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Dr. A.Govindan

Radiologist, Chennai

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Dr. A.Govindan Radiologist, Chennai
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My experience is coupled with genuine concern for my patients. All of my staff is dedicated to your comfort and prompt attention as well....more
My experience is coupled with genuine concern for my patients. All of my staff is dedicated to your comfort and prompt attention as well.
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Dr. A.Govindan is one of the best Radiologists in Poonamallee, Chennai. Doctor is currently associated with K.J.Hospital-Research & Postgraduate Center in Poonamallee, Chennai. You can book an instant appointment online with Dr. A.Govindan on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has an excellent community of Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 43 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Chennai and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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How Herniated Disk Effects Your Health?

IFAANS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
How Herniated Disk Effects Your Health?

The symptoms caused due to herniated disc can be very severe and can also cause a bit of disability. The disc of the spine is like a cushion and separates the set of bones on the backside. The discs are shock absorbers of the spine and are mainly composed of 2 parts, a soft jelly centre called the nucleus and a tough outer covering called the annulus.

Effects of Herniated Disk
A herniated or cracked disc is a severe condition and it seems to happen most commonly in the lower back.  It happens when a fraction of the soft centre gets pushed through the destabilized area due to degeneration, trauma or by putting pressure on the spinal cord. 

Nerves are located precisely at the back of every disc and are responsible for controlling everything in our body. While a disc gets herniated, the external covering of the disc tears and creates a bulge. The soft jelly gets shifted from the centre of the disk to the region where the damage has occurred on the disc. Most commonly, the bulge occurs in areas where the nerve is located and it causes strain on the affected nerve. It has been observed that individuals do not feel any painful sensations even if their disc gets damaged.

When is Surgery Recommended for Herniated Disc?
Surgery for herniated disc is recommended only after options like  pain relievers, exercise and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs do not work. If the pain persists even after these options, then it becomes important to go for surgery. There are certain risks involved in this surgery like infection, bleeding or nerve damage. 

There are chances that the disc may get ruptured again if it is not removed. If you are a patient suffering from degenerative disc disease, then there are chances that problem occurs in other discs. It is very important that a patient maintains healthy weight to prevent any further complications.

The main factor that increases the risk of herniated disc is excess body weight, which causes a lot of stress on the lower back. A few people become heir to a tendency of developing this condition. Even individuals with physically demanding jobs are prone to this condition. 

Surgery for herniated disc is recommended only after options like pain relievers, exercise and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs do not work. If the pain persists even after these options, then, needs to be removed as steroid injections is not advisable per se.

Activities like bending sideways, pushing, twisting, repetitive lifting can increase the risk of a herniated disk. At times, emergency surgery is also required to avoid paralysis in a patient.

1 person found this helpful

My mother is a diagnosed case of carcinoma right breast. Her surgery has been done on 28.05.2017 at Delhi where her infected breast has been removed completely. And doctor has said after seeing biopsy report that only chemotherapy will be done radiation not required. And we started her chemotherapy at kolkata from different doctor as Kolkata is near to my hometown And her 6th and last chemo therapy is over on 11.10.2017. Biopsy report says that my mother breast cancer cell her 2/neu is 3+ and comment Her 2 gene amplification issue at18-20% of invasive breast cancer as per biopsy report. Staging is-mpT2N0Mx. The whole body scan pet has been done where its found that cancer has not spread to any other part of body. The consulting chemotherapy doctor also initially said that only chemotherapy will be done no radiation required but now when 6th last chemotherapy is over he is saying that radiation will also be done. Which will continue for 3 week 5 days each week. Please help sir/mam why he is suggesting it now? Is that for business purpose only? Whats is side effect of radiation Plss pls guide sir/mam. Thanks in advance.

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FBD (Fellowship in Breast Diseases), UICC Fellowship
Oncologist, Pune
According to above report treatment is surgery, chemo and Radiation. As radiation will also reduce chances of local recurrence. If patient is week or very old nonaffording that time you can avoid radiation. But it is always better to take radiation also in her-2 positive patients as chances of recurrence are high. As it was right side cancer radiation won't harm her much. One more thing if she is her 2 positive she should receive targeted therapy or trastuzumab also.
1 person found this helpful
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How Long Do You Need Physiotherapy Post-Fractures?

MPT, BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
How Long Do You Need Physiotherapy Post-Fractures?

