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Dr. Chandrasekar D

Radiologist, Chennai

Dr. Chandrasekar D Radiologist, Chennai
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My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them....more
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.
More about Dr. Chandrasekar D
Dr. Chandrasekar D is one of the best Radiologists in Mylapore, Chennai. You can visit him at Canray Health Alliance in Mylapore, Chennai. Don’t wait in a queue, book an instant appointment online with Dr. Chandrasekar D on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 29 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Chennai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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My wife is suffering from slip disc in spine after mri doctor diagnosis that she also suffering bone tb with unbearable pain in lower portion. Now as per doctor advice completely she is in bed rest. Now she cannot able to stand. Kindly advice.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Spring beds, folding beds or thick matress are harmful use no pillow under the head. Do hot fomantation. Paracetamol 250mg od & sos x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab od x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 4-5days, contact me again. Do not ignore. It could be beginning of a serious problem. I would like to examine her personally as soon as possible.
5 people found this helpful
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Treating Breast Cancer With Ayurveda

Skin Diseases Cancer Heart Diseases Musculoskeletal Disorders Male Sexual Disorders AIDS, Hypertension Diabetes Mellitus Blood Disorders Respiratory Disorders, Gastrointestinal Disorders Endocrine Disorders ENT Disorders, Gynecological Disorders Opthalmic Disorders Psychiatric Disorders Urological Disorders
Ayurveda, Indore
Treating Breast Cancer With Ayurveda

Breast cancer, is a type of cancer, which is common to women, where cancer cells grow on the breasts or the female mammary gland. It starts out with the formation of a small lump in your breast and can spread out to your other organs very rapidly. It generally affects women above forty years of age. Breast cancer can be classified into two types. They can either start forming on the inner linings of your milk ducts ( known as Ductal carcinoma) or in the lobules which supply milk (known as Lobular carcinoma).

There are many causes responsible for breast cancer they are mentioned below

  • Obesity or post-menopausal obesity (Learn more about Heart Diseases Post Menopause)
  • Exposure to frequent radiation (X-ray)
  • Consumption of alcohol
  • Being taller than average
  • Start of periods at an early age
  • Late menopause
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Consumption of birth control pills

The most common symptoms of breast cancer are as follows

  1. Formation of a lump in your breast
  2. Swelling or shrinking of your breast
  3. Change of size, shape and color of your nipple
  4. Blood or milk discharge from the nipple
  5. Breast pain
  6. Itching sensation
  7. Appearance of rashes (Learn more about to maintain the skin health)

Breast cancer if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage may turn out to be fatal. Ayurveda offers promising cures for breast cancer.

A few of the Ayurvedic remedies are mentioned below

  1. Include foods, which are well supplied with vitamin D in your diet. Researches show that women with less amount of vitamin D in their bodies are more likely to develop breast cancer. Consider including foods like eggs, orange juice, dairy products and fish like salmon in your diet.
  2. Drink more of green tea as it has anti cancer properties.
  3. Exercises like walking, yoga, meditation and certain breast exercises can help you to relax the pain sensation, reduce stress and also get cured.
  4. Incorporate bitter gourd in your diet. Researches show that bitter gourd can kill those cancer cells, which cause breast cancer.
  5. Ayurvedic herbs like Ashwagandha, tulsi, curcumin have certain properties that can destroy cancer cells.

Since, breast cancer has less survival rates, it is absolutely essential for you to visit an Ayurvedic practitioner if you wish to get cured through Ayurvedic treatment.

5880 people found this helpful

She is 63 years old suffering from diabetes-on Insulin+other allopathy medicines but the sugar level running from 70 to 200 and more. Today fasting 90 but PP is going high between 200 to 300. She is on Insulin from last 15 years. Can she be treated with you? And I am also suffering from Slip Disc. L4 L5 S1 and taken 15 days Ayurvedic treatment such as Katibastyi, Malish, Steam bath etc but there is nothing complete and permanent. Please advise us to permanent treatment.

