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Thyroid Clinic

Endocrinologist Clinic

No 432 E 1 Parsn Flats, Ttk Road, Alwarpet. Chennai
1 Doctor
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Thyroid Clinic Endocrinologist Clinic No 432 E 1 Parsn Flats, Ttk Road, Alwarpet. Chennai
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Our entire team is dedicated to providing you with the personalized, gentle care that you deserve. All our staff is dedicated to your comfort and prompt attention as well....more
Our entire team is dedicated to providing you with the personalized, gentle care that you deserve. All our staff is dedicated to your comfort and prompt attention as well.
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Thyroid Clinic is known for housing experienced Endocrinologists. Dr. Vijayaganapathy, a well-reputed Endocrinologist, practices in Chennai. Visit this medical health centre for Endocrinologists recommended by 88 patients.

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No 432 E 1 Parsn Flats, Ttk Road, Alwarpet.
Alwarpet Chennai, Tamilnadu - 600018
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Diabetes - Doctor Recommended Tips To Prevent It!

MBBS, Diploma In Diabetology, Certificate Course In USG
General Physician, Jalandhar
Diabetes - Doctor Recommended Tips To Prevent It!

With sedentary lifestyle, refined and processed food habits, obesity and diabetes is the new age epidemic. India, in fact, is being termed as the diabetes capital of the world given the huge rise in the number of cases over the last couple of decades.

There are well established risk factors for diabetes and if these can be managed, then the chance of delaying onset, controlling progress and containing complications are highly possible. Read on to know how simple things can be effective in preventing and managing diabetes.

  1. Weight control: Obesity is the most important risk factor for developing diabetes. A person with normal BMI is 20 to 40 times less likely to develop diabetes than an overweight person. Losing about 10% of the excess weight can help prevent diabetes by more than 50%. Check with your doctor what should be the ideal recommended weight for you and draw up a routine (diet, exercise, etc.) that will help you achieve and stay around that weight range.

  2. Exercise: All methods of exercise help in moving the muscles, which is drastically reduced given our sedentary lifestyle. Moving the muscle (as much and as often as possible) ensures they absorb more glucose and reduce the stress on insulin production. Something as simple as brisk walking for 30 minutes is good enough to reduce the chances of developing diabetes by 50%.

  3. Don’t be a couch potato: If watching television is your favourite pastime, it is time to change it. This puts people at risk of developing obesity, heart disease and diabetes. Also, watching television is usually associated with overeating, further adding to the risk of diabetes.

  4. Fibrous foods: Eating fibrous fruits and vegetables as compared to refined and fried foods helps prevent diabetes.

  5. Whole grains vs processed foods: When you have to choose between a pizza and a bowl of brown rice, go for the latter.

  6. Good fats vs bad fats: Polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds and help control diabetes. Trans fats present in margarine and baked foods are best avoided.

  7. Non-vegetarian foods: If you have a choice, pick fish and poultry versus red meat (processed or otherwise). The fish is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids and helps control inflammation.

  8. Leave the whites: Get off white rice, white refined sugar and white flours. Include brown rice, brown or demerara sugar and wheat flour instead.

  9. Smoking: Quit smoking and you will note how beneficial it is in preventing diabetes.

  10. Alcohol: Moderate amount helps in effective functioning of the insulin.

If you have a family history or have risk factors, follow the above to prevent diabetes.

Hypothyroidism - Everything You Should Be Aware Of!

Masters in Endocrinology, MBBS, C.Diab, CCEBDM(DIABETOLOGY), CCMTD, DOMS
Endocrinologist, Mumbai
Hypothyroidism - Everything You Should Be Aware Of!

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland is not producing the thyroid hormones adequately. This is a fairly common condition.

What is thyroid gland?

The thyroid gland is a small butterfly-shaped gland located just below Adam’s apple. It encircles the windpipe or the trachea. It is about 4 cms in height and weighs about 18 gms. This gland is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Hormones are chemicals produced by special glands like thyroid, adrenals, ovaries etc. They act as messengers and are carried by the blood to the various target organs.

What are the hormones produced by thyroid gland and what do they do?

