Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 41 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Chennai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Book Clinic Appointment with Dr. Alpa Khakhar
Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Submit a review for Dr. Alpa KhakharYour feedback matters!
An elementary knowledge of biology tells you how important joints are for the overall functionality of a human body. If not for biology experience teaches us the inevitable importance of joints. The link between a tooth and the jawbone is also a joint. Without joints the human body would have been in bits and pieces.
Having known that, you should also try to remember or understand how disabling joint pains can be. They hardly let you move a limb and can also cripple you for life. Knee joint pain can hinder a person's free movement. Knees bear the entire load of your body; they support your frame. Knee joint pain should therefore be a cause for alarm.
Going by the following ways can relieve you of knee joint pain:
- Maintain a healthy weight: Carrying extra pounds can exert additional pressure on your joints and contribute to knee pain. If you're overweight, losing as little as 5 percent of your body weight can help relieve the stress on your knees. Talk to your doctor about developing a healthy eating plan and exercise program to help you lose weight sensibly.
- Find a low-impact exercise you enjoy: Talk to your doctor before beginning an exercise program. Good choices for people with knee pain include walking and swimming. Be sure to warm up before and cool down after exercising. Avoid hilly terrain and high-impact activities like running and jumping, as these can worsen knee pain.
- Give physical therapy a try: Physical and occupational therapy often are helpful for people with knee pain. A physical therapist can help design an exercise program that fits your individual ability level and teach you proper techniques to spare your joints. Occupational therapy can teach you how to reduce strain on your knees in your daily activities.
- Get enough rest and relaxation: Sure, physical activity is important, but rest and relaxation can go a long way to promote good health - and reduce pain. Achieve a healthy balance in your life by learning stress-relief techniques like deep breathing and meditation.
- Make sure you're getting enough sleep: No question-arthritis pain can interfere with a good night's sleep. However, proper sleep is necessary for overall health, so if you are having trouble sleeping, talk to your doctor. Proper pain management can help break the cycle to help you slumber soundly.
- Use Ice and/or Heat: For many people with arthritis pain, ice can help relieve pain and swelling and heat can help ease stiffness. Ask your doctor about how to safely use an ice pack and/or a warm towel or heating pad. A hot shower in the morning or warm bath before bed at night also may be helpful.
- Apply a topical pain reliever: A number of over-the-counter and prescription creams, gels, sprays and patches are available to help relieve arthritis pain. These pain relievers contain ingredients like capsaicin, salicylates, menthol, or a combination of medicines. Ask your doctor if one of these products might be right for you.
- Consider Injections: Persistent arthritis pain may respond to treatment with injections. Available options include corticosteroids, which can be used up to 2 or 3 times a year to relieve severe pain, and hyaluronic acid, which can help replenish lubricating substances in the knee. Talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of injectable treatments for knee pain.
- Talk to Your Doctor about Surgery: If you have severe osteoarthritis symptoms that interfere with daily life and do not respond to conservative treatment, surgery may be necessary. Ask your doctor about arthroscopic procedures or total knee replacement, may be necessary.
Miscarriage is the early loss of foetus within 20 weeks of pregnancy. It is also known as ‘spontaneous abortion’. According to research, about 8-20% of the pregnancies end in miscarriage. Out of the total number of miscarriages, 80% of them end within 12 weeks of pregnancy.
Types of Miscarriages and their Symptoms
- Threatened Miscarriage – As the term suggests, in this condition the process of miscarriage might have begun. This is the initial stage of the process. In threatened miscarriage, there is slight bleeding accompanied by cramps and pain in the lower back, which is usually mild. The cervix (the lower part of the uterus) remains closed.
- Inevitable and Incomplete Miscarriage – In these conditions, there is bleeding along with an open cervix. When there is dilatation and thinning of the cervix, miscarriage is inevitable. In incomplete miscarriage, part of the tissue comes out and a part remains inside the uterus. In inevitable and incomplete abortions, the bleeding and cramps are more severe.
- Complete Miscarriage – Complete miscarriage is when the embryo has completely emptied from the uterus. The pain and bleeding reduce once the foetus is expelled. This can be confirmed through ultrasound.
- Missed Miscarriage – In Missed miscarriage, there is no sign of the life of the embryo and there is no expulsion of the embryo. It can be detected from the absence of heartbeat of the embryo found on ultrasound.
- Recurrent Miscarriage – It happens when there are two or three miscarriages one after the other. It affects about 1% of the pregnancies.
- Increased maternal age i.e., women above 35 years.
- Excess or insufficient chromosome in embryo.
