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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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What is the good time for sex if she has menustration just over by one day then is it safe to have a sex with partner?
Actually I want to ask abt my frnd. Before some days usne apne boyfrnd sth kuj time spend kia. When her boyfrnd try to enter his penis in vagina without using condom. Andr jate he. He feel like he is going to discharged so he put his penis outside the vagina and then he discharged usne apna sara sperm uske vagina ke upr hairs ke kr dea to uske baad unko dar tha kuj galt na ho jae jbki abi sex b nai kia to meri frnd ne 24r tak unwanted 72 ki pill le li bt still wo dar rahi kuj galt na ho. So please muje kuj suggetions de jisse uska dar khtm kr sku baat kuj 4 din phle ki hai. N she had her periods on 4 sept. N they did dis on 23 sept.
Most women get accustomed to and know the pattern of their menstrual cramps. So, when something out of this pattern happens, they know it is not normal. There are various reasons for pelvic pains not associated with menses. The following are some common causes and it is always advisable to seek medical help, which will help in right diagnosis, early intervention and reduced complications.
- Ectopic pregnancy: If a fertilized egg has planted itself outside of the uterus or the womb, it is referred to as ectopic pregnancy. The fallopian tube is the most common place for ectopic pregnancies. There is associated pelvic pain, which is unilateral, sharp, and gradually worsens. There would also be associated bleeding which is darker than the regular bleeding. This again should be confirmed on an ultrasound and then the ectopic pregnancy removed.
- Endometriosis: The inner thick layer of the uterus could be infected leading to severe pelvic pain, especially in women who are in their 30s, who are not able to conceive. This is often ignored, considering it as normal and it continues to progress and could even result in infertility.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Infections like gonorrhea or chlamydia travel up from the genital tract and reach the uterus. Infection along the entire reproductive tract can lead to severe pain. In most cases, if identified early, a course of antibiotics is all that is required to control this infection. Left untreated, it can even cause infertility.
- Ovarian cysts: Another common cause of pelvic pain, they are quite often asymptomatic, except for occasional pelvic pain. They also disappear with no medical intervention. Sometimes, however, it may get infected or rupture and can cause severe pain. This can is an indication for medical intervention. Ultrasound may be required for diagnosis and treatment may include surgical removal.
- Uterine fibroids: The fibroids are noncancerous growths, which can grow to a considerable size and fall short of blood supply. This may cause them to burst, which can be very painful.
- Miscarriage: Most miscarriages occur before 13 weeks of pregnancy and the usual accompanying symptoms of bleeding are severe pelvic cramps. If you are pregnant and notice bleeding with pelvic pain, it is advisable to immediately visit a doctor. Diagnosis may require an ultrasound to confirm the miscarriage. If medications are not sufficient to remove the remnants, then a dilation and curettage may be required.
- Non-gynecological causes: Appendicitis, urinary tract infections (UTI), hernia, lower spinal problems, irritable bowel syndrome can also cause pelvic pain. The cause should be identified and managed accordingly.
Unfortunately, most women continue to experience and suffer with chronic pelvic pain without a cause identified. A thorough internal examination can help identify the problem and treat the issue. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hi, I am 8 month pregnant and doctor suggested gtt test. What is the use of dis test please suggest me.
In general, the menstrual flow consists of several layers, which include old blood, endometrial lining, nutrients, the tissue remains, etc. All these layers are discharged together as menstrual bleeding/menstrual flow. Sometimes only the layer of nutrients may be discharged before the actual menstruation - this is causing the brown discharge before period.
Incidents in a menstrual cycle may happen that the endometrial cells are not entirely expelled - 'old' endometrial cells can leave uterus during next period and usually appear as brown discharge before period. If the cause of the discharge is the endometrial cells turning from red to brown due to the delayed elimination, there would be no reason to worry. Often polyps of the uterus and/or cervical polyps can be responsible for brown discharge before period. Polyps are the groups of cells that have grown abnormally inside the uterus (mainly because of hormonal dysfunctions). Cells of polyps can bleed very slowly before period and the brown discharge before period could be a result of the bleeding from polyps.
My friend had intercourse with her partner without protection but took ipill after 1 hour of intercourse this happened on between 17-20 April 2018. Again she had protected sex this time on 24 April 2018. On 28th april she saw blood stains on her undergarments and minor pain which went off. Her due date is approx 8th May. What could be the reason please help.
I have VDRL (positive) what is mean that, what we can do? Please tell me the solution to rectify that.
Im a 20 year unmarried girl. I have 1 lump in my left breast. Why has it emerged and what is the best possible treatment for that. Please suggest.
Thalassemia is a genetic (which is passed from parents to children through genes) blood disorder. People with Thalassemia disease are not able to make enough hemoglobin, which causes severe anemia. Hemoglobin is found in red blood cells and carries oxygen to all parts of the body. When there is not enough hemoglobin in the red blood cells, oxygen cannot get to all parts of the body. Organs then become starved for oxygen and are unable to function properly.
There are two types of Thalassemia disease
- Alpha Thalassemia disease: There are two main types of Alpha Thalassemia disease. Alpha Thalassemia Major is a very serious disease in which severe anemia begins even before birth. Pregnant women carrying affected fetuses are themselves at risk for serious pregnancy and delivery complications. Another type of Alpha Thalassemia is Hemoglobin H disease. There are varying degrees of Hemoglobin H disease.
- Beta Thalassemia disease: Beta Thalassemia Major (also called Cooley's Anemia) is a serious illness. Symptoms appear in the first two years of life and include paleness of the skin, poor appetite, irritability, and failure to grow. Proper treatment includes routine blood transfusions and other therapies.
