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There are many babies who throw up after almost each feed. They fail to gain weight and falter in their growth curves. They suffer from a laxity in their gastro- esophageal junction. This is called GER (Gastro esophageal reflux). In babies it may cause life threatening breath holding episodes and even severe pneumonia. Then it is called GERD. Most GER resolve with age. Most cases of GERD need medical management. If that fails, surgical funfoplication is needed. These days surgical treatment is done laparoscopically without incision and with minimal pain and excellent recovery.
My 8 months daughter always catches cold and cough. My concern is how long shall I keep her on over the counter medication. Please suggest few immune boosting food for her and I don't want to continue to give her cough syrup every alternate or after few days.
Breast milk is the best for babies and the benefits of breastfeeding are one too many. Breast milk not only supplies your baby with its requirement of vitamins and nutrients, but also gets the substances which fight diseases, making your baby healthy and strong.
Benefits of breastfeeding are:
1. Protects Your Body - Breastfeeding induces some changes in your body which you might not be very delighted to accept, but are for the sake of your baby. Did you know, these very changes benefit you as well. Studies have proved that women who breastfeed are protected against breast and ovarian cancer. The longer you feed, the more protected you are.
2. Reduces Stress - Adding to the benefits of breastfeeding you can derive, is the fact that it helps you reduce stress. It also lessens your risk of postpartum depression. Breastfeeding has been found to be relaxing since it releases the hormone called oxytocin. This release also helps the uterus contract.
3. Averts Risk For Baby - A breastfed baby has lower risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
4. Reduces Obesity Risk In Baby - Breastfed babies have lower chances of obesity. They are good at judging when their tummies are full and therefore stop drinking on time. This leads to healthy growth pattern. Compared to babies who are fed on formula, breastfed babies gain weight at slower speed, hence reducing chances of obesity later in life.
5. Increases Cognitive Skills - Multiple researches have shown that there is a direct relationship between cognitive development and breastfeeding.
6. Enhances Baby’s Immunity - Breastfeed babies are also said to be better protected from developing allergies as immune factors like secretory igA is present only in breast milk. It creates a protective layer on the babys intestinal tract. Babies who aren't breastfeed are known to fall sick pretty frequently as formula diet doesn't build their immunity as mother's milk does.
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My newborn niece's hands are defected. Fingers of both the hands are not fully developed. So is there any surgery which can help her to make the fingers look ok.
6 month infant having nasal cleft and anterior cranial fossa of 4 × 7 mm is this a serious problem especially the anterior cranial fossa.
What is Hepatitis B?
Hepatitis B can be defined as the viral infection of the liver. It is caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is the most common type of virus and can affect a person adversely if left undetected and untreated.
What are the risks to the baby born to Hepatitis B mother?
If the mother has Hepatitis B, there are chances of transfer of virus to the baby. Transmission can occur while the baby is in utero, during delivery and in postpartum period. Most of the cases are due to transmission of virus at the time of delivery due to exposure to blood. That virus can infect the baby and can cause hepatitis in the baby. Baby can become a chronic carrier and can develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in later life.
Does breast milk contain Hepatitis B Virus?
Yes, HBV can be found in the breast milk of 70% of carrier mothers, but there is no evidence of transmission of Hepatitis B through mother's milk.
Can Hepatitis B Positive mother give breastfeed to her baby?
Yes, according to WHO and UNICEF guidelines breastfeeding can be given, as breast milk is the natural and optimal feed to the baby. Mother feeding in hepatitis B positive mother infant can be made more safe by immunisation of the baby with Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hepatitis B immunoglobulin . Hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulins are to be given within 12hrs of delivery and the vaccine should be repeated after 1 month and 6 months. This will substantially reduce perinatal transmission and virtually eliminate any risk of transmission through breastfeeding or breast milk feeding. Immunization of infants will also prevent infection from all other modes of HBV transmission. Exclusive breast feeding is to be continued till 6 months of age .Start complementary feeds at 6 months of age and along with that continue breast feeding for two years.
What to do if Hepatitis B positive mother has sore or cracked or bleeding nipples?
Mothers should breastfeed the baby carefully so that she would not get cracked or sore nipple. In case she gets sore or cracked or bleeding for nipple ,stop breast feeding and take treatment for sore nipples. Because sore nipples or cracked nipples can transmit the virus through exposure to blood . During that period she should express the milk and discard it. She should resume the feeding after the nipples are healed.