- Placenta is the organ which links mother and the baby for blood supply. Problem in the development of placenta can cause miscarriage.
- Excessive smoking and drinking during pregnancy.
- Obese women have higher risk of miscarriage.
- Long-term health conditions like high blood sugar, high blood pressure, liver disease etc.
- Infections like rubella, malaria etc.
- Weakened cervix, which is the result of previous injury or surgery, can also result in miscarriage.
What are the symptoms of a miscarriage?
- Bleeding or spotting can be one of the symptoms of miscarriage. It should be kept in mind that not all pregnant women who suffer from spotting or bleeding, end in miscarriage.
- Lower backache starts before or right after bleeding, which can be persistent or you could have cramps which may be mild or sharp and can feel like more of pelvic pressure.
- Missed miscarriages are detected through ultrasound when the doctor finds that there is no heartbeat of the embryo or when the uterus is not growing.
What are the treatment options in miscarriage?
- Medical – In most of the cases, there are no specific drugs to stop a miscarriage from occurring. In some cases, certain hormonal preparations help. There is no point in prescribing medicines for prevention of miscarriage if there is heavy bleeding.
- Surgery – Dilatation and evacuation (D&E) is a simple operation which is done under general/local anaesthesia. In this operation, the cervical canal is dilated and contents present in the uterus are evacuated. There is no cutting involved as it happens through the vagina. The process needs only five to ten minutes, but the patient has to stay in the hospital for about 3-4 hours.
This process is opted when:
- There is heavy bleeding.
- The patient suffers from missed miscarriage.
What can you do to prevent miscarriage?
Nothing much can be done to prevent miscarriage in most of the cases. However, following supportive measures may help:
- There should not be overexertion during pregnancy. Moderate amount of physical activity is permissible.
- One should have a well-balanced diet. Studies have shown that a diet loaded with fruits and veggies helps in overall well-being during pregnancy. One should limit the consumption of caffeine.
- Avoid smoking, alcohol and certain drugs to prevent miscarriage.
- Avoid stress and anxiety.
My wife have a uterus fibroid again since she operated her previous fibroid few year back. Kindly Suggest as I am planning to operate her fibroid this time from AIIMS, Delhi.
My period used to last about 5-6 days but now its been an year and it lasts about 2-3 days. Do I have to worry about it? I'm 22.
I m 22 years old I have pcod my periods are irregular I already have taken various treatment my periods came after 2 months and it is already 1 mnth bleeding is on please suggest what should I do to stop bleeding?
My LMP was 26 April and my periods are now 10 days delayed but my urine test is negative always. I want to know why it is so. Do I am pregnant or not. I am waiting for a child any trying for baby since 1.5 years. I visited to doctor but they said they can't tell anything until result came positive. I want to know what is going with my body.
Hi I am in pcos I was trying to get pregnant for last 12 yrs. My Dr. give me ccq tablet from d2 to d6 now what I do for pregnant.
Just because a person is not suffering from any ailment does not mean that there is no requirement of medical supervision. For example, a person’s ear, nose and throat are those passages of the body, from where maximum amount of organisms enter and exit. There is every possibility that unwanted elements or what is otherwise called a foreign body, may make its way into the system through any of these three body parts. These elements do not cause any necessary reactions in the short-term, but may have possible consequences in the long run.
Fungus is one such external element, which people are not able to see or feel the effect of. If it is allowed to accumulate over the years, it is likely that there may be some sort of hearing impairment and getting this fungus out is a difficult task for the ENT specialist.
Mucus in the nose is another element, which may tend to cause problems in the long run unless it is addressed immediately. The mouth is, by far, the most susceptible area as far as foreign body intrusions are concerned because it is that part of the body that is used for ingestion.
An ENT specialist usually applies a number of techniques in order to remove such unwanted elements, which may have consequences;
Forceps are most commonly used in situations where the doctor can actually see what is causing the blockage. Water irrigation is one method by means of which a gush of water is used to flush out all the unwanted elements. This is used in a situation when the medical practitioner is not able to access the problem area directly.
Suction catheters are used when the unwanted elements cannot be seen properly and the only way of getting them out is to force them out. Since the exact problem area cannot be seen or identified, using techniques which may be intrusive and harmful can have detrimental outcomes. That is why using a suction to push it all out is the most effective because there is absolutely no harm that can come from air being pushed down.
However, the important thing to keep in mind is that long-term complications can be avoided by periodic trips to the ENT specialist. It’s not necessary that you should have some discomfort or problem in order to pay a visit to the doctor.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!