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Diagnostic Cardiac Procedures
Treatment of Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
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Hiv Prophylaxis Post Exposure
Restylane Vital Procedure
Treatment of Shin Splints
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Hi doctor, my mother's age 65, suffering with full body itching problem. When done blood test, wbc count was 40000. She has not noticed any weight loss or fever. What could be the reason?
I am cumming in less than a minute while doing masturbation and also sperm count is less. What should I do? Is that a problem now?
Sir. I had under go surgery on 26.12.2016 for fistula in ano. My wound kept open after surgery. Now it is healed completely. Still I have discharge come out from anal part. Please advise how long discharge will come out.
There is a 3year old girl suffering from diabetes. Being a teacher would precaution should be taken in school to make him feel comfortable with other kids?
When I make the sex with my partner my penis skin injured and cut and have pain so I can't enjoy our marriage life. We both avoid sex for a week and when again do the injury occur again. Please suggest me the beat for a better married life.
I am 32 years old, suffering from IBD or chronic Disease, please suggest me treatment and died in Ayurveda.
Sorry but I have a problem that's why bringing this issue. My penis size is hardly 3.5" I am 25 Male. What should I do?
How to reduce thyroid and how to maintain the thyroid level in body and what are the symptoms of it.
I am suffering from headache problem. When some reason in that summer the headache problem is occur.
I am 28 years old male. Last year I got married till now I don't have children .is there any problem .shall I go for any check up. Some times my penis is erecting lately and smooth fastly without inserting her. Is this the problem .what are precautions to be taken in food and life style which should be cleared naturally. Plse give suggestion sir.
My tongue is facing a problem now. The white skin on top of the tongue is disappearing. Some times I can't even realize tastes. please tell me what is the possible reason for this.
I had a headache for last two days. Used painkillers. Eat a main reason to frequently have headache.
I want to know which is the best viagra for long lasting sex so I can satisfy my partner. Thank you.
Hi doctor, I am suffering from ringworm infection near my private area its all over my private area its a lot itchy paining and irritating too. So please give me some precautions for this . Thank you.
Varchasv is having dry cough for last 3 days. I think it started after having an orange once. His appetite has fallen. No other symptoms like fever or cold.
The bladder is a hollow storage organ that collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body.
Causes of Bladder Tumors
In most cases, the bladder tumor develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.
1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women.
3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people.
4. Smoking: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. cigarettes contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to their damage.
5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run.
Types of Bladder Tumor
Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types:
1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumor: The tumor has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type.
The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine, known as hematuria. This will be intermittent and happens whenever the tumor bleeding happens. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination.
From the most noninvasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:
1. Urine microscopy to detect cancer cells in the urine
2. Cystoscopy A tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder is highly diagnostic
3. Ultrasound, CT Scan, and biopsy can also be further used to identify severity of the tumor.
Once the tumor is diagnosed, treatment would depend on the severity of the tumor. For both invasive and noninvasive tumors, definitive therapy is surgery, known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). The cancerous bladder tissue is removed through a cystoscope as done for diagnosis. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder. This is then followed by BCG vaccine, which is again done 1 to 4 weeks for several months to avoid recurrence. In some cases, radiotherapy may also be included.