The thyroid hormones are of two types – T3 (Tri iodo thyronine) and T4 (Thyroxine). These hormones are mainly responsible for the body’s metabolism - a process in which food is converted into energy in the cells. They influence growth and development and regulate various bodily functions which are mentioned below:

  • Heartbeat
  • Body temperature
  • Breathing
  • Body weight
  • Metabolism of fat
  • Menstrual cycles in females
  • Functioning of Nervous system
  • Digestion
  • Burning calories etc.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Inadequate production of hormones by the thyroid gland is termed as hypothyroidism. This is also called Underactive thyroid state. Hypothyroidism can make the body’s development to slow down and reduces metabolism rates.

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism can be caused by a number of factors:

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: This is the commonest cause. This is an autoimmune disorder (normally body’s defence system fight against external infections. In autoimmune disorder the defence system attacks the healthy cells of the body by mistake). In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis the immune system/defence system produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland and destroy it.
  2. Iodine deficiency in diet. For the production of thyroid hormones iodine is very important. The body does not produce iodine normally, so it needs to be supplemented from outside. Iodine is mainly present in the food we eat. It is mainly present in shellfish, salt-water fish, eggs, dairy products. If a person does not eat iodine rich foods, he may end up with iodine deficiency leading to hypothyroidism. Currently, this causative factor is on the decline due to government initiative of table salt with iodine.
  3. SurgerySurgery to remove thyroid gland (for e.g. thyroid cancer treatment, overactive thyroid etc.)
  4. Radiation to the neck (to treat cancer in the neck area): The thyroid gland cells are damaged due to the radiation.
  5. Treatment with radioactive iodine: This treatment is used for managing hyperthyroidism/overactive thyroid, where the thyroid gland produces excessive thyroid hormones. One of the treatment modalities is by radioactive iodine. Sometimes this radiotherapy destroys normal functioning cells which lead to hypothyroidism.
  6. Certain medicines: Certain medicines used to treat heart conditions, cancer, psychiatric conditions etc. – for e.g. amiodaronelithium, interleukin-2, interferon-alpha.
  7. PregnancyPregnancy (the reason is unclear but it has been noticed that the thyroid may get inflamed after delivery – this is called Postpartum thyroiditis.
  8. Damage to the pituitary gland: Pituitary gland is a gland which is present in the brain. It produces a hormone called TSH (Thyroxine-Stimulating hormone).The TSH tells the thyroid gland how much thyroid hormone it should make. If the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood are low, then the TSH will stimulate the thyroid gland to produce more Thyroid hormone.
  9. Hypothalamus disorders: This is an organ in the brain. This produces a hormone called TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone) which acts on the Pituitary gland to secrete TSH. So any disorder of Pituitary gland will indirectly effect the production and secretion of Thyroid hormones. These are very rare disorders.
  10. Congenital thyroid defects: Some babies are born with thyroid problems. This is due to the thyroid not being developed normally during pregnancy. Sometimes the thyroid gland does not function normal. This can be identified by screening for thyroid disorders in the first week after delivery. This is usually by a blood test using a small drop of blood from the baby’s heel.

What are the different types of hypothyroidism?

One classification is based on whether the defect is with the thyroid gland or not:

  1. Primary hypothyroidism: The problem is in the thyroid gland itself and thus there is reduced production /secretion of thyroid hormones.
  2. Secondary hypothyroidism: Here the problem is with the Pituitary gland or the Hypothalamus. This results in abnormal production of TSH or TRH, which indirectly leads to less production and secretion of thyroid hormones.

Another classification is based on the symptoms and levels of the thyroid hormones and TSH:

  1. Overt hypothyroidism: Here the patient is having the symptoms. Further the T3/T4 are low and TSH is high
  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Here patient may or may not have symptoms. The T3/T4 levels are normal but TSH is high. In this situation the patient is at an increased risk of developing overt hypothyroidism in the future especially if he has Thyroid peroxidase antibodies on testing.

Who are at risk of developing Hypothyroidism?

  1. Women have a higher risk of suffering from hypothyroidism than men.
  2. Older people are at increased risk.
  3. People suffering from other autoimmune diseases like Coeliac disease, Type-1 Diabetes MellitusVitiligoPernicious anemiaMultiple sclerosisRheumatoid arthritis, Addison’s disease etc.
  4. People with psychiatric conditions such as bipolar disorder
  5. People with Chromosomal abnormalities like Down syndrome, Turners syndrome also have a high risk of suffering from hypothyroidism.

