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What causes cervical Cancer?
Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a very common virus in both men and women that can lead to the development of genital warts, abnormal cervical cells or cervical cancer.
This virus can cause normal cells on your cervix (Know more about Cervix Infection) to turn abnormal. Over many years, abnormal cells can turn into cancer if they are not found and treated by your doctor. It can take 10 to 15 years (or more) for cells to change from normal to abnormal, and then into cancer. Abnormal cells are sometimes called 'pre cancer ' because they are not normal, but they are not yet cancer.
You cannot see or feel HPV or these cell changes on your cervix. Screening tests help us to look for these changes or for abnormal cells (Learn more about sexually transmitted diseases)
How is HPV spread?
HPV is transmitted during genital skin to-skin sexual contact. This includes vaginal or anal sex and possibly oral sex.A person can get HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sex. They will never know it because HPV usually has no signs and symptoms.
In most cases, HPV goes away within two years, without causing any health problems. It is thought that the immune system fights off HPV infection naturally
What screening tests exist for HPV- related diseases?
Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer can be detected with routine Cervical cancer screening (Pap test) and follow-up of abnormal results. The Pap test can find abnormal cells on the cervix so that they can be removed before cancer develops. Abnormal cells often become normal over time, but can sometimes turn into cancer. These cells can usually be treated, depending on their severity and on the woman's age, past medical history, and other test results.
An HPV DNA test, which can find certain HPV types on a woman's cervix, may also be used with a Pap test in certain cases (called co-testing). The HPV-DNA test is done to determine if you are infected with one of the high-risk types or if your doctor finds certain type of abnormal Pap test result.
Even women who were vaccinated when they were younger need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccines do not protect against all cervical cancer strains.
Is there a treatment for HPV or related problems?
HPV vaccination could prevent most cancers and other diseases caused by HPV. There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the problems that HPV can cause:
Visible genital warts may remain the same, grow more in number, or go away on their own. The warts can be treated when they appear.
Abnormal cervical cells (found on a Pap test) often become normal over time, but they can sometimes turn into cancer. If they remain abnormal, these cells can usually be treated to prevent cervical cancer from developing. This may depend on the severity of the cell changes, the woman's age , past medical history, and other test results. It is critical to follow up with testing and treatment, as recommended by a doctor.
Post detection of ovarian cancer the doctors , depending on your cancer stage can recommend the treatment more- surgery, medical treatment, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
What are the symptoms of throat cancer. I have habit of smoking for last two years. I am recognizing some symptoms as some pain sometimes around the neck region, and some itchiness in that area. Then some bulgeness in the throat. Can define this problem.
I sought the advice on the following recently. "Ultra sound of KUB reports Prevoid 350 cc, I Post void: 81 cc and II Post Void: 16 cc / Prostate: 25 cc. Enlarged in size. What does it indicates? Is it Grade I Prostatomegaly? Is it normal? Or any medicine to be taken" I thank you very much for the advice of various doctors suggesting to consult a urologist. Urologist opined it as Grade I Prostatomegaly. Urologist suggested to take medicine named Rapilif (Silodosin) 4 mg for a few months. I wish to know the effectiveness any interaction with the medicines I am taking. I am presently taking the following medicines. MetXL 12.5, Rosufit 10 mg, and Remylin D. Thank you once again.
My sister is suffering from breast cancer please guide us now till day she had already 3 chemo therapy completed in a nursing home in kolkata now doctor says operation is required what can I do please give me advice.
Hello doctor, what r the symptoms in Cancer, and how to come in our body? Then which is the best treatment?
If you are concerned about liver cancer, you should know that most people do not experience signs and symptoms of the cancer in the early stages. Liver cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cells of the liver. There are various types of cancer which can develop in the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer which begins in the hepatocyte, which is the main liver cell.
Usually there are no specific primary stage symptoms of liver cancer. Some symptoms which may develop include the following:
Unusual weight loss is observed
Loss of appetite and developing food aversion
Pain in the upper abdomen
Nausea followed by vomiting
General weakness with intense fatigue
Swelling in the abdomen
The skin may become yellow
White and chalky stools are likely
In most cases, the causes of liver cancer cannot be clearly determined. In some cases, the cause is known, such as chronic infection with the hepatitis virus, which may lead to liver cancer. Liver cancer occurs when the liver cells undergo changes or mutations in their DNA structure. DNA mutations lead to changes in instructions of chemical processes taking place in the body. The cells may grow out of control and develop into a cancerous tumour.
There are several factors which enhance the risk of liver cancer. They are as follows:
Chronic infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C increases the risk of liver cancer.
A progressive and irreversible condition known as cirrhosis leads to scar tissue formation in the liver, increasing the risk of liver cancer.
Certain inherited liver diseases such as Wilson’s disease and hemochromatosis also increase the chances of liver cancer.
People with diabetes are also at a greater risk of having liver cancer.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the accumulation of fat in the liver, also increases the chances of getting this condition.
Excessive alcohol consumption is another factor which causes irreversible damage to the liver and the chances of getting liver cancer get boosted.
Exposure to aflatoxins, which are poisons produced by molds growing on poorly stored crops, make you more likely to get liver cancer.
Several tests and procedures are carried out for the diagnosis of liver cancer. These include blood tests for diagnosing liver function problems, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan and MRI scan.
I am 19 years old. I am obsessed with female breast. My mind always look at them. I want to get rid of my mind habit. I do not know how it has developed over the years. Twice in week I have an irresistible urge to check net about females breast. I know its a milk feeding organ which woman develop during stages of puberty. My obsession has become a distraction. And I am unable to concentrate. What would happen if I get married and gave birth to a female child. What will the child think of his dad. How to treat it, please tell.