PDDM, MHA, MBBS
General Physician, Nashik
This means either her diet is wrong or she is not receiving proper treatment kindly mention ongoing treatment in detail and revert. Slip disc is difficult to treat but you should use lumbosacral belt and proper posture is really important in your case. Avoid massages by inexperienced people.
1 person found this helpful
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I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess narrowing with mild thecal sac indentation and abutting transversing nerve fibres and existing neural foramen stenosis.(2) subtle L3 -L4 diffuse posture lateral iv disc bulge causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess effacement. What is the treatment of it .is surgery necessary for it.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
: keep your leg raised while sitting or lying quadriceps strengthening exercises- quad clenches: lie flat on your back or sit upright on a chair with leg kept horizontally on another surface. Now, tighten the muscle on the front of the thigh by pushing your knee down. You should feel your thigh muscles clench, hold for 3 secs. Repeat 10 times twice a day. Short arcs: lie flat on your back or sit upright with your leg placed horizontally on a flat surface like a chair or bed. Place a rolled up towel under the knee. Pull your toes towards you and clench you thigh muscles. Slowly lift your foot up off the bed until your knee is straight (keep your knee resting on the towel). Hold for 3 secs and slowly lower them on the chair. Repeat 10 times twice a day. Straight leg raise: lie flat on your back. One leg and knee will be straight and other leg should be bent. Pull your toes towards you and tighten/clench the muscle on the front of the thigh, locking your knee straight. Lift your foot up in the air, about 6 inches off the bed. Hold for 3 secs and slowly lower the leg. The knee must remain straight the whole time you are doing this exercise.
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I have L5-S1 disc extrusion condition from a year resulting in severe pain in the right leg. Is surgery the only solution?

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall.
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Bone Cancer: Breaking The Myths

Fellowship Orthopaedic Oncology, MS - Orthopaedics
Oncologist, Mohali

What is Bone cancer?

Bone cancer is malignant tumour of the bones which can spread to lungs or other parts of the body. It may have arisen primarily from the bone itself (primary bone cancer) or more commonly, may have spread to the bones (secondary bone cancer) from cancer of some other body organ like Breast cancer, Prostate cancer etc.

Symptoms:

Primary bone cancer usually occurs in growing children and young adolescents, whereas, secondary bone cancer usually occurs in older age group. Usually, the patient experiences pain in the affected area, which over the time, gets worse and continuous. There may also be swelling in the involved region. It can cause weakening of bones resulting in fracture. Some patients may attribute these symptoms to any prior antecedent trauma. Unintentional weight loss may also be seen. Sometimes, these patients are wrongly being treated for infection, thus delaying the correct treatment which may have a bearing on the final outcome.

How common is bone cancer?

Secondary bone cancer is the most common type of bone cancer with bone being the third most common site of cancer spread (metastasis) from other organs. However, primary bone cancers are rare accounting for less than 1% of all cancers.

Causes of bone cancer?

There are no known environmental or other hereditary factors which cause bone cancer, however, certain patients are at a greater risk for bone cancer which include:

  • Patients who have received prior radiation therapy
  • Patients with a history of Paget’s Disease
  • Patients with hereditary retinoblastoma - a type of eye cancer that most commonly affects very young children
  • Patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome - a rare genetic condition

How is it diagnosed?

A patient suspected with bone cancer needs to be investigated thoroughly with blood tests, Xrays, MRI to look for local extent of disease. Since bone cancer can spread to lungs and other bones, staging of the disease is done either with whole body PET CT or a bone scan with CT Chest. Alongwith that, a biopsy (usually with a needle) is required to establish the diagnosis. It’s important to do biopsy from the correct site since wrong biopsy site can be detrimental in limb salvage and can result in amputation (cutting the limb). Therefore, it’s recommended that the biopsy should always be done by the surgeon (Orthopaedic Oncologist) who will be doing the final surgery for bone cancer.