Causes of Thalassemia
Thalassemia occurs when there’s an abnormality or mutation in one of the genes involved in hemoglobin production. You inherit this genetic defect from your parents.
If only one of the parents is a carrier for thalassemia, the child may develop a form of the disease known as thalassemia minor. If this occurs, the born child probably won’t have symptoms, but he/she will be a carrier of the disease. Some people with thalassemia minor do develop minor symptoms.
If both of your parents are carriers of thalassemia, you have a greater chance of inheriting a more serious form of the disease.
The symptoms depend on the type of thalassemia:
- Thalassemia Minor: Thalassemia minor usually doesn’t cause any symptoms. If it does, it causes minor anemia.
- Beta-thalassemia: Beta-thalassemia comes in two serious types, which are thalassemia major, or Cooley’s anemia, and thalassemia intermedia. The symptoms of thalassemia major generally appear before a child’s second birthday. The severe anemia related to this condition can be life-threatening. Other signs and symptoms include:
- frequent infections
- a poor appetite
- failure to thrive
- jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
- enlarged organs
This form of thalassemia is usually so severe that it requires regular blood transfusions.
- Alpha-thalassemia: Alpha-thalassemia also has two serious types, which are hemoglobin H disease and hydrops fetalis. Hemoglobin H disease can cause bone issues. The cheeks, forehead, and jaw may all overgrow. Hemoglobin H disease can cause:
- jaundice, which is a yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes
- an extremely enlarged spleen
Hydrops fetalis is an extremely severe form of thalassemia. It occurs before birth. Most individuals with this condition are either stillborn or die shortly after being born.
How is thalassemia diagnosed?
Thalassaemia is often detected during pregnancy or soon after birth.
- Screening during pregnancy: Screening to check if a baby is at risk of being born with thalassemia is offered to all pregnant women.
- Testing after birth or later in life: Newborn babies aren't routinely tested for thalassemia because the test used isn't always reliable soon after birth and the condition isn't immediately dangerous. However, the main form of the condition – beta thalassemia major – is often picked up as part of the newborn blood spot test (heel prick). A blood test can be carried out at any point to diagnose the condition if a child or adult has symptoms of thalassemia and the condition wasn't picked up earlier on.
- Testing for the Thalassemia Trait- A blood test can be done at any time to find out if you have the thalassemia trait and are at risk of having a child with the condition. This can be particularly useful if you have a family history of the condition or your partner is known to carry thalassemia.
If your child has thalassemia, blood tests may reveal:
- A low level of red blood cells
- Smaller than expected red blood cells
- Pale red blood cells
- Red blood cells that are varied in size and shape
- Red blood cells with uneven hemoglobin distribution, which gives the cells a bull's-eye appearance under the microscope
Blood tests may also be used to:
- Measure the amount of iron in your child's blood
- Evaluate his or her hemoglobin
- Perform DNA analysis to diagnose thalassemia or to determine if a person is carrying mutated hemoglobin genes
Treatment for Thalassemia-
The treatment for thalassemia depends on the type and severity of disease involved. Your doctor will give you a course of treatment that will work best for your particular case.
Some of the utilized treatments include:
- blood transfusions
- a bone marrow transplant (BMT)
- medications and supplements
- possible surgery to remove the spleen or gallbladder
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
The thyroid gland within the body plays an important role in regulating your metabolism among many other functions. This is a butterfly-shaped gland located in your neck and plays an important role within your body. However, a common condition that may afflict it is hypothyroidism or an underactive thyroid gland. It is even more of a problem if you are pregnant as it may affect your baby’s development in the womb. It has also been noticed that pregnancy in itself may cause hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism-
Pregnant women may also exhibit symptoms common to other patients who are suffering from hypothyroidism. These may include:
Fatigue along with lethargy.
Mild to significant weight gain.
Feeling cold with severe chills
The thyroid gland produces the T4 hormone responsible for regulating many mechanisms within the body such as metabolism. With hypothyroidism, the production of this hormone decreases or stops altogether. This is important as disruption in the production of the hormone may disrupt the normal development of your baby.
Effects of Hypothyroidism on your baby-
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy can affect your child’s developmental abilities. Many studies in this field have shown that such children tend to have learning difficulties and may even display lower IQ scores during tests. It was noticed that sometimes, hypothyroidism during pregnancy wasn’t diagnosed correctly as the pregnant mother did not show much apparent symptoms. This is also a major issue in the early diagnosis of the problem. Hence, it is absolutely imperative to test for thyroid problems early during pregnancy.
Prevention is the Best Cure-
It is thus very important that mothers be screened properly for thyroid issues even before they are pregnant and while they are pregnant. Some of the medically recommended steps that should be taken are –
Screening before pregnancy as this can help to devise a solution for this condition.
Women with goiter or enlarged thyroid should most certainly be screened.
Women with a family history of hypothyroidism should be screened.
Treatments for Hypothyroidism During Pregnancy-
The doctors may suggest thyroid hormone replacement therapy wherein artificial T4 hormone is introduced into the body. This helps to maintain a constant rate of the thyroid hormone within the body. This can be done even before pregnancy as the developing fetus is completely dependent on the mother for its thyroid hormone until at least 12 weeks when the baby’s body can start producing it on its own. Also, the levels of this hormone should be regularly checked within the body through the TSH or the thyroid stimulating hormone tests to ensure that the levels are at a safe minimum.