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Epilepsy is repeated episodes of seizures caused by abnormal signals in the nerve cells in the brain, which can result in strange sensations, convulsions, muscle spasms and loss of consciousness. It is frightening to watch your child have an episode of seizure, but the good news is that most children with epilepsy outgrow seizures. An episode usually last from a few seconds to a few minutes.
Types of Seizures
There are 2 types of seizures:
Generalized Seizures affect the whole brain
- Generalized tonic-clonic seizure: It is the most common type of seizures in children. In this condition, the child's body becomes stiff and falls, the child may also experience shaking of the limbs. The skin becomes bluish and teeth are clenched. The child may fall into a deep sleep afterward.
- Absence or Petit Mal Seizures: The child is unresponsive and may have eyelid blinking/ staring.
- Atonic and tonic seizures: The child collapses suddenly due to complete loss of muscle tone. This can result in head injuries.
- Myoclonic Seizures: The child may experience sudden, brief jerky movements of muscles of head, neck, and shoulders.
Partial Seizures affect a part of the brain
- Simple partial seizures are characterized by uncontrollable movement of a part of the body. The child is conscious and aware but can't control the movement.
- Complex partial seizures occur mostly during sleep the child may make odd movements, run, scream and even hallucinate. And if the child is awake, he doesn't recall the event.
Do's and Don'ts during an episode of seizure
- Keep a track of how long the episode lasts
- Turn the child to one side to prevent choking
- Put a pillow under the child's head
- Never try to put anything in the child's mouth as it may obstruct the breathing.
There can be many causes of episodes of seizures
- During high fever in the first 48 hours (febrile seizures)
- Head injury
- Bacterial and viral infections of brain like meningitis
- Lack of oxygen to brain
- Disorders in brain development
- Organic disorders of brain like cysts and tumors
- It is confirmed by a pediatric neurologist
- Various investigations are done to confirm the diagnosis including MRI and EEG.
- Blood and urine tests to diagnose infections
Treatment of epilepsy
The pediatric neurologist usually decides the treatment plan depending on the child's age, weight, and type of epilepsy.
- Antiepileptic medications are the first line of treatment. The drugs are usually required for two years and then if there is no episode for these two years, it is discontinued. These drugs may have some side effects like drowsiness, inability to concentrate and gingival enlargement. Discuss with your pediatrician on ways to manage them.
- Sometimes a ketogenic diet is also prescribed. The child is given a fat rich and carbohydrate low diet.
It is worrisome as a parent if your child is diagnosed with epilepsy, but about 65% children need medication for 2 years and then outgrow seizures. However, remember that the child should never miss their medication and get enough sleep.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Respected doctors, I am a male of 29 years of age, I am suffering from generalized anxiety disorder feeling like I am in a dream like state, light headed, foggy vision, stiff head, head feeling numb, depersonalization, tough to carry on life since 1 and half year. One of psychiatrist tell me that I had taken lots of medicine as I was hospitalized 3 times in a year and therefore depersonalised has taken place and feeling numbness in head due to heavy medicine and waves r feeling in my head. Eat healthy sleep healthy will create stamina and slowly your anxiety will be improved.
I am 72 years old & having diabetes from 25 years and it is under control by medication. During sleep, I get severe stabbing pain on my foot top part and I cannot sleep at all. It could be due to peripheral neurosis of my legs. I used to get some relief when herudroid was applied. But now it does not give much relief. please advise.
My brain is thinking too much which results in causing sleep less nights. What to do? please advice.
The word epilepsy brings to mind visions of people frothing at the mouth and rolling on the ground. However, epilepsy affects each patient in a different way. This can make it hard to recognize at times. In the more serious cases of epilepsy, an epileptic attack can make a patient injure himself or develop other life threatening conditions. In rare cases, epilepsy can even cause death. Thus it becomes imperative to understand how to deal with epilepsy.
Treatment options for epilepsy can be categorized as medication, surgical procedures and dietary changes.
Medication: Medication for epilepsy is prescribed on the basis of the symptoms presented and the type of epilepsy the patient is suffering from. In most cases, seizures can be controlled with a single type of medication, but in others, the doctor may need to prescribe a combination of medicines to control epilepsy. These forms of medication do have side effects and hence any reactions to the medication must be immediately brought to the doctor's notice. The dosage for epilepsy medication may need to be varied with time. An epileptic patient should never discontinue medication on their own.
Surgery: Depending on the type of seizures and the area of the brain affected, a doctor may advise surgery in cases of severe epilepsy. Surgery can help reduce the number of seizures experienced or completely stop them. Surgery to treat epilepsy is of many types. Some of the common procedures are:
- Surgery to remove tumor of any such conditions that may be triggering the epileptic attacks
- Surgery to remove a small section of the brain from where a seizure originates. This may also be referred to as a lobectomy.
- Multiple subpial transaction or a surgery that involves making a series of cuts in the brain to prevent the seizures from spreading to other parts of the brain.
- Surgery to sever the neural connections between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
- Surgery to remove half the brain's cortex or outer layer
Dietary changes: A diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates can help reduce seizures. This is known as a ketogenic diet and aims at making the body break down fats instead of carbohydrates. It can cause a buildup of uric acid in the body and thus should be practiced only under the guidance of a dietician. In cases where epileptic attacks are triggered by malnutrition and birth defects, taking vitamin supplements can help lower the frequency of seizures.epilepsy Surgery
I am Sir bahut dino se mai ek problem mahsus kar rah hoon ki mujhe nind bahut aati hai. Help me please.