A broken bone or a fracture can be painful and it requires medical attention for the fracture to heal properly. Proper healing is necessary for the right alignment of the bone. A doctor chooses to either reduce or set the bone in terms of new alignment. The bone reduction can happen manually or surgically depending on the severity of the injury. A Surgical procedure known as the open reduction internal fixation is performed for serious fractures. It ensures that the all the broken pieces are fixed together and the injury can heal properly.

Post the fracture, the bone need to be immobilised for proper healing. This is generally achieved by imposing a cast. For fractures that are not severe in nature, a doctor might choose to impose a temporary cast so that simple motion can happen around the site of the injury. For serious fractures, a permanent cast is placed around the injury site. In the case of a shoulder injury, a patient is required to wear a sling so that the bones are immobilised.

Time Duration of a Therapy Session:

While the exact duration of physiotherapy can vary from individual to individual, it takes a minimum of 2-8 weeks for the fracture to completely heal. Certain fractures take more time to heal. The rate of healing also depends on the severity of the injury, pain threshold level of the patient, extent of work with the physiotherapist, the robustness of the physiotherapy program, extent of the injury of the soft tissue and certain other factors. Typically shoulder and neck injuries heal quicker than a fracture of the legs. The time duration of fracture healing also depends on the type of bone that has been affected.

Physiotherapy in a Hospital:

If the fracture happens in the ankle or leg, a physiotherapist might have to intervene in the hospital in order to teach patient about using assistive devices such as crutches and cane. Things that are taught during this time include using the device in order to climb stairs, right walking posture, getting into a car, taking the device off while sitting and such other techniques.

Physiotherapy at Home:

Physiotherapy can also happen from home if the doctor specifically instructs to do the same. This is typically done for people where the condition is too serious to go outside and get the physiotherapy done. Certain weight bearing restrictions are imposed around this time. The training remains the same as in the case with a hospital.

In the Clinic:

Once the patient becomes mobile enough, a doctor might suggest a patient go to a clinic to get the physiotherapy done. A physiotherapist evaluates certain things such as pain, range of motion, gait, flexibility etc. of the patient before suggesting a certain exercise plan. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a physiotherapist.

5984 people found this helpful

I'm 42 years old. I'm suffering from l-s 4 slip disc. please tell what can be done?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
(A) Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. (B) Use no pillow under the head. (C) Kindly take BioD3 Max 1 tab dailyx10 Paracetamol 250mg OD & SOS x5days (D) Do back(spine)/shoulder/knee exercises (E)Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take (F) Do not ignore it. It could be beginning of a serious problem. (G) If no relief in 4_5 days,then contact me again. (H) Contact your family doctor or nearest hospital for emergency help.
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6 Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

MBBS, M.S( Gynaecology)
Gynaecologist, Surat
6 Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

The uterus is a muscular structure held in place inside your pelvis with the help of muscles, ligaments, and tissues. These muscles weaken in women due to pregnancy, childbirth or delivery complications and can lead to severe complications. One such complication is a uterine prolapse. Uterine prolapse occurs when the uterus sags or slips from its normal position into the vaginal canal.

The causes of uterine prolapse are varied and include:

- Delivering a large baby
- Pregnancy
- Difficulty in labor and delivery
- Reduction in estrogen levels post menopause
- Traumatic childbirth
- Loss or weakening of the pelvic muscle
- Conditions which lead to increased pressure in the abdominal area such as a chronic cough, straining, pelvic tumors or accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
- Loss of external support due to major surgery in pelvic area

Uterine prolapse can be complete or incomplete depending on how far the uterus sags into the vagina. Women who have minor uterine prolapse may not have any visible symptoms. However, if the condition worsens, it manifests itself in visible signs.

Symptoms of moderate or severe prolapse are:

1. A feeling of fullness or pressure in your pelvis when you sit
2. Seeing the uterus or cervix coming out of the vagina
3. Vaginal bleeding or increased discharge
4. Painful sexual intercourse
5. Recurrent bladder infections
6. Continuing back pain with difficulty in walking, urinating and moving your bowels

Without proper attention, the condition can cause impairments in the bowel, and can also affect bladder and sexual function. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

2752 people found this helpful

Should You Get a Mammogram?

MHA, PGDPMC, DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Should You Get a Mammogram?

A mammogram is an imaging test where an X-ray is taken to recreate the internal imagery of your breasts. This is a screening test that is widely used to find the earliest signs of cancer. There have been instances where the early signs of cancer have been found up to three years before the actual development of the same. There are a number of benefits and risks in this screening method. So let us find out more about getting a mammogram, and whether or not you should get one.

