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Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. Mainly it occurs in females but less than 1% of all the breast cancer cases develop in males. The majority of breast cancers start in the milk ducts. A small number start in the milk sacs or lobules. It can spread to the lymph nodes and to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs and to the brain.
With more reliable early detection methods as well as the trend towards less invasive surgery, there is hope that even more women with breast cancer will be treated successfully and will go on to resume their normal lives.
Signs & Symptoms
It is painless, especially, during the early stage. Watch out for the following changes in the breast:
- A persistent lump or thickening in the breast or in the axilla.
- A change in the size or shape of the breast.
- A change in the colour or appearance of the skin of the breast such as redness, puckering or dimpling.
- Bloody discharge from the nipple.
- A change in the nipple or areola such as scaliness, persistent rash or nipple retraction (nipple pulled into the breast).
Consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of these changes.
Being a woman puts you at risk of getting breast cancer. There are certain factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Some of them have been listed below:
- The risk increases with age; most cases of breast cancer develop after the age of 50
- Genetic alterations in certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2
- Family history of breast cancer
- Being overweight
- Early menarche (onset of menstruation before the age of 12)
- Late menopause (after the age of 55)
- Never had children
- Late childbearing
- No breast feeding
- Excessive consumption of alcohol
- Use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for a long period of time
However, most women who have breast cancer have none of the above risk factors. Likewise, not having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will not get breast cancer.
Early Detection and Screening
More treatment options are available when breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage and hence the chances of recovery is also higher. So regular breast screening is important for early detection even if there are no symptoms. Following are the ways of screening:
- Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Perform BSE once a month about a week after your menses are over. If you no longer menstruate, choose a date each month which is easy to remember e.g. your date of birth or anniversary.
- Clinical Breast Examination: Get a breast specialist to examine your breast once a year if you are 40 years and above.
- Mammogram: Go for a screening mammogram once a year if you are 40 to 49 years old and once every two years if you are 50 years and above even if you do not have any symptom. It is not recommended for younger women (less than 40 years of age) as they have dense breasts, making it difficult for small changes to be detected on a mammogram. So ultrasonography of the breasts is advisable to them.
Types of Breast cancer
- Non-Invasive Breast cancer: These are confined to the ducts within the breasts. They are known as Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS).
- Invasive Breast cancer: It occurs when cancer cells spread beyond the ducts or lobules. Cancer cells first spread to the surrounding breast tissue and subsequently to the lymph nodes in the armpit (Axillary lymph nodes). These cells can also travel to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs or brain and hence known as metastatic breast cancer.
Making A Diagnosis
If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts, you should see a doctor immediately. He will examine you clinically and may ask you to undergo some tests so that a definitive diagnosis can be made. Further, the staging work up is done to find out the stage of the disease and management accordingly.
Treatment of breast cancer may include various methods such as surgery with or without breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Treatment options offered, depend upon the number of factors such as the stage of cancer and likelihood of cure, your general health and your preference. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
My MRI INDICATE 1. Lumbosacral transitional Vertebra with complete socialization of L5 2. Disc desiccation with diffuse disc bulge and broad based posterior central disc protrusion at L4-L5 level causing ventral thecal sac indentation and significant compromise of bilateral neural forminal (right>left). Mild ligamentum flavum thickening is also seen at this level with maintained spinal canal dimensions. 3. Cervical spondylitis changes with disc osteophyte complexes at C4-C5 and C5-C6 levels. Broad based left paracentral disc protrusion at C4-C5 level causing ventral thecal sac indentation and moderate compromise of left sided neural forminal. 4. Mild disc bulge at d5-d6 (screening of rest of spine revealed) I am confused. Dr. Said physio will fix it. I read too many damages. Please guide and suggest sustainable solutions. I am willing to take prolonged treatment. What does this report mean?
I am 27 year boy I have back pain l4 and l5 disk light move. I there any full relief treatment means contact me sir. Back pain person do sex fully or not. After two month marriage fixed so im tired.
I am suffering from renal cell carcinoma and removed my right kidney and left kidney effected to 13-14 mm tumor please suggest me any right way in this condition.
Dear sir, I am 33 year old. I have back ache since 2010 mri also have been done it shown herniated slip disk and doctor has advised me surgery. But I am not willing to get surgery please advise me what should I do.
Studies have shown that those who beging their sex lives before the age of 17 years have many partners, are very much susceptible to cervical cancer. Cervix is the neck of the womb or uterus. Women between the age of 50 to 75 years who are or show signs of hypertension, or are sterile can suffer from endometrial cancer. Endometrium is the lining of the uterus. It rarely occurs before menopause.
Pap test is performed to detect cervical cancer. A thin wooden spatula spatula which is smaller than the tongue depresor is inserted into the cells. These are cancerous or otherwise. Pap test should be done every year for the first three years after a women becomes sexually active. A visual examination can be made by the aid of calposope by which little portions of the tissue are taken to perform.
The usual symptoms are heavy menstruation lasting longer with excruciating pains.
