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Galactorrhea is not a disease per se, but more of an underlying medical condition or a symptom that involves discharge of a milky fluid from the nipples, which is not the breast milk. It becomes especially crucial owing to the similarity of the two, when breastfeeding the baby is concerned. It may happen even while you are not lactating or not even pregnant, mostly in menopausal women. Strangely, the syndrome has also shown to have occurred to men and children, irrespective of gender.
What are the contributing factors to the development of Galactorrhea?
- Galactorrhea is a major side effect of certain kinds of medication that leads to hormonal imbalance and ultimately leads to quasi-lactation.
- Increase in the levels of prolactin can result in Galactorrhea which may be due to a number of reasons ranging from excessive stimulation in the nipples and chest area (during sexual activities), or pituitary and thyroid problems. The former is not a major cause of worry. The latter can be fixed with proper medication.
- Kidney disease and spinal cord surgery may also result in this phenomenon.
- Substance abuse and birth control pills may also be responsible for breast discharge.
- At times, the causes for Galactorrhea may not be certifiably determined.
Various symptoms of Galactorrhea include:
- Milky discharge from one or both breasts simultaneously.
- Discharge may be continuous or intermittent.
- Density and amount of discharge may also vary.
- In case of women, this may have a direct effect on periods, leading to irregular menstruation.
- The discharge may occur without pressure or when an external agency is involved.
- Headaches and worsening vision are also said to occur.
When you experience a nipular discharge, the most common tests you should undergo include a pregnancy test, prolactin level exam, mammography, ultrasounds, even an MRI for the pituitary gland evaluation. Based on the result, your physician prescribes the required medicines or advises you to stop taking a particular medicine that might be causing this discharge in the first place.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.
Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.
Brain surgeries are performed to:
- Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
- Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
- Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
- Make a nerve free
- Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
- To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson's disease
- Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
- Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
- Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
- Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.
- Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
- Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
- General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain.
Medical science constantly challenges the boundaries by finding not only the cures to the most dangerous diseases, but finds a way to prevent them even before they occur. With years of research, practice and data available for analysis, scientists are using advanced technology in combination with years of research to create a predicting mechanism for often fatal diseases like cancer.
Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammography. The fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.
Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.
A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time
This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at a high risk of developing this disease.
A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances, or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.
A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops
This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.
It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Dr. Please tell me can you detect the baby's brain defect in ultrasound and any birth defects clearly in which ultrasound?
I have back pain before 3 years. I have checked MRI test in hospital that result show the mild disc dics bulge noted at L4 and L5 level intending the thecal sac without neurological compression. Doctor has given pain relief tablets but no get relaxation. Please give me solution.
I am bodybuilder I had a disc replacement due to bulge in my disc. Is it possible to continue bodybuilding. Lifting weights etc. Plzz help me.
Hi sir my mother 72 year old she is suffering slip disk problem mri report conclusion/impression- Mr. Imaging reveal degenerative changes affecting lumbar spine with disc bulge-herniation at l1-2, l3-4, l4-5 and l5-si levels, more at l2-3, l3-4, l4-5 and l4-s1 level (protrusion), together with ligamentum flavum hypertrophy and facetal arthropathy are producing secondary canal stenosis with narrowing of bilateral neural foraming. Canal stenosis is most sever at l4-5 level.
I am a male aged 52 yrs. I have slip disc problem because of which my left hand becomes senseless as soon as I do some work with it. This problem is there for past 8- 10 yrs. I also have severe back pain from time to time. Please suggest remedy, if any.
The uterus is an organ situated in the pelvis of a female. It is hollow and is usually called the womb where child conception takes place. The uterus functions to help in developing the foetus until birth. Abnormal cell growth that consists of uterine tissues causes uterine cancer.
Although the exact reason for uterine cancer is not known, the risk factors usually can be seen in women with hyperplasia, obese women, and women who have never had kids. Common signs and indications of uterine cancer are unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain while urinating and having sex, and pelvic pains.
Bases upon the sort and phase of cancer, and also your concerns about fertility, there are a number of uterine cancer surgical methods, including the following:
Hysterectomy: The primary focus is an operation to remove the uterus and cervix. At the point when the uterus is removed through a cut in the abdomen, it is known as a total abdominal hysterectomy. In case that the uterus is removed through the vagina, it is known as a vaginal hysterectomy.