Treatment

Treatment of bone cancer is a multidisciplinary approach requiring an Orthopaedic Oncologist (Bone & Soft tissue tumour specialist), Medical Oncologist (Chemotherapy Specialist), Radiation Oncologist (Radiotherapy specialist) and Pathologist (Specialist in tissue diagnosis).

Usually in primary bone cancers, chemotherapy is given to the patient followed by surgery to remove the diseased bone which is further followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Limb salvage surgery is possible nowadays for bone cancers in which the part of the bone involved with tumour is removed surgically (rather than cutting the whole limb) and the defect is reconstructed with artificial joint, thereby saving the limb. In some cases, the cancerous bone so removed is given very high dose of radiation so as to kill all the cancer cells and the sterilised bone so formed is fixed back to the parent bone with the help of plates and screws, a technique commonly called as Extra Corporeal Radiation Therapy (ECRT). In children, since the artificial joint will not grow as the child grows leading to unequal limb lengths over a period of time, the defect can be reconstructed with expandable joint which can be lengthened as the child grows which allows to maintain limb length equality at the time of skeletal maturity.

Is cure possible in bone cancer?

With the current chemotherapy regimes and advanced surgical technology, cure is possible in upto 70-75% patients with primary bone cancer. In patients with secondary bone cancer, cure can still be achieved depending upon the primary cancer and the extent of disease. In advanced cases also, a lot can be done to control the disease and give a quality of life to the patient.

Is it possible to prevent bone cancer?

Since the exact cause of bone cancer is not known, as of now it’s not possible to prevent bone cancer.

Whom to consult?

First chance is the best chance when it comes to curing bone cancers. So, it’s advisable to seek treatment from a trained Orthopaedic Oncologist when confronted with a bone cancer to achieve maximum beneficial outcome.

4 people found this helpful

I have slip disc l4, l5 Should I avoid carrying weights. More over what are the exercise I must follow?

MBBS, MS, DNB, FNB (SPINE SURGERY)
Orthopedist, Chennai
Hi. You should avoid forward bending activities, especially while lifting weights. Learn spinal and core strengthening exercises from a physiotherapist and do them regularly. You should also learn about proper posture and follow it during daily routine activities.
1 person found this helpful

The Breast Cancer Myth

Diploma in Endoscopic Surgery, DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi

1. You felt a lump in your breast and it always means you have breast cancer.

The Truth

It's a small percentage of breast lumps only that will turn out to be cancer.  If you discover a persistent lump in your breast or notice any changes in breast tissue,  never ignore it.  You  must see a physician for a clinical breast examination. He or she may possibly order breast imaging studies to determine if this lump is of concern or not.

Take charge of your health by performing routine breast self-exams, establishing ongoing communication and counseling with your doctor, getting an annual clinical breast exam, and scheduling your routine screening mammograms.

2. Only women get breast cancer, men do not.

The Truth

Quite the contrary, each year it is estimated that approximately 2,190 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer and 410 will die. While this percentage is still small, men should also check themselves periodically by doing a breast self-exam while in the shower and reporting any changes to their physicians. 

Breast cancer in men is usually detected as a hard lump underneath the nipple and areola.  Men carry a higher mortality than women do, primarily because awareness among men is less and they are less likely to assume a lump is breast cancer, which can cause a delay in seeking treatment.

2 people found this helpful

All About Bone Cancer

M.Ch - Orthopaedics, Fellowship in Arthroscopy & Sports Medicine, MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
All About Bone Cancer

Cancer that originates in the bones of a human body is referred to as bone cancer. Any bone could come under the threat of this disease, but generally the longer bones of your body, so to say the bones of your limbs, are at a greater risk. 

A few factors that might push you an inch closer to bone cancer are:

  1. Genes could jinx your health: A few typical genetic syndromes could increase a person's chances of contracting bone cancer. These syndromes could have been active in any person belonging to your lineage. One such syndrome is Li-Fraumeni.
  2. Treatment for one kind of cancer can make you prone to some other kind: Radiation affects your bones adversely. A patient of breast cancer might be undergoing radiation therapy that further increases his or her risk of contracting bone cancer in future.  
  3. Paget's disease can have unfavorable implications: Paget's disease is a disease that affects elderly people. This condition, if left untreated, can turn into bone cancer at a later stage. 