My cousin is having blood cancer and is 11 year old. He is undergoing chemotherapy. What diet should be followed and which foods we can give him.
My Husband last 19 year taking tobacco like Shekhar, Rajnigandha, Tulsi. But now a days he trying to quit. I am fearing for cancer. I want to diagnose any problem will be arise? He is 34 years old.
What will be the process of treatment for a patient who has just overcome from the first stage of cancer?
Hello sir my question is around two years ago in my sister breast nipple there was some blood came out we gone to doctor and he done small surgery and assured as that she is perfectly fine and also say that remove nipple for better future that this type of situation will not occur again but we didn't do that after that we started homeopathic treatment for one and half a year in that one half a year lump came out and spread in her breast now situation is pus blood is came out from that and we are taking treatment from cancer healer center now that said go with report for fnac now please help me what is the better treatment that save her life and breast to because going surgery that removing breast is not worthy for girl at age of only 28 please advice us best treatment.
In one’s fight with cancer, an inevitable harsh reality stands in the face- imminent loss of hair with cycles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer treatment aftermaths is not about a person’s battle with the disease but with oneself after he or she has already defeated one’s cruelest enemy.
We fully and absolutely agree that Beauty is Skin Deep; but it’s just that having gorgeous locks of hair does wonders in boosting one’s self-esteem and confidence. We, at Berkowits, bow down to the warrior spirits in you and lends you a friendly helping hand by offering distinct wigs and hair prosthetics for cancer patients and cancer survivors.
For cancer patients there is wide variety of wigs to choose from, in various styles and colors depending upon an individual’s desires and requirements. These wigs are lightweight, comfortable, safe and are suitably ventilated to wear during heat and humidity. The experts at our clinic assist you in choosing the right wig depending on your face, personality and these wigs can be styled as per your wish. Patients suffering from Alopecia areata totalis and Alopecia aerate universalist can avail this facility. Berkowits provide wigs for cancer patients, best hair wigs for cancer patients, synthetic hair wigs for cancer patients, wigs for cancer patients in Delhi.
Various types of wigs available at our clinic are:
- Ready-to-wear human hair wig
- ?Made from 100% real human hair and looks natural
- Durable and lasts long
- Can be styled, colored, blow-dried etc. just like your own hair
- Ready-to-wear synthetic hair wig
- Made from synthetic thread
- Easy to wash, leave to dry and care for as they bounce back to their original shape and style
- Hair dryer and heated rollers cannot be used
- Cheaper than human hair wig
- Customized wigs
- Tailor made to suit your face, persona and can be styled and colored as per your desire
- Can be made from synthetic or human hair
Hello everyone, my father at the age of 53, has been diagnosed with Prostate Cancer. Some facts about him: his PSA was 3, 9 last september, and it is 4.4 right now. They took examples from 12 different locations of his prostate and 2 of them were cancerous. The doctor told my father has a non.
I am 20 year old men. What is symptoms of lungs cancer? Because I smoke more than 5 years. One day I vomit with blood. So I really scared about this. Please give any suggestions. Thank you.
I am 25 year old. 1 week back I found small lump inside my right side breast and it s paining when I touch (press). Is this serious problem?
Photodynamic therapy or PDT is a relatively new and non-invasive treatment for non melanomaskin cancer. It is mostly used in cases where the cancer is superficial and has not spread too deep. PDT is used mostly to treat Actinic Keratoses on the face and scalp, Basal cell carcinomas, Bowen’s disease, as well as other conditions such as head and neck, mouth, lung and gullet cancer.
How does it work?
This treatment involves the use of a drug known as photosensitize or a photosensitizing agent with a specific type of light. When the photosensitizing agents get exposed to a light of a specific wavelength, a form of oxygen is produced, which eliminates nearby cancer cells. Every photosensitizer gets activated by the special light. The wavelength of the light determines how much it can penetrate into the body.
Process of Photodynamic therapy
Skin cancer is cured by PDT in several steps. The first step involves the injection of a photosensitizer into the patient’s bloodstream. The blood cells absorb the agent all over the body, but in the cancer cells, it stays for a longer duration. Within 72 hours after the injection is given, the skin is exposed to light. The photosensitizer agent present in the cancer affected cells absorbs the light. An active oxygen form gets produced, which kills the cancer cells.
Other than killing the cancer cells directly, PDT uses two other ways to destroy cancerous tumors. The blood vessels in the tumor are affected, which leads to its death. The immune system also gets charged up and activated for fighting the cancer cells.
The light used for PDT is usually in the form of a laser. LEDs are also used to treat tumors present on the surface of the skin. The primary photosensitizing agent used in PDT is called porfimer sodium or Photofrin.
PDT can be undertaken in the outpatient department in a hospital. After taking the treatment, you have to keep the cancer affected area of the skin dry and covered for 36 hours. The area should be treated with care while showering. In case of thick skin lesions, repeat treatments are required within 4 weeks.
When is PDT used for skin cancer
PDT can be undertaken instead of surgery for treating basal cell cancer, Bowen’s disease and actinic keratosis. PDT is used in cases where surgeries are required. It is used to treat large skin cancers, which are not very deep and in the case when several cancers develop in an area. For many skin conditions, PDT is a better remedy than undergoing a surgery.
Advantages of PDT
- There are no long term side effects.
- The process is less invasive compared to surgery.
- A very short time is taken for this therapy to be undertaken.
- The process can be repeated several times in the same area.
- Very less scarring takes place in the affected area.
- The cost of this procedure is lesser than surgery.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
- The cost of this procedure is lesser than surgery.