  • Procedure: A special X-ray machine is used for conducting a mammogram. There is a clear plastic plate on which the specialist will place the breast while another plate will press on the breast from above. While both the plates serve to flatten the breast and hold it still, the X-ray will be taken. Some pressure will be felt and the same steps will be repeated so as to get the side view of the breasts. The same procedure will be repeated for the other breast. Meanwhile, once it is done, you will need to wait so that the technician can check for clarity, and whether or not the procedure needs to be done again. The results of this procedure cannot be relayed by the technician, and all the images will be different because all breasts are slightly different from each other.
  • Preparation: You will need to remember that the process can be a slightly painful one, especially once the pressure gets applied. Many women complain of discomfort and pain. Yet, this discomfort gets over before you know it. The pressure and pain will depend on the size of your breasts and how much they will have to be pressed in order to get a picture. The skill of the technician will also come into play here. One must remember not to get this procedure done a week or so before or after the menstrual cycle, as the breasts tend to be tender around this time, and the pain will be much more.
  • Radiologist: Within a few weeks after the procedure, the radiologist will usually deliver the result. This is the professional who does an accurate reading of the X-ray.
  • Normal and Abnormal Readings: If your mammogram result has a normal reading, then you can resort to getting one done every once in a while. But an abnormal reading will require further X-ray and tests so as to be able to tell for sure.
  • Why should I get one: If you are over 40 and have a family history of such ailments, then you will have to get a mammogram done regularly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
2768 people found this helpful

I am suffering from disk and Knee joint pains for the past 10 years I have already done panchakarma treatment. There is no result? What can I Do?

MD - Alternate Medicine, BHMS
Homeopath, Surat
I am suffering from disk and Knee joint pains for the past 10 years I have already done panchakarma treatment. There ...
Just do this small exercise: Sleep with legs raised up from waist against the wall straight up, making 90 degree angle for 5 mins. Its better you do in early morning, else you can do it anytime. This will make your blood flow increased towards brain and increase your memory and physical strength too will be increased. And your knee joint pain will also be relieved. And try to apply ice-packs over it for 2 times in a day for 5 mins. Still if you have any queries, please ask. Take care. :)
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I am suffering from slip disc. Its been more than 4 months now. I have sciatica nerve pain as well. Taking homeopathic treatment from last one month. I still have pain. I can notice swelling on my left hip. Please suggest.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Noida
Hello Ms. lybrate-user As you asked about your problems related to your slip disc and sciatica pain I would like to advise you to follow regular daily routines of getting all dietary measures and daily behaviours as well as yoga and exercise every day two times daily. You may consult local Yoga teacher and learn particular exercise for slip disc and sciatica pain. In such case only yoga and exercise is valuable treatment for your problems. You may consult any Acupressure specialist also for your your problems. Regular acupressure treatment for 15 days will help you also. You could not get any relief from medicines.
1 person found this helpful
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Can Arteries plaque and ECG level changes can be cleaned naturally with foods only and how much time it will take. Any natural food to advise.

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Vadodara
No... It is not possible... And even not by a single medicine... You will need Treatment Yoga and . exercise...
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I am 52 years old female ad suffering ductal carcinoma. First Stage in left breast. Where to consult and how much time will be taken and what cost to be expense.

FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear lybrate-user, Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* Needs MRM with axillary node dissection.* Consult general surgeon, surgery is of around 1.5 hour duration, cost in Gujarat in our set up is around Rs. 50,000 inclusive of all. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards dear take care.
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Brain Surgery - Know The Purpose Behind It!

IFAANS, DNB (Neurosurgery), MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ghaziabad
Brain Surgery - Know The Purpose Behind It!

The most powerful and amazing organ in our body is the brain. It differs from many other organs of our body not only by its shape, but also by its special type of cell called neurons. When these cells gets affected or dead it can never be reverted or regenerated which is the most exclusive nature found only in brain cells. The cells in other parts of our body has the capacity to regenerate (can be replaced or new one can be grown or produced), but brain cells are exception. Hence any damage to the brain, injury or trauma is really a crucial thing to be considered with utmost care.

Brain surgeries really need skill, proper training, confidence and intelligence to perform this highly complicated and risky surgery.