Several symptoms of bone cancer can be found below:

  1. Sudden loss of weight: If you lose a considerable amount of weight in a few weeks time without having made any effort at all, you should probably be worried about the health of your bones. Bone cancer can result in sudden and unintentional weight loss. 
  2. Unexpected bone fracture or breakage: Cancer of the bones is known to gnaw at the strength of your bones. Weakened and diseased bones can break or get fractured very easily. An unexpected fracture should not be overlooked so as to prevent chances of anything more harmful.
  3. Long spans of unyielding exhaustion: Constant fatigue and sleepiness might be hinting at a more serious underlying problem. The bones in your body hold you together; cancerous bone cells can make you feel exhausted without much exertion as your bones lose their inherent potency.
  4. Persistent pain in the bones: Excruciating cramps or pangs of stinging pain in a person's bones either continuously or at odd hours, could be indicative of bone cancer. Such instances require the advice and guidance of an experienced oncologist.
  5. Bone swelling: The area affected by bone cancer can grow big and tender or the bone itself can swell up.
3244 people found this helpful

Dear sir, I am 33 year old. I have back ache since 2010 mri also have been done it shown herniated slip disk and doctor has advised me surgery. But I am not willing to get surgery please advise me what should I do.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Not all pt. Of backache need surgery. Most of them can be managed with out operation. Kindly show me a photograph of the affected part. Rule out diabetes & vit. D deficiency or any other metabolic disorder. Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Spring beds, folding beds or thick matress are harmful Do hot fomantation. Paracetamol 250mg od & sos x 5days. Ubicar 1 tab odx10 caldikind plus 1tab od x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 1 wk, contact me again. Do not ignore. It could be beginning of a serious problem.
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I am having ls S1 disk bulge problems if I am having physiotherapist it will cure or not?

DNB (Radiodiagnosis), DMRD, MBBS
Radiologist, Bangalore
Hi, thanks for your query a l 5 - s 1 disc bulge might respond to physical therapy. It cannot be cured completely like before but with precautions and medicine you will feel much better and have a normal life. Please take care not to involve yourself in any activity which might stress your lower back. This will delay recovery and might also cause complications and the pain and discomfort to increase. Avoid doing sudden movement involving lower back and lifting weight more than 5 kg. This will help you recover quickly. For mild pain you should use ointments with muscle relaxant and pain relief. In severe pain plase adk your doctor for oral ner pain reluef medicine and non steroidal anti inflammatory pills. Use of heat pack is also recommended. Regards.
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I want to know about exercises being done in case of diffuse disc bulge at l1-l2 level indenting anterior the cal sac mildly with bilateral mild neural foraminal narrowing.

Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis
Radiologist, Shimla
If pain is there no exercise indicated, after relief mild passive exercises, lumber exercise, lumbo-sacral exercise, mild lumber extension exercise; click on private quastion in my name for any clarification.
1 person found this helpful
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Diet Tips After Kidney Transplant

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Diet Tips After Kidney Transplant

Post kidney transplant, most people have a low immunity due to the powerful medications that are prescribed to avoid rejection of the organ. These medications tend to make the patients more prone to infections and hence, following strict dietary guidelines is necessary to avoid any complication. Also, as most people suffering from kidney failure are diabetic, hypertensive or suffer from heart disease, dietary control is mandatory. Moreover, the use of immunosuppressive drugs can increase your risk of diabetes, hypertension or heart disease. 

#1: eat a protein rich diet

After a kidney transplant, the body requires more proteins to aid in the healing process and improve immunity. This is the reason, why consuming proteins should not be limited. Also, patients who were previously on dialysis had a lower protein intake, post kidney transplant, the consumption of proteins is recommended to be increased. Here are 6 protein sources for vegetarians.


