Doctors in Medindia Hospitals
Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Submit a review for Medindia HospitalsYour feedback matters!
Salpingitis:- Infection / Inflammation of the fallopian tube is called salpingitis. It is the type of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
Causes:- Salpingitis usually results in form-
1. Ascending infection from the uterus, cervix, and vagina-
• pyogenic organism such as streptococcus, staphylococcus, peptococcus.
• sexually transmitted infections (stis).
2. Direct spread from the adjacent infection- one or both the tubes are affected in appendicitis, diverticulitis, or following pelvic peritonitis.
Types:- Salpingitis is usually categorized as either acute or chronic-
1. In acute salpingitis, the fallopian tubes become red and swollen and secrete extra fluid so that the inner walls of the tubes often stick together. The tubes may also stick to nearby structures such as the intestines. Sometimes, a fallopian tube may fill and bloat with pus. In rare cases, the tube ruptures and causes a dangerous infection of the abdominal cavity (peritonitis).
2. Chronic salpingitis usually follows an acute attack. The infection is milder, longer lasting and may not produce many noticeable symptoms.
Symptoms:- Not every woman who gets this condition will experience symptoms-
When symptoms are present, you may experience:
▪ Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
▪ Yellow vaginal discharge
▪ Pain during ovulation, menstruation, or coitus.
▪ Spotting between periods
▪ Dull lower back pain
▪ Abdominal pain
▪ Frequent urination
1. General examination - to check for localized tenderness and enlarged lymph glands
2. Blood and urine tests - these tests will look for markers of infection.
3. Swab test - this will determine the type of bacterial infection you may have.
4. Transvaginal and abdominal ultrasonography- these imaging tests look at your fallopian tubes and other areas of your reproductive tract.
5. Hysterosalpingogram - this is a special type of x-ray that uses an iodine-based dye injected through the cervix. It helps your doctor look for blockages in your fallopian tubes.
6. Laparoscopy - in some cases, your doctor may recommend a diagnostic laparoscopy.
Complications:- The following may happen:-
1. Formation of the tubo-ovarian cyst.
3. Infection from the gut.
4. Rupture of tubes.
5. The spread of infection to other areas of the body, including the uterus and ovaries.
5. Long-term pelvic and abdominal pain.
6. Tubal scarring, adhesions, and blockages, which can lead to infertility.
7. Abscesses in the fallopian tubes.
8. Ectopic pregnancy.
General Treatment:- Treatment depends on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Antibiotics - to kill the infection, which is successful in around 85 percent of cases.
2. Hospitalization - including intravenous administration of antibiotics.
3. Surgery - if the condition resists drug treatment.
Homeopathic remedies for salpingitis are Cimcifuga racemosa, lachesis, merc. Sol, pulsatilla, platina, sepia, silicea, selenium met.
The main reason behind indigestion is stress due to which relapses occur -
* Do exercise 5 days/week for 40 min (including breathing exercises).
* Discuss about your problems with doctor or friends or family members.
* Stop overthinking and live happily.
* Never drink water after meals atleast for 40 min.
* Always drink water with sips.
Trichomoniasis is one of the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted infections. It generally happens on account of having multiple sexual partners or not using condoms and other protective measures during sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal).
Trichomoniasis leads to a foul smelling vaginal discharge and other symptoms that include spotting/bleeding, painful urination, itching in the vaginal region, all of them resulting in painful sexual intercourse. The single- celled protozoa (pathogen) causing this infection is Trichomonas vaginalis.
The most common symptoms among women are:
- vaginal discharge, which can be white, gray, yellow, or green, and usually frothy with an unpleasant smell
- vaginal spotting or bleeding
- genital burning or itching
- genital redness or swelling
- frequent urge to urinate
- pain during urination or sexual intercourse
The most common symptoms in men are:
- discharge from the urethra
- burning during urination or after ejaculation
- an urge to urinate frequently
Treatment Options for Trichomoniasis-
The treatment options for Trichomoniasis can be categorized as follows:
Antibiotics such as ‘Tinidazole’ or metronidazole can be administered.
It is advisable not to consume alcohol within the first 24 hours of being administered ‘metronidazole’ and the first 72 hours of being administered tinidazole as it can lead to severe vomiting and nausea.
Metronidazole is strictly advised against during pregnancy as it can harm the baby.
The preventive measures include:
Indulging in safe sex is the best way to prevent Trichomoniasis.
Condoms should be used by both the male and the female partners during a sexual intercourse (anal or vaginal).
Sharing sex toys is another big ‘NO’ as the carriers of various STDs may spread through their common usage.