What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism?

Symptoms vary from person to person. They may also mimic other conditions and hence be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms may also develop very slowly over a span of moths-years. Some of the characteristic symptoms of this disease are:

  1. Depression
  2. Constipation
  3. Hair loss
  4. Dry hair
  5. Dryness of the skin
  6. Tiredness
  7. Body pains
  8. Fluid retention in the body
  9. Irregular menstrual cycles
  10. Increased sensitivity to cold
  11. Reduced heart rate
  12. Increase in size of the thyroid gland – called Goitre. This is due to constant stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH.
  13. Weight gain
  14. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  15. Hoarse voice
  16. Infertility
  17. Loss of libido/sex drive
  18. Confusion or memory problems especially in the elderly

What are the symptoms to look for in a baby if you suspect hypothyroidism?

Infants suffering from congenital hypothyroidism may show no symptoms or exhibit signs of excessive drowsiness, cold hands, cold feet, constipation, hoarse cry, poor growth or absent growth, poor appetite, bloating of abdomen, puffiness of face, swollen tongue, persistent jaundice.

How to diagnose hypothyroidism?

Blood tests:

  1. TSH: This hormone is made in the pituitary gland and it stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. If the thyroxine levels are low in the blood, the pituitary gland produces and secretes more TSH into the blood to act on the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine. A raised TSH level indicates hypothyroidism. Other tests are not usually necessary unless a rare cause of hypothyroidism.
  2. T4: A low level of thyroxine indicates hypothyroidism.
  3. T3: these levels are generally not needed to diagnose hypothyroidism
  4. Anti-Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) or Anti- thyroglobulin antibodies are present in 90-95% of patient with autoimmune thyroiditis.
  5. Other blood tests include Creatinine Kinase, Serum Lipids, Complete blood picture etc.
  6. Ultrasound of the neck is done if the patient presents with a thyroid swelling.

What is the treatment of hypothyroidism?

Overt hypothyroidism is treated by synthetic Thyroxin hormone which should be taken every day on an empty stomach at least 30 – 45 minutes before breakfast. The treatment is continued for the rest of the patient’s life. Regular thyroid function tests are done once every 8 weeks-12 weeks to adjust the dose of the thyroxine in the initial period of diagnosis. Once the thyroxine dose is stabilised, the tests can be done even once a year. This treatment is quite effective.

Sub-clinical hypothyroidism is only treated if the patient is a woman and is contemplating pregnancy, in patients with symptoms or if the TSH is quite high.

What are the side-effects of thyroxine medication?

There are few side effects if any. Most people tolerate these medications quite well. An important consideration before starting medication is to check if the patient has chest pain/angina. These people are started on the least available dose. If these patients are started on a higher dose they notice a worsening of their angina pains.

Side effects mainly occur if the thyroxine dose is high which leads to hyperthyroidism. The symptoms of this could be palpitations 9increased heart beat), weight loss, profuse sweatinganxiety, irritability etc.

There are some tablets which increase with thyroxine tablets. These include carbamazepineiron supplements, calcium supplements, rifampicinphenytoinwarfarin etc.

What are the complications of hypothyroidism?

If untreated hypothyroidism can lead to:

  • Heart problems like heart attack due to increased levels of bad cholesterol like LDL, or heart failure due to fluid retention
  • Obesity
  • Infertility
  • Joint pains
  • Depression
  • pregnant woman with hypothyroidism is at increased risk of giving birth to a baby with congenital hypothyroidism, also known as cretinism. Further, the woman may have pregnancy related complications like pre-eclampsia, premature delivery, low birth weight baby, anemia, post-partum haemorrhage (bleeding after delivery) etc.
  • Myxoedema is another complication where the patient has extremely low levels of thyroid hormone. The body temperature drops drastically making the person lose consciousness or go into a coma.

How To Treat Infertility?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, DGO
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Play video

Infertility refers to being able to get pregnant after one year of trying. Women who can get pregnant but are unable to stay pregnant are also termed as infertile. Ovulatory disorders are one of the most common reasons why women are unable to conceive and is presen in 30% of women suffering from infertility.