Surgery cryosurgery or laser therapy is used to destroy abnormal areas of the cervix. In more serious cases, the cervix, uterus, tubes & lymph nodes of the areas are removed.
Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.
Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:
- Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
- Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
- Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.
Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general-surgeon.
Renal cancer is also known as hypernephroma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), kidney cancer or renal adenocarcinoma. The kidneys are organs in your body that dispose off waste, while additionally regulating fluid balance. There are small tubes in the kidneys called tubules. These filter the blood, help in discharging waste, and make urine. RCC happens when cancer cells start to grow out of control in the lining of the tubules of the kidney. Renal cancer is a progressive disease that spreads to the lungs and the organs around it.
Medical experts do not know the exact cause behind renal cancer. It is most commonly found in men between the ages of 50 and 70. There are some risk factors and signs that indicate one’s possibility of having renal cancer and these are as follows
- Family history of renal cancer
- Dialysis treatment
- Hypertension or high blood pressure
- Smoking cigarettes
- Polycystic kidney disease (a condition that causes cyst formation in the kidneys)
At a point when renal cancer is in its initial stages, patients might not see any symptoms. The symptoms are mainly seen in the later stages. Some of the most common symptoms are as follows:
- Blood in urine: Blood in urine is called hematuria. As indicated by the Renal Cancer Association, hematuria is the most widely recognized indication of kidney cancer. In case you have blood in your urine, you may see pink, rust or even a red staining.
- Lower back pain: The vast majority does not encounter pain until cancer is in later stages. Pain from renal cancer is felt on one side of the flank, the region over the pelvis, and beneath the ribs in the abdomen. This pain can go from a dull yearn to a sharp wound, frequently leaving the area blue. In case you have any sudden pain that continues for more than a couple of days, you need to see a specialist.
- A mass or lump: A mass or protuberance in the abdomen can be an indication of renal cancer. Kidney knots might be hard to feel since they are somewhere down in the abdomen. Once a bump is found, your specialist may arrange symptomatic tests such as an ultrasound or a CT scan. These tests may diagnose what your knot might be.
- Iron deficiency and fatigue: Weakness and a fall in your iron levels are the most common symptoms of any type of cancer. Cancer exhaustion is not quite the same as simply feeling tired.
- Weight reduction, loss of appetite and fever: Another normal side effect of cancer is sudden and startling weight reduction. This happens quickly without any excessive workouts or dieting. A person diagnosed with cancer can also face a loss of appetite. In fact, even their most loved food items can get to be unappealing. Frequent fever is yet another common symptoms among most cancer patients.
In case your specialist suspects that you may have renal cancer, they will take some information about your and family’s medical history. They will then do a physical exam. Discoveries that can show renal cancer include swelling or irregularities in the stomach area. In case of men, augmented veins in the scrotal sac (varicocele) may be found. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Are you prone to Slipped disc problem? + the ideal way to treat it.
A slipped disc, also known as a prolapsed disc or herniated disc, is the term given to the phenomenon that occurs when a cartilaginous disc found between the vertebrae in the spine becomes slightly displaced or protrudes, thereby pressing on the nerves in the adjacent areas and causing back pain.
This happens when the soft inner part of the disc, known as nucleus pulposus, bulges out through a weakness in the exterior part of the disc. A prolapsed disc usually occurs in the lower region of the spine and can be of varying sizes. There might even be the development of inflammation around the disc in some cases.
Who is likely to get affected?
Most cases of herniated disc occur in patients between the ages of 30 and 50. The number of men affected is twice as many as the number of women. Although the root cause of this problem is not yet known, there are a number of factors that may trigger it. These factors include working at a job that requires a lot of lifting, an occupation that involves remaining in a seated position for a long time, weight-bearing sports, obesity, smoking habits and increasing age.
Effective ways of treating the problem
The different methods that are commonly used to treat the problem are:
- Medications - There are many different kinds of medicines that are effective in providing relief. These include painkillers, muscles relaxants, anti-inflammatory pills, etc.
- Spinal (Epidural) injections - A number of spinal injections are used to treat slipped discs. The injection is done in operation theatre under X-Ray imaging to find exact level of disc bulge. The injection consists of drug mixture of local anaesthetic and steroid. The injection is done at the opening where the inflamed nerve roots are found and reduces pain, swelling and irritation in the area.
- Radiofrequency ablation - This procedure makes use of an electrical current produced by radio waves to reduced pain and sensitivity in the affected area.
- Ozone discectomy - As opposed to the surgical removal of the prolapsed disc, this new process makes use of an ozone-oxygen mixture that is injected into the spine to treat the problem. Many international studies have proved its superiority to traditional methods and surgeries.
Those affected by this problem are advised to keep exercising and continuing with their everyday activities as best as possible. After any of the above treatment methods a regular spine and core strengthening regime is to be followed. Immediate surgical intervention may be needed in acute cases of disc prolapse causing nerve compression with neurological deficits like leg weakness or loss of control over urine and stools. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pain management specialist.