What are the symptoms of paralysis? Does it occurs at younger age? And what are the risk factors of paralysis?
Good morning, I am Dr Dhruv Chaturvedi I am a neurosurgeon, I get my training from the esteemed All India Institute of Medical Sciences and the following which I have done training in brain and spine surgeries at many years Centre which include UK, Germany, Singapore and Bangkok. I have been practicing neurosurgery in the city of Delhi for more than 15 years now rather that I was working at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. I deal with various ailments involving the brain and spine but today I am going to talk about a much dreaded ailment in the brain, which is brain tumor. As you all know brain tumors are increasing rather all the cancers in the human body are increasing, this has partly to do with the type of exposure that we get from various environmental agents and partly to do with the lifestyle. As soon as the brain tumors are concerned, we have an incidence of almost 1-million in India itself in a year. The brain tumor can affect any age group but most commonly they affect people who are beyond 60’s. This is so because tumors or the cancers arising from any other part of body make in access to look brain structures and hence form secondary tumor there also. So if we have to categorise the brain tumors, they can be categorised into benign or non cancerous and cancerous. This is the primary division of brain tumors, then we talk about the cancerous tumors, the cancerous tumors may arise from within the brain or from the cells within the brain or they can arise as a metastasis from some other tumor in other portions of the body. Brain tumors are fairly common and they are fit all the age groups, the most common tumor that we see in adults as I say are seen beyond 60 years of age and the metastasis or secondary tumors. In which the tumor has come or the cancer has come from the other portion in the body. Where is the benign tumors if we see they are more commonly merinduimu. In the children however the most common tumors are neuroblastoma . The what we should know about brain tumor is what are the signs or what are the problems that a person will have they have a brain tumor. Well, the most common problems then that person will have is a headache, which is generally a morning headache and may be associated with vomiting, which can be frodectile. In addition to that a person may have seizures which commonly known as fits or various neurological deficits like weakness of one of the Limbs in the body, the person can have problems in the vision, the person can have memory deficits or behavioral changes these are the most commonly seen symptoms which are associated with brain tumor. These days with the aquant of new techniques in Radiology, it is very easy for us to diagnose the brain tumor and these are the generally diagnosed with the help of contrast-enhanced imaging. Which may be a contrast-enhanced CT Scan or a contrast-enhanced MRI, MRI obviously scores above the CT Scan. As well as the treatment is concerned most of the brain tumors have to be removed surgically, now why it is essential firstly because it gives us a tissue for diagnosis as to what type of the brain tumor it is. Secondly to relieve a patient of its symptoms it is very essential. Now depending upon whether the Biopsy what we get is cancerous or non cancerous, further treatment is going to be decided on that. If it's cancerous tumor a patient may require in addition to surgery radiotherapy or chemotherapy or both. We also have immunotherapy coming up and research is directed towards that. Where is in benign tumors generally the surgery is sufficient. Here I would like to emphasize that not all brain tumors are cancerous rather many of them are benign and a person can have a normal life expectancy following the surgery for these brain tumors. Whereas in cancers the outcome is generally not so good, the tumors are graded as per the gradings, they can be from grade 1 to grade 4, grade 4 have a poor outcome, whereas great 1 has an outcome where a person can have the survival of around 10 years. If it present to us on time. So if you have any further queries regarding brain tumors, you can contact me either on Lybrate or at Vimhans PrimaMed Super Speciality Hospital, which is based in Nehru Nagar, or as you can visit my clinic which is there in Tagore Garden. Wishing you all the best. Thank you.
Absolutely indispensable to your existence is the proper functioning of your brain. Not only does your brain ensure a normal functioning of your body, but also it controls all your vital organs. Yet, brain disorders are among the most common diseases the modern populace has to confront. Tumorous growth in the brain affects the health of the brain in the most significant of manners. Be it benign or malignant, anomalous growth of the brain tissues leads to brain tumor. Some of the most evident causes of brain tumor are genetic dysfunctions, exposure to harmful radiations and immune-suppressants. You may detect the incidence of brain tumors through some of the more obvious symptoms like acute headaches, seizures, projectile vomiting as well as some fairly subtle conditions like a feeling of numbness, coordination problems, etc. The immediate recourse to brain surgeries and expensive treatments often do not yield the desired results. As a consequence, many seek an alternative therapy which can potentially soothe the trauma and fight the disease.
Replete with the benefits of ancient medicinal knowledge, Ayurveda offers remedies, which heal the diseases without causing any side-effects. The natural, herbal therapies improve your immunity from within; enhance your bodily strength and your will to live. It also aborts abnormal cell growth and helps in normal regeneration. Some of the most reliable Ayurvedic remedies have been enumerated below.
- Aswagandha: Aswagandha herb has fascinating healing properties. They play a major role in restoring strength and immunity in your body. It is endowed with anti-inflammatory properties and is beneficial anti-oxidant. It supplements the essential nutrients, which improve the functions of the brain and minimize the adverse effects caused by harmful radiation.
- Curcumin: Curcumin has been known to disintegrate malignant cells from your body. It not only is a great anti-oxidant, but also improves immunity. It has gained popularity as a cure for brain tumors as well.
- Guggul: Guggul is known to revitalize the damaged cells and impart good health. It enhances oxidation potentials of the body and speeds up recovery from brain tumors.