Purpose:
Brain surgeries are performed to:

  1. Remove the brain tissues that are grown abnormally
  2. Aneurysm is clipped to prevent flow of blood cliff off an aneurysm
  3. Biopsy purpose or to remove the tumour
  4. Make a nerve free
  5. Drain the abnormal blood or clot collection or to drain any excessive fluid collection caused by infection.
  6. To implant artificial electronic device as a treatment for conditions like Parkinson’s disease

Types:

  1. Biopsy: A part of brain tissue is removed for the brain or whole tumour is removed.
  2. Craniotomy: The skull bone is opened to remove tumour, an aneurysm and drain fluid or blood from infection.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: Endoscopic devices are inserted through the nose to remove the lesions or tumour.
  4. Minimally invasive neuroendoscopy: Similar to endonasal surgery but small incision is made.

Risks:

  1. Anaesthesia risks like breathing difficulty, allergic reaction to medications, excessive bleeding or clots and infection.
  2. Risk related to the brain surgeries are seizures, coma, swelling of brain, infection to brain or meanings, surgical wound infection that intrudes to the brain structures, abnormal clot formation and bleeding.
  3. General risks include muscle weakness, disturbances in memory, speech, vision, coordination, balance and other functions that are controlled by the brain. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a neurosurgeon.
1753 people found this helpful

Is homeopathic medicine helpful for disc extrusion (L5-S1) neurosurgeon is saying surgery is must otherwise you may loose control over foot movement and urine, please HELP.

Fellowship in Interventional Pain management , Diploma in Anesthesia, DA, MBBS
Pain Management Specialist, Jaipur
disc problems are mechanical one due associated with ur action like weight lifting. jumping.riding. forward flexion.etc. prognosis is depending entirely on radiological finding as well as clinical presentation too. a single criteria shouldn't be implement in every case. as in my opinions up to certain extent conservative management be institute. afterwards six week to six months. if ur ur bowl.bladder or motor powers affected. immediately go for minimal invasive technique. avoid open surgery. because its associated with failed back surgery syndrome in 30%case worldwide.
3 people found this helpful
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One of my female frnd had some pain in breast. She thinks becoz of a fall in childhood. It does not pain now. But one of the breast is smaller than other. She is scared of breast cancer. Just married and not a mom. Please suggest. Age 20.

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Post Doctoral Fellowship
General Surgeon, Lucknow
It is normal to have unequal breast sizes and that is nothing to worry about. Only if your friend notices any lump in breast or unusual nipple discharge she should get further evaluation.
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L4-l5 and l5-s1 between disk problems years-44-women. Please give advise operation after disk moving

Hand Surgery SR Ship, MS - Orthopaedics, Thesis Work, M.B;B.S
Orthopedist, Jaipur
Dear, surgery in spine disorders is not a full proof guarantee that all will be well once surgery is done. As we all have multiple discs, so the key is to get surgery if pain is severe, and there are neurological weakness, but once you are off from surgery change lifestyle if you want no more problems.
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Symptoms of Liver Cancer in Hindi - लीवर कैंसर के लक्षण

MBBS, M.Sc - Dietitics / Nutrition
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Delhi
Symptoms of Liver Cancer in Hindi - लीवर कैंसर के लक्षण

जिगर शरीर में सबसे बड़ा ग्रंथियों वाला अंग है और शरीर को विषाक्त पदार्थों और हानिकारक पदार्थों से मुक्त रखने के लिए विभिन्न महत्वपूर्ण कार्य करता है। पेट के दाहिने ऊपरी चतुर्भुज मंर स्थित है, पसलियों के ठीक नीचे। लिवर पित्त के उत्पादन के लिए जिम्मेदार है, जो एक पदार्थ है जो आपको वसा, विटामिन, और अन्य पोषक तत्वों को पचाने में मदद करता है। यह ग्लूकोज जैसे पोषक तत्वों को भी स्टोर करता है और दवाओं और विषाक्त पदार्थों को तोड़ता है। 

लिवर कैंसर, जिसे हेपेटिक कैंसर भी कहा जाता है, एक कैंसर होता है जो लिवर में शुरू होता है। जब कैंसर लिवर में विकसित होता है, तो यह लिवर कोशिकाओं को नष्ट कर देता है और सामान्य रूप से कार्य करने के लिए लिवर की क्षमता में दखल देता है। लिवर कैंसर के दो प्रकार होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर, जो लिवर की कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है। जबकि, कैंसर जो कि कहीं और से शुरू होता है और अंततः जिगर तक पहुंच जाता है, उन्हें जिगर मेटास्टेसिस या द्वितीयक लिवर कैंसर कहा जाता है।

