know the remedy to this problem. Twice or thrice there were clots of blood in the urine, but it has stopped now.
Lungs are the most important organ of our body that has the responsibility of taking in the oxygen and releasing out carbon dioxide. When cancer develops in it, the entire body gets imbalanced. Lung cancer leads to more death than any other type of cancer, which is why identifying the symptoms and knowing the causes are instrumental in obtaining a timely diagnosis as well as in prevention of this disease.
Symptoms of Lung Cancer
In the early stages:
- Persistent coughing
- Chest pain
- Loss of appetite
- Sudden weight loss
- Coughing up blood
In the later stages:
Causes of Lung Cancer
Smoking: People who smoke are more prone to lung cancer. With the increase in the number of cigarettes you smoke, your chances of getting lung cancer increase too. People who don't smoke but are surrounded by the smokers also have high chances of being affected by this form of cancer.
Exposure to Asbestos: Asbestos is a group of mineral, which is present naturally in the environment. Lung cancer can occur due to the inhalation and ingestion of asbestos fibers.
Exposure to Ranon Gas: Ranon is a radioactive gas, which is formed naturally on decaying of radioactive elements. It is found in low levels in the air that we breathe and the water that we drink. Consumption of air and water having this gas leads to lung cancer.
High Levels of Air Pollution: Presence of high levels of dust particles and pollutants in the air that we breathe can cause lung cancer. 1-2% of lung cancer is caused because of it.
High Levels of Arsenic in Drinking Water: Consuming water with arsenic content is harmful as it directly affects the lungs and when the arsenic content is too high, it may lead to lung cancer.
Exposure to Chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals like uranium, coal products, gasoline, diesel exhaust and mustard gas can also cause lung cancer.
Family History of Lung Cancer: Chances of getting lung cancer increase if your parents, child or siblings are already prone to lung cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pulmonologist.