If a person has already been infected by Trichomoniasis then abstaining from sex is the safest option to prevent it from spreading.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the biggest issues around the world. Most women with polycystic ovary syndrome can expect to gain excess weight, facial hair growth, pimple on face and irregular periods. Obese and overweight females are more prone to it. It can be cured with a healthy diet and exercise. You should include more fibre-rich foods in your diet.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) occurs when a person inhales infectious bacteria along with air that passes through lungs via respiratory tract. One of the main causes of these respiratory infections is Air Pollution.
According to the WHO survey, among 1600 world cities, the quality of air in Delhi/NCR is one of the worst. Many studies have also shown that air pollution increases the risk of URTI; as these infections occur due to the inhalation of harmful pollutants like SO2, NO2,O3, and PM particles mixed with air.
One of the recent reports shows that this season has a great chance for smog. Smog also plays a role in increasing the risk of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.
- Rhinitis: Rhinitis occur when the nasal cavity of the body gets inflamed.
- Sinusitis and Rhinosinusitis: Commonly called as Sinus infection; such infection inflames the sinuses.
- Nasopharyngitis or Common Cold: This is one of the most common problems that causes inflammation of pharynx, nares, hypopharynx, tonsils, and uvula
- Pharyngitis: This causes inflammation of uvula, tonsils, and epiglottis.
- Epiglottitis and Laryngitis: Epiglottitis causes inflammation of epiglottis whereas Laryngitis infect larynx.
- Laryngotracheitis: This inflames both larynx and trachea.
Is Homeopathy Helpful for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection?
Yes, out of many standard and alternative medicines, Homeopathy is one of the most adequate ways for the treatment of URTI. It is helpful in treating many symptoms of URTI. Apart from treatment, it also provides strength to the Immune System of the body so that these infections inhibit the bacteria to infect the body in the future.
Facts about treating URTI with Homoeopathy:
- Best for Common Cold: When it comes to Common Cold, Homeopathy is the best treatment. It provides relief from the blockage of nose, burning sensation, and itching.
- Homeopathy Inhibits Infection: Homeopathy helps a person who is suffering from sneezing and coughing. There are many medicines which help kill bacteria in the body.
- No Side Effects: The best thing about these medicines is that they help treat Upper Respiratory Tract Infections without any side effect.
How to Prevent Air Pollutants That Cause Upper Respiratory Tract Infection?
These are the preventive measures which one can take to prevent themselves from URTI:
- Wear protection masks before going out from home.
- Decrease the usage of vehicles.
- Use Biogas.
- Plant more indoor plants for more oxygen.
- Keep a neat and clean environment.
- Apply cream near the Nostrils.
- Wash face frequently
- Consume Jaggrey in appropriate amount after coming from outside.
- Take vitamin C supplements.
- Inhale steam and gargle with salt water.
The deteriorating air quality of Delhi/NCR may lead to many respiratory infections, which is why it is our responsibility that we take some serious measures about air pollution and prevent URTI.
Having a surgery, big or small, will subject your body to a certain degree of pain. Post operative care, hence, is of paramount importance. You'll have a surgical wound where the surgeon makes the incision. To ensure it heals quickly and reduce your chances of an infection, it is important you care for your wound area and keep a regular check for unusual signs and symptoms.
Let us take a step back to understand the normal process on how a wound heals. At first, there will be inflammation during the first week when blood flow to your wound increases. This is a crucial care period as your wound is still fresh. The second phase is proliferation where new blood vessels and tissue begin to grow around the area. The third and final phase is maturation where new cells develop to strengthen the wound and soften the scar. Depending on the location and size of your wound, your surgeon may have used stitches (medically called sutures), metal clips or staples and adhesive dressings, tapes or glue. Stitches, clips and staples are usually removed between three and 14 days after your treatment.
1.Change your dressing regularly: Most patients are called to the hospital at regular intervals during the first week for a two or three dressing changes. The nurse or doctor ensures a sterile environment during the process. If you find your dressing falling off late night and can't go to the hospital, you can wash your hands thoroughly and open a new sterile dressing package and apply on your wound. At all times, touch only the edges of your old / new dressing.
2.General care for your incision site: Keep the incision site as clean and dry as possible. Keep it covered with plastic during a shower if it is on your hands or legs or take a sponge bath until you get a green signal from your doctor. Protect the incision from sunlight. Some incisions may get itchy as they heal. This is quite common but it is important not to scratch your incision during this period.
3.Eating and drinking properly to heal quickly: Vitamin C and protein are important to aid wound healing. Eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of variety including lean meat, fish, eggs, dairy, and fruit and vegetables. Make sure that you drink enough water because if you're dehydrated, your wound may take longer to heal.
4.Look for signs of infection: The common signs of an infection are redness, swelling, unusual drainage, warmth around the incision site
increased pain or tenderness at the incision, incision opens up or a fever of more than 100.4 degrees F.