प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के विभिन्न प्रकार
विभिन्न प्रकार के प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर के विभिन्न कोशिकाओं से उत्पन्न होते हैं। प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर लिवर में एक गांठ के रूप में, या एक ही समय में लिवर के भीतर कई स्थानों में शुरू हो सकता है।

1. हेपैटोसेलुलर हेपैटोसेलुलर:
हेपेटोसेल्यूलर कार्सिनोमा (एच.सी.सी), जिसे हेपेटामा भी कहा जाता है, सबसे सामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है। एचसीसी मुख्य प्रकार के लिवर कोशिकाओं में शुरू होता है, जिसे हेपोटोसेल्यूलर कोशिका कहा जाता है। एचसीसी के अधिकांश मामले हेपेटाइटिस बी या सी, या शराब के कारण जिगर के सिरोसिस के संक्रमण का नतीजा है। 

2. फाइब्रोलैमेलर एचसीसी:
फाइब्रोलामेरेलर एचसीसी एक रेअर प्रकार का एचसीसी है, जो आम तौर पर अन्य प्रकार के लिवर कैंसर की तुलना में उपचार के लिए अधिक संवेदनशील होता है।        

3. कोलेंजियोकार्सिनोमा:
कोलेंजियोकार्सिनोमा, जिसे आमतौर पर पित्त नली के कैंसर के रूप में जाना जाता है, लिवर में छोटे, ट्यूब जैसे पित्त नलिकाओं में विकसित होता है। पाचन में मदद करने के लिए, ये नलिकाएं पित्ताशय में पित्त को ले जाने के लिए जिम्मेदार हैं। जब कैंसर लिवर के अंदर नलिकाएं के खंड में शुरू होता है, तो इसे इंट्राहेपेटिक पित्त नलिका कैंसर कहा जाता है। यद्यपि, जब लिवर के बाहर नलिकाओं के अनुभाग में कैंसर शुरू होता है, तो एक्स्ट्राहेपाटिक पित्त वाहिका कैंसर कहलाता है। 

4. एंजियोसारकोमा:
एंजियोनेसकोमा लिवर कैंसर का एक रेअर प्रकार है जो लिवर के रक्त वाहिकाओं से शुरू होता है। इस प्रकार का कैंसर बहुत तेज़ी से प्रगति करता है, इसलिए यह आमतौर पर एक और अधिक उन्नत चरण में डिटेक्ट किया जाता है।

5. हेपेटोब्लास्टोमा:
हेपोटोब्लास्टोमा एक अत्यंत असामान्य प्रकार का लिवर कैंसर है। 

लिवर कैंसर के लक्षण
ज्यादातर लोगों के प्राथमिक जिगर कैंसर के शुरुआती चरणों में लक्षण नहीं होते। जिसके परिणामस्वरूप, लिवर कैंसर बहुत देर से डिटेक्ट किया जाता है। लिवर कैंसर के लक्षणों में शामिल हैं:

  1. पीलिया
  2. भूख में कमी
  3. वजन घटना
  4. एबडोमीनल पेन
  5. बुखार
  6. मतली और उल्टी
  7. सामान्य खुजली
  8. हेपटेमेगाली (बढ़े हुए जिगर)
  9. बढ़े हुए स्प्लीन

चूंकि लिवर कैंसर के लिए कोई व्यापक रूप से अनुशंसित नियमित स्क्रीनिंग टेस्ट नहीं हैं, इसलिये बीमारी के परिवार के या अन्य जोखिम कारकों के इतिहास वाले लोगों को उनके डॉक्टर से बात करनी चाहिए ताकि वे अपने जोखिम को मॉनिटर करने या कम करने के लिए सही कदम उठा सकें।

लिवर कैंसर के जोखिम कारक
प्राथमिक लिवर कैंसर के खतरे को बढ़ाने वाले कारकों में शामिल हैं:

  1. मधुमेह
  2. अफ्लाटॉक्सिन
  3. उपचय स्टेरॉयड्स
  4. आर्सेनिक
  5. धूम्रपान
  6. सिरोसिस
  7. कम प्रतिरक्षा और मोटापा
4 people found this helpful

Types and Diagnosis of Uterine Fibroids

Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Types and Diagnosis of Uterine Fibroids