Radical Hysterectomy: A radical hysterectomy will be necessary for only a small percentage of women since several better surgical options exist already. This kind of uterine cancer surgery includes removing the uterus, cervix and ovaries and the majority of the encompassing tissue (the parametria) and the upper part of the vagina.
Lymphadenectomy: The lymph nodes in the pelvis may likewise be removed. Your specialist may evacuate the lymph nodes as a component of a hysterectomy to deal with cancer and build up a more focused approach for the uterine cancer treatment plan.
Pelvic Exenteration: For women with repetitive or advanced uterine cancer, pelvic exenteration might be an alternative. During this kind of cancer surgery, the uterus, cervix, vagina, ovaries, bladder, rectum and surrounding lymph nodes are removed. Tissue from somewhere else in the body is used to recreate the vagina and urine and stools are passed into external packs.
Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping: Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLN) might be utilised as a part of early-stage cancer if your specialist can see from the X-ray results that there has been no undeniable spread of cancer to the lymph nodes in your pelvis. In this surgery, a blue dye is infused into the zone with cancer, which is usually close to the cervix. The lymph nodes that turn blue are removed during surgery.
- Omentectomy: The omentum is a layer of greasy tissue that covers the stomach contents like an apron. Cancer at times tends to spread to this tissue. At the point when this tissue is removed, it is called an omentectomy. This might be done during a hysterectomy if cancer has spread there or to check for possible cancer spread.
After surgery if the stage comes beyond stage 1 then patients need Radiotherapy by an oncologist.
A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. It’s an extremely serious type of physical trauma that’s likely to have a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life.
The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. It also sends messages from the body to the brain. We are able to perceive pain and move our limbs because of messages sent through the spinal cord.
If the spinal cord sustains an injury, some or all of these impulses may not be able to ‘get through’. The result is a complete or total loss of sensation and mobility below the injury. A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area.
A spinal cord injury is often the result of an unpredictable accident or violent event. The following can all result in damage to the spinal cord:
- a violent attack such as a stabbing or a gunshot
- diving into water that’s too shallow and hitting the bottom
- trauma during a car accident (specifically trauma to the face, head and neck region, back, or chest area)
- falling from a significant height
- head or spinal injuries during sporting events
- electrical accidents
- severe twisting of the middle portion of the torso
Some symptoms of a spinal cord injury include:
- problems walking
- loss of control of the bladder or bowels
- inability to move the arms or legs
- feelings of spreading numbness or tingling in the extremities
- pain, pressure, stiffness in the back or neck area
- signs of shock
- unnatural positioning of the head
If you suspect that someone has a back or neck injury:
- Don’t move the injured person – permanent paralysis and other serious complications may result
- Call 911 or your local emergency medical assistance number
- Keep the person still
- Place heavy towels on both sides of the neck or hold the head and neck to prevent them from moving until emergency care arrives
- Provide basic first aid, such as stopping any bleeding and making the person comfortable, without moving the head or neck
Treatment should be focused upon that individual and tailored specifically to their condition. A treatment programme is formulated following a thorough physical assessment which might include:
- Stretching activities to maintain muscle and tendon length and reduce or keep muscle spasms/spasticity to a minimum.
- Flexibility and strengthening exercises for the whole body.
- Breathing exercises to maximise lung function and prevent chest infection.
- Balance and posture exercises which can help to reduce pain associated with poor posture and balance impairment and ensure correct transfer techniques (in/out of wheelchair, bed, toilet/bath, car etc.)
- Functional activities to improve fundamental movement patterns such as rolling over and sitting up, and standing where appropriate.
- Walking re-education, if there is sufficient muscle activity and power in the legs.
Your physiotherapist might also be able to advise an individual on use of appropriate equipment such as wheel-chairs and pressure releasing cushions, exercise equipment and electrical muscle stimulators.
Because spinal cord injuries are often due to unpredictable events, the best you can do is reduce your risk.
Some risk-reducing measures include:
- Always wearing a seatbelt while in a car
- Wearing proper protective gear while playing sports
- Never diving into water unless you’ve examined it first to make sure it’s deep enough and free of rocks
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!