#2: do not eat raw fruits

Intake of raw fruits is not advised as there is a high risk of infection due to raw food. However, you can eat fruits in stewed form as cooking lowers the active bacterial load, thereby lowering your risk of infection.


#3: include curd in your diet

Curd contains good quality protein, which is required for healing post-transplant, hence, curd should be eaten. As far as sour foods like lime and tamarind are concerned, eating them is also okay. But avoid eating grapes as they are known to interact with immune suppressive drugs and hinder healing of the kidney. Also read about 11 diet do’s and don’ts for people with kidney problems.


#4: you need not avoid fruits/ vegetables with seeds

Foods with seeds like tomato, brinjal, ladies finger, guava, watermelon, etc are considered harmless and can be taken after transplant, provided other biochemical parameters like electrolytes and cholesterol are within normal range. Also, ensure that the level of potassium in the blood is within control. However, if you are suffering from kidney stones, it is better to avoid these foods.

#5: you might need to take protein supplements

People who undergo kidney transplants are recommended protein supplements during the initial stage, however, it varies from person to person. In most cases, post kidney transplant, patients recover their appetite, hence there’s no need for any supplements. However, if the patient feels that his protein intake is not optimal, he can continue taking supplements post-transplant, but only after consulting a nephrologist.

Unlike the common misconception that kidney transplant recipients can eat everything after a transplant, you need to follow a disciplined dietary routine with numerous restrictions, depending upon your overall recovery and health. You can start eating out after three to six months of kidney transplantation, as it is the average time taken for the immuno-suppression to be stable and be at a low level. However, raw food, salads, fruits and foods kept open should be strictly avoided, even in general.

1 person found this helpful

Common Side Effects of Uterine Fibroids

Certification in IVF & Infertility, Diplomate Gynae Laparoscopy, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (MRCOG), MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Common Side Effects of Uterine Fibroids

Many women develop uterine fibroids by the time they hit the age of 50 years and above. These are non-cancerous growths that may occur in the uterus. Most women go through severe bleeding and pain as well as discomfort as a result of these fibroids. Age, family history of the same condition, obesity or being overweight, eating habits and even ethnicity play a large role in deciding the risk of each individual patient. These fibroids can grow in the submucosal, intramural and subserosal areas.

Following are the common side effects of uterine fibroids:

  1. Frequent urination: Due to the pressure of the fibroids on the uterus, the patient may experience a constant feeling of fullness in the lower pelvic area of the body, which may lead to frequent filling of the bladder. This gives rise to frequent trips to the washroom for urination. 
  2. Heavy Bleeding: Severe bleeding is one of the most common causes of the presence of these kinds of fibroids. The patient may experience a lot of bleeding during menstrual periods, as well as pain and cramps the rest of the time. The periods will also be very painful when there are fibroids in the uterus or the uterine lining.
  3. Painful Intercourse: It is a well-known fact that any kind of infection or growth as well as sores and other such ailments can lead to vaginal dryness as well as pain during sexual intercourse. This is true for uterine fibroids as well, which can lead to severe pain during sexual activity. These fibroids can also give rise to pain in the lumbar or lower back region.
  4. Abdomen Swelling: The abdomen may go through significant swelling in such a condition and the patient may even look like she is pregnant. The growth can push the shape of the abdomen outwards and create a full feeling.
  5. Pregnancy Complications: The presence of uterine fibroids can give rise to several complications during pregnancy and even after child birth. One of the most common problems in this case is bleeding, followed by more severe outcomes like miscarriage. The women suffering from uterine fibroids are at greater risk of undergoing a caesarean section for the delivery of the baby. The baby may also be born breech and a premature delivery may take place. 
  6. Infertility: This is also a rare side effect of the uterine fibroids and is generally seen only in very severe cases. 
  7. Cancer: Only one in every 1000 cases might transform into malignant tumours. These uterine fibroids are generally known to be non-malignant. 

Any symptoms must be reported to a gynaecologist at the earliest to avoid any serious complications.