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Diabetic Neuropathy

MD - General Medicine, CCEDM, Fellowship In Neurology & Stroke, Post Graduate Diploma in Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Internal Medicine Specialist, Navi Mumbai
Play video

Before you are affected by diabetes, a condition known as pre-diabetes is experienced, which indicates that a person might develop diabetes soon. In case you have pre-diabetes, your blood sugar level will be higher than the usual, but not as much as during diabetes. The condition is called borderline diabetes. During pre-diabetes, the production of insulin hormone gets decreased. You are more likely to get heart diseases and a stroke because of pre-diabetes.

596 people found this helpful

My mother is 69 years old and patient of diabetes 2 and from long time taking glycinorm m 60 od empty stomach in last sugar sample hb1c is 6.5 and fasting is 82 please give me better advice.

Bachelor of Homeopathic Medicine and Surgery
Homeopath, Nashik
My mother is 69 years old and patient of diabetes 2 and from long time taking glycinorm m 60 od empty stomach in last...
If your mother really want to get rid of disbetes. Ask her to eat or have meals only twice a day. That too antidiabetic diet. Nothing had to consume between the two meals. And then check her sugar level after 30 days. Aling with these take homoeopathic treatment.
1 person found this helpful

I am 60 years old and my sugar level is fasting 140 and pp 165 and taking glimisom m1 forte and glucobay m50 both time during lunch n dinner is that ok doctor using since 2 years some times stopped medicine blood sugar level came jus double.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
I am 60 years old and my sugar level is fasting 140 and pp 165 and taking glimisom m1 forte and glucobay m50 both tim...
Mr. lybrate-user, thanks for the query. I have seen the details given. Fasting glucose is quite high, pp looks better. There is no mention about hba1c%. It is important to know that value, as it gives an idea about long term control. Hba1c% should be < 7, at your age. Another aspect, your weight 98 kgs appears to be very high. There is no mention of height, so bmi can not be calculated. Ideally bmi should be < 23 kgs/sq meter. Please let me know your diatary pattern and extent of daily exercise. Thanks.
2 people found this helpful

I have hashimoto thyroiditis and am on 50 ug eltroxin per day. Can I use ashgwanda and if I can how much per day?

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
I have hashimoto thyroiditis and am on 50 ug eltroxin per day. Can I use ashgwanda and if I can how much per day?
Hello, thanks for the query. Since you are on treatment for hypothyroidism, it is necessary to maintain tsh around 3 to 4 mu/l. That value is not mentioned. If you want to take aswhagandha, that can be taken. But after a gap of few hours of taking thyroxine tablets. Quantity is usually mentioned in the product literature. Thanks.

My mother is 46 year old she is sugar is 205 in empty stomach bi taking capsules let me know the maximum range of sugar level in empty stomach.

MD - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Indore
My mother is 46 year old she is sugar is 205 in empty stomach bi taking capsules let me know the maximum range of sug...
Fasting blood sugar levels above 126 mg% suggests diabetes. Her blood sugar levels are very high are requires proper management.
1 person found this helpful

I am diabetic (type 2) and on medication glimy m 500 mg 2 tablets per day. My sugar levels are normal (120 fasting and 160 pp) however I feel weakness. I do regular walking for 4-5 kms at lest 4-5 times a week. Can you suggest me a diet plan and nutritional supplements?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Certificate Course In Evidence Based Diabetes Management, Certificate Course In Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetologist, Sri Ganganagar
I am diabetic (type 2) and on medication glimy m 500 mg 2 tablets per day. My sugar levels are normal (120 fasting an...
Hi sir, Continue same medicine for long time. Take big meals 3 times a day. Take snack s and fruits in between. Do not have simple sugars.

Just 10 days back I came to know that I have thyroid. Is there any problem in carrying. Please suggest me.

BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
Just 10 days back I came to know that I have thyroid. Is there any problem in carrying. Please suggest me.
Yes, it needs proper care so that the thyroid hormone levels can be brought to normal levels. One should take all the precautions before planning for pregnancy so that complications can be avoided. Read more about thyroid problems from the internet and take the right steps. You should go for a thorough examination by a doctor / or gynecologist and follow the advise. Certain tests are done to assess your overall health. Both the partners need to be counselled so that you can take an informed decision. Then you can move forward towards healthy pregnancy. You can also update all the details for further clarification.
2 people found this helpful
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