Noncancerous growths of the muscle tissue surrounding the uterus are known as uterine fibroids. This is a common disease which about 70 to 80% of women contract by the time they are 50 years of age. The uterine fibroids can sometimes be very big and cause heavy periods as well as severe abdominal pain while at other times, uterine fibroids give no signs or symptoms whatsoever and go away on their own. This is why it is crucial to know what type of uterine fibroids you have and how to diagnose them. Here are the types of uterine fibroids and how to diagnose them;

Types
There are three main types of uterine fibroids. They are;

1. Intramural fibroids
The most common type of uterine fibroids are intramural fibroids. They typically appear in the endometrium and may grow larger which results in your womb getting stretched.

2. Subserosal fibroids
Subserosal fibroids are called so because they form on the serosa. The serosa is the outside of your uterus. Sometimes, Subserosal fibroids may grow so large that your uterus appears bigger on one side.

3. Pedunculated fibroids
Pedunculated fibroids tumors are basically Subserosal fibroids with a stem. A base which supports the tumor is called the stem.

Diagnosis
There are a number of tests done to diagnose uterine fibroids. They are;

1. Pelvic exam
A pelvic exam is a thorough inspection of a woman pelvic area. The organs which are in the pelvic area include the cervix, ovaries, uterus and vagina. Normally, this and the next test in this article are enough to diagnose uterine fibroids.

2. Medical history
The history of your periods as well as the other symptoms you have will often be enough to diagnose the uterine fibroids. If your medical history is not enough, then you might need to undergo a pelvic exam.

3. Pelvic ultrasound
An ultrasound is when high-intensity sound waves are used to produce images of the pelvic area. This is only done when a pelvic exam and your medical history are not enough to diagnose uterine fibroids. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

2876 people found this helpful

Causes, Types And Treatment Of Bone Fracture!

Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), DNB (Orthopedics), Diploma SICOT, Fellowship in Spine Surgery, Fellowship in Endoscopic Spine Surgery
Orthopedist, Vadodara
Causes, Types And Treatment Of Bone Fracture!

Broken bone is commonly known as bone fracture a d it occurs when an exorbitant amount of force is applied causing the bone to split or shatter. While some minor fractures lead to cracks and crannies, others may lead to complete breakage of the bones. Despite being hard, bones are formed in such a way that they can absorb pressure to only a certain extent, beyond which they break. Statistically, the incidence of broken bones are most common in children and in old age people.

Causes of Bone Fracture
Bone fracture can be caused due to a number of reasons; both intentional and accidental. Some of them include:
1. Accidents and injuries: Sports injuries, being hit by a car and tripping and falling are some of the typical episodes.
2. Old age: Diseases such as osteoporosis and brittle bone disease are common in aged people. As bones tend to become more fragile among the aged, they are at a greater chance of bone fractures.

Type of bone fractures
Primarily bone fractures are of four types, based on the way the bone splits. They are:

  1. Complete fracture: This type of fracture refers to a complete breakage of the bone wherein the fracture may occur at various parts of the bone.
  2. Incomplete fracture: In this type of fracture, the bone partially breaks instead of splitting entirely.
  3. Compound fractures: This is a type of a fracture wherein the bone breaks past the skin. It is also known as an open fracture.
  4. Simple fracture: In this type of a fracture, the bone breaks without causing an open wound on the skin.

Treatment of bone fractures
In case of a broken bone, the immediate course of action would be to reach for the first aid box. This can be done to stabilize the bone prior to hospitalization. Icing the injury, elevating the injured area to prevent further swelling and covering the wound with bandages are common measures. In many cases, people also make household splints (made of newspapers) to keep the bone stabilized. Hospitalization and especially surgery, can be also opted for in case of severe fractures. Consult a doctor for more details.

2489 people found this helpful

Stroke - Brain Attack

MBBS, DMCH, DEM
General Physician, Jaipur
Stroke - Brain Attack

STROKE- Popularly known as "Brain Attack". It occurs due to sudden  impairment of blood supply to a part of brain leading to acute neurological insult. 

Stroke is an emergency. Know the signs of a stroke and  Remember  FAST.

F- Face Drooping - Ask the person to smile. See for any deviation/asymmetry of mouth. If YES..

AArm Weakness  Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? If   YES..

SSpeech Difficulty  Ask the person to speak, look for any slurring of speech. If YES..

T- Time is money , Call Ambulance/Rush to the hospital. 