Menstrual disorders are caused by a variety of factors and affect every woman in a different manner. In most cases, it manifests itself in the form of fluctuations in menstrual flow and irregularity in the monthly cycle. Certain disorders are not too severe and can be easily alleviated. Others are more complicated and require the immediate attention of a gynecologist.
As mentioned, there are different specific causes of different kinds of disorders resulting from a range of factors such as hormone levels, functioning of the central nervous system, health of the uterus, etc.
Some of the most common causes of menstrual disorders are as follows:
Fluctuating hormone levels in the body have a direct impact on the menstrual cycle. These fluctuations can be caused by dysfunction in the pituitary gland, thyroid gland or adrenal gland. It can also be a result of malfunction in either or both ovaries and the secretion of hormones originating there.
- Anatomic problems
One fourth menstrual disorders are caused by problems of the anatomy. These include various gynecological issues like the presence of uterine fibroids and polyps, reduced uterine contractile strength, adenomyosis (intrusion of uterine tissue into the muscular wall of the uterus), a uterus with an excessively large surface area, and endometrial cancer.
- Clotting irregularities
Abnormality in clotting is a cause of heavy menstrual bleeding in women. It leads to exceeding blood loss from minor cuts and gashes and makes one easily prone to bruising. This may also include medical conditions such as thrombocytopenia (platelet dysfunction) and Von Willebrand disease.
- Medications and supplements
There is a wide range of medications and nutritional or hormonal supplements which often cause menstrual disorders in women and lead to fluctuations in the menstrual cycle. These include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, estrogen pills, Vitamin E supplements etc.
- Miscellaneous factors
These are comparatively rare and require a greater degree of medical attention. It includes conditions such as cervical cancer, ovarian tumors, liver and kidney diseases, uterine infections, extreme psychological stress, obesity, etc. Incidents such as miscarriages and unsuspected pregnancies are also known to cause abnormal menstrual bleeding.
Here are the treatment options for menstrual disorders:
Every women faces menstrual disorders at least once in their lifetime. There are various treatments for the same depending on the type of irregularity and certaain lifestyle factors.
Treatment for menstrual disorders, such as absent periods, infrequent periods and irregular periods, include:
1. Oral contraceptives
2. Cyclic progestin
3. Treatments for an underlying disorder that is causing the menstrual problem
The treatment for menstrual irregularities, such as heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, include:
1. Insertion of a hormone-releasing intrauterine device
2. Use of various medications (such as those containing progestin or tranexamic acid) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications
If the problem is structural or medical management had done ne benefit, then the following treatments may be considered:
1. Surgical removal of polyps or uterine fibroids
2. Uterine artery embolization, a procedure to block blood flow to the uterus
3. Endometrial ablation, a procedure to cauterize (remove or close off by burning) blood vessels in the endometrial lining of the uterus
Treatment for dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, include:
1. Applying a heating pad to the abdomen
2. Taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications
3. Taking contraceptives, including injectable hormone therapy or birth control pills, using varied or less common treatment regimens
Eczema of the scalp, which results in itching, flaking, or crusting of the scalp, is called scalp peeling or is commonly referred to as “dandruff”. This condition causes increased shedding of normal scalp skin cells. Dandruff may also be caused by a fungal infection, other than just dehydration of the scalp.
The causes of an extremely dry scalp, thereby causing dandruff or even bigger flakes falling from the head onto shoulders and clothes, may be due to scalp psoriasis, eczema, poor nutrition, generalized dehydration, exposure to too much direct heat, and using too much of shampoo.
The three types of dandruff that need to be treated are those resulting from fungal growth, dry scalp and the one resulting from product build-up.
- Fungal growth: This kind of dandruff is a chronic condition, caused by increased oil content on the scalp or an off-balance pH of the scalp. It may also be due to poor cleansing habits, or even an allergic reaction to the hair products one uses. Try switching shampoos, conditioners, or styling products to sulfate-free formulas to cure this condition.
- Dry scalp: Sometimes, the skin of the scalp is literally so parched and dry that it is flaky and falls away like snakeskin. People with this kind of dandruff usually have drier hair and notice a tightness in their scalp. To treat dry-scalp dandruff, it is wise to indulge one’s hair with moisturizing and hydrating shampoos, cut down on or space out harsh chemical treatments like relaxers, permanents, or dyes, and take in more moisture from the inside - drink at least 8 eight-ounce glasses of water a day, and your skin (including your scalp) will show you results that you want. Eliminating sulfates from your shampoos or other hair care products will also help with dry scalp, since these ingredients help strip away natural oils. Brushing hair or massaging the scalp - either with bare fingertips or a few drops of oil - is another great treatment, since massage helps stimulate circulation and bring blood, nutrients, and oxygen to the scalp and hair.