4637 people found this helpful

Breast Cancer - In A Nutshell

Post Doctoral Research (Ph.D.) (A.M) (Oncology), Integrative Oncology for Physicians (MSKCC, N.Y, USA), Doctor of Natural Medicine (N.D/ N.M.D), Ayurveda (I) Cert., Advanced Strategic Management (APSM), B.E (Computer Sc. & Engg.), Clinically Relevant Herb-Drug Interactions (CME) - (Cine-Med Inc. USA)
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Bhubaneswar
Breast Cancer - In A Nutshell

Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast(s) start to grow out of control. It is understood as being the most common cancer, seen predominantly in females, globally. It is reasonably treatable and often curable.

1. Type: Adenocarcinomas constitute more than 95% of breast cancers with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) being the most common form of invasive breast cancer.

Frequently occurring breast cancers present as one of the following types mainly

1. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer and is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. There is no invasion in the basement membrane. Pure DCIS metastasizes rarely. Non comedo cribrioform carcinoma is the most common DCIS found which, when compared to the comedo type, is mostly non-aggressive.

2. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): Represents majority (about 3/4th) of the breast cancers, and is known to metastasize commonly to bones, lungs and liver.

3. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS): Develops in multiple lobules of the breast (bilaterally). LCIS is less commonly seen, compared to DCIS.

4. Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Represent about a tenth of all breast cancers and tends to metastasize to other regions of the body.

Less commonly occurring breast cancers such as

5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Is relatively uncommon and are caused probably owing to viral infections. The breast is warm, red and swollen.

6. Paget’s disease of the nipple: Is a rare form of breast cancer. It begins in the milk ducts and spreads to the nipple and areola.

7. Medullary Carcinoma

8. Mutinous Carcinoma

9. Tubular Carcinoma

10. Phylloides tumor etc all.

2. Gender: Affects the female populace predominantly. However, a small percentage of breast cancer is attributable to the male populace as well.

3. Etiology: No definite cause is known. However, diet, lifestyle, environment, hormonal/ reproductive factors, personal or family history of breast cancer especially in first degree relatives and also any benign breast disease history etc all are known to increase the risk of breast cancers. Specifically, excessive fatty diet, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, benign breast disease, heredity/ inheritance of mutated breast cancer genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2), smoking, alcohol intake, infertility, estrogen therapy/ hormone replacement therapy (long term) in post menopausal women, delayed age at first pregnancy, nulliparity (not having child), early menstruation, delayed onset of menopause, lactating mothers not breast feeding, exposure to ionizing radiation, sedentary lifestyle, depression, exposure to MMTV virus etc all can potentially increase the risk for breast cancer.

4. Features: Signs & symptoms, of breast cancer, manifest majorly in the following ways

  1. Lump/ nodule in the breast that gets attached to the skin of the breast over time. The lump / nodule could be hard and painless with irregular edges or it could also be soft, rounded, tender and painful.

  2. Enlarged lymph nodes in the axilla which are palpable.

  3. Swelling of whole or a part of a breast. This is even if there is no distinct lump felt.

  4. Retraction or thickening of the nipple(s).

  5. Pain in the breast or nipple.

  6. Discharge from nipple other than breast milk.

  7. Irritation/ scaliness of skin over the breast.

  8. Redness of nipples

  9. Rarely, red, swollen and tender breast.

5. Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations goal of which, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose breast cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly radiologic with mammography/ USG being instrumental in raising suspicions for further diagnostics (i.e. biopsy) that help detect breast cancer, if any, early.

6. Diagnosis: A self-examination/ clinical exam of the breast(s)/ axilla that reveals a palpable mass prompts the following diagnostics. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.

  1. Blood: ER/ PR/ HER2/neu, uPA, PAI-1, CA15-3, CA27.29 etc all tumor markers are helpful.
  2. Imaging: Mammography/ USG Scan usually, as relevant. Again, CT Scan of abdomen & pelvis and chest, PET CT scan, bone scan etc all help detect metastasis, if any, for cancers in stage III & above.
  3. Biopsy: either excisional, incisional, fine needle aspiration (FNA) or core biopsy technique, as contextually appropriate, is frequently employed and a histopathological examination (HPE) thereof clinches the diagnosis and the nature of the disease.

7. Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy/ chemotherapy as deems appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually.

8. Prognosis: Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage breast cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the type, grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Above-mentioned apart, age, menopause status, lymph node status, ER/ PR/ HER-2/ neu status, size & extent of breast cancer etc all also influence the treatment outlook in breast cancer. The five year survival rate is strongly correlated with the stage of breast cancer.

9. Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an increased focus on protective factors and avoidance of the risk factors can be of help. An adherence to a Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising (for at least 30 minutes daily), de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of breast cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. It is advisable to limit milk/ dairy, preferably of low fat content, to 1 to 2 servings max daily. Although alcohol is optional and is not for everyone, the consumption of the same, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided. Smoking is to be avoided as well. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly or are best avoided too. Limiting dosage/ duration of hormone therapy, if any, especially to counteract post menopausal symptoms and also avoiding exposure to radiation and environmental pollution can help reduce the risks of breast cancer. Apart from the above-mentioned, for high risk cases, a prophylactic oophorectomy, prophylactic radical mastectomy, long term hormone therapy etc all can help reduce the chances/ risks of developing breast cancer significantly. Breastfeeding is known to confer protection against breast cancer risk too.

3651 people found this helpful

My MRI report of LS Spine is as: Diffuse Disc bulge at L3 /L4 indenting the thecal sac Partial desiccation of L4 / L5 with diffuse posterior disc bulge Indenting the thecal sac encroaching bilateral neural foramina (left>right) Partial desiccation of L5 / S1 Please tell. Me the seriousness of the problem with precautions Is this normal.

MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
hello, this means a part of your spine is bulging out and in later cases it may compress your nerve roots and may cause pain of your lower back and your one or both of your lower limbs causing sciatica. but then, there are two things one is simple bulging of the disc and another is herniation of the disc where there is a tear in the cartilage, the later condition more often causes pain. bulging usually causes no pain. i would like to advice you to have a good posture, sit straight. prefer chairs without cushion. your mattress should not be too soft. sleep on a regular less bulky mattress where you can keep your spine straight. while trying to get up from a lying down position do it from one side. never try to sit up straight from the lying down position. change your position to left or right lateral then take support with your hands and get up. do a set of spinal exercises at least 20 minutes a day. you can do twice a day of 10 minutes duration too. you can consult me for the types and instructions of the exercises. if you have not get pain yet, consider yourself fortunate and start making these lifestyle changes.the pain you get in sciatica is ugly. prevention is better than cure. wish you a very good health.
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I have a disc bulge at L4-L5 and L5-S1, its being more then 7 months now. My physiotherapy session is going on but i still have pain and weakness in my legs

M.Ch, DNB (Orthopedics), MBBS
Orthopedist, Mohali
You need and MRI and clinical assessment and may end up having a surgery if you have weakness which has not improved on censervative treatment for 7 months.
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Doctor I have a compressed Disc that is L4 and l5 which is pressing my nerve and I find it very Difficult to stand straight or walk. And the pain is coming under the Thigh is there a cure either than Surgery Thanks expecting a Response soon thanks a lot. I am Diabetic and 55 years old.

MD Internal Medicine, MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Being a diabetic, it's important to get your weight under control, for nerve compression you could try non surgical treatment, you need however to be aware that progression of the nerve pressure can result in paralysis of the legs.
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My age is 28 and I am suffering from back pain due to L3, L4, L5 Disc bulging. Kindly suggest me a solution to over come from back pain without surgery.

Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho)
Orthopedist, Amravati
Hello, Medication like methylcobalamine with muscle relaxant and analgesic will reduce pain; you can take them . I will advise to check your vit B12 and vit D3 level. Hope this answers your query. If you have additional questions or follow up queries then please do not hesitate in writing to us. I will be happy to answer your queries.
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