Other signs/ symptoms - 

  • Sudden onset of  numbness or weakness of the leg / arm. 

  • Sudden confusion/ trouble seeing in one or both eyes, trouble walking, Chakker, loss of balance, severe headache / Loss of speech.

Be Aware, This can be STROKE.

Act FAST, Save LIFE and disability. Up to 80% of strokes are preventable

11 people found this helpful

Lung Cancer and Outdoor Air Pollution - Understanding The Risk!

MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Coimbatore
Lung Cancer and Outdoor Air Pollution - Understanding The Risk!

Lung cancer is the cancer killer of both men and women in the U.S. When you think of risk factors for lung cancer, what comes to mind? Most of us think about the risk associated with smoking cigarettes, but did you know that air pollution can also cause lung cancer? Overwhelming evidence shows that particle pollution in the outdoor air we breathe—like that coming from vehicle exhaust, coal-fired power plants and other industrial sources can cause lung cancer. Particle pollution increases the risk of dying early, heart disease and asthma attacks, and it can also interfere with the growth and function of the lungs. 

What is particle pollution?

Particle pollution is a mix of tiny solid and liquid particles in the air and can be made up of a number of components, such as acids, organic chemicals, metals, soil and dust particles. It can be emitted directly from wood stoves, forest fires, vehicles and other sources, and it can also form from other types of pollution that come from sources like power plants. 

Why does particle pollution harm our bodies?

While breathing in larger sizes of particle pollution can be harmful to our health, smaller particles are more dangerous. Bigger particles can irritate your eyes, nose and throat, but our natural defenses help us to cough or sneeze them out of our bodies. Unfortunately, those defenses don't keep out smaller particles, which get trapped deep in the lungs and can even get into the bloodstream, causing damage to our health.

Who is most at risk?

As for who is at risk for health problems from breathing in particle pollution. Those who live where particle pollution levels are high is at risk. Some people face higher risk, including children, the elderly, people with lung and heart disease and diabetes, people with low incomes, and people who work or exercise outdoors.

How do we protect ourselves from particle pollution?

Check the air quality index forecast for the day and limit your activity if pollution levels are high. Avoid exercising along heavily traveled highways regardless of the overall forecast.

As individuals, we can play our part in reducing air pollution levels by trying to avoid creating more of it. Choosing ‘active travel’ options where possible, like walking and cycling, can help reduce pollution levels from transport and is also a great way to be more active, which is linked to a reduced risk of cancer and other diseases.

3 people found this helpful

Know More About Bone Cancer!

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Chennai
Know More About Bone Cancer!

Cancer that originates in the bones of a human body is referred to as bone cancer. Any bone could come under the threat of this disease, but generally the longer bones of your body, so to say the bones of your limbs, are at a greater risk. 

A few factors that might push you an inch closer to bone cancer are:

  1. Genes could jinx your health: A few typical genetic syndromes could increase a person's chances of contracting bone cancer. These syndromes could have been active in any person belonging to your lineage. One such syndrome is Li-Fraumeni.
  2. Treatment for one kind of cancer can make you prone to some other kind: Radiation affects your bones adversely. A patient of breast cancer might be undergoing radiation therapy that further increases his or her risk of contracting bone cancer in future.  
  3. Paget's disease can have unfavorable implications: Paget's disease is a disease that affects elderly people. This condition, if left untreated, can turn into bone cancer at a later stage. 

Several symptoms of bone cancer can be found below:

  1. Sudden loss of weight: If you lose a considerable amount of weight in a few weeks time without having made any effort at all, you should probably be worried about the health of your bones. Bone cancer can result in sudden and unintentional weight loss. 
  2. Unexpected bone fracture or breakage: Cancer of the bones is known to gnaw at the strength of your bones. Weakened and diseased bones can break or get fractured very easily. An unexpected fracture should not be overlooked so as to prevent chances of anything more harmful.
  3. Long spans of unyielding exhaustion: Constant fatigue and sleepiness might be hinting at a more serious underlying problem. The bones in your body hold you together; cancerous bone cells can make you feel exhausted without much exertion as your bones lose their inherent potency.
  4. Persistent pain in the bones: Excruciating cramps or pangs of stinging pain in a person's bones either continuously or at odd hours, could be indicative of bone cancer. Such instances require the advice and guidance of an experienced oncologist.
  5. Bone swelling: The area affected by bone cancer can grow big and tender or the bone itself can swell up.
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