- Product buildup: The most common type of dandruff is due to product buildup. This is what happens when people with otherwise healthy manes and scalps use too many styling products, such as layering gels, hair serum, hairspray, wrap lotions, scalp oils, heat-protecting serum, and so on. Dandruff caused by product buildup usually looks more like small clumps or balls of dirt. It may have a brownish color, since all those products attract and trap plenty of dirt and sweat. Product-buildup dandruff also tends to appear sporadically, only when hair is in need of a wash, whereas other types of dandruff show up more quickly and regularly.
To treat this kind of dandruff, one should wash hair more often or simply aim for using minimum chemical-rich hair products.
The available eggs in the ovaries at a time are collectively called an ovarian reserve. Low reserve happens when the production of eggs reduces. This affects the chances of pregnancy. The general cause of low reserves can be aging ovaries. In such cases, the ovary may be healthy and functioning even if the reserve is low. Production of eggs lower as a woman ages. A woman starts with 250,00 to 500,000 eggs at puberty and ends up with 1000 eggs at menopause.
Low reserves are caused by
- Production of eggs decreases: Chromosomal abnormalities like Turner syndrome (lack of two X chromosomes) and genetic anomalies like Fragile X can decrease egg production.
- Ovarian tissue damage: Rough torsion, endometriosis triggered ovarian cysts, malignant or benign tumours, surgical removal of ovary or any other part of it, chemotherapy or radiation, pelvic adhesions, immunological problems or high BMI (Body Mass Index) can destroy the ovarian tissues.
If a woman has low ovarian reserves, then she will be put on the either of the following protocols:
- Short GnRHa Flare: Gonadotrophin releasing-hormone-agonist (GnRHa) like Lupron, Nafarelin, Synarel or Buserelin is administered. This therapy is initiated at the onset of menstruation. The goal of the treatment is to stimulate the release of the follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) which augments the ovarian follicular growth.
- Combined Clomiphene or Gonadotrophin/Letrozole Stimulation: Older women are mostly administered this protocol. But it is strongly advised not to, as this protocol can potentially harm the egg or the embryo.
- Mid-follicular GnRH-antagonist protocol: Once the GnRHa-agonist protocol is commenced, the GnRH-antagonist is given several days later. Once the follicles reach the size of 12mm, GnRHa antagonists like Ganirelix, Orgalutran, Cetrotide and Cetrorelix are added. These drugs stop the pituitary from secreting the luteinizing hormone (FSH leads to secretion of this hormone).
- Long GnRHa Pituitary Down Regulation Protocol: This is the usual approach to deal with low ovarian reserves.
- Agonist/Antagonist Conversion Protocol: This protocol inhibits FSH production. This protocol generally yields good results.
Are you aware of the function of appetite hormones in your body? Appetite hormones or hunger hormones are the hormones which are responsible for making you feel hungry, and also account for a decreased appetite, which is common for all of us at times.
Leptin and Ghrelin are the two primary appetite hormones, which are produced in your body.
Ghrelin is your body’s appetite increasing hormone, which gets released in the stomach. It is responsible for signaling hunger to your brain. It is said that the ghrelin levels in your body play an important role in how quickly you feel hungry after having a meal. Usually, the ghrelin levels increase before you eat. This signifies that you are hungry. They go down for almost three hours after your meal. It is believed that ghrelin plays a more important role in the regulation of your body weight, which is a much more complex procedure.
Among the two appetite hormones, leptin accounts for being the appetite suppressing hormone. It is considered to play a more important role than ghrelin in maintaining the energy balance of your body. It is also believed that leptin is responsible for the regulation of ghrelin. Leptin helps in signaling the brain that your body has enough energy in the form of body fat. It is considered that the more fat you have, the more amount of leptin is present in your blood. However, the level varies based on factors such as when you took your last meal, and your sleeping patterns.
How to control your hunger hormones?
There are certain ways by which you can control your appetite hormones. It can be done primarily by avoiding food items that contain high fat. When you eat, messages are transmitted to several parts of your body, indicating that you have had enough. While consuming fatty food, this system does not send messages as effectively. Consuming fat makes you consume more calories, which in turn lets you store fat and gain fat.
It has been proven that either a diet which is rich in good carbohydrates or a diet which is high in protein, suppresses your ghrelin production more effectively than a high fat diet. It is important for you to get proper sleep for controlling your appetite hormones. Studies prove that sleep deprivation is associated with an increase in your ghrelin levels, appetite, and hunger, compared to people who get 10 hours sleep on a regular basis.