Book Clinic Appointment with Dr. Akhila Kumar Panda
Treatment of Headaches
Treatment of Forgetfulness
Treatment of Epilepsy
Treatment of Nerve Pain
Treatment of Tremors
Treatment of Brain Hemorrhage
Treatment of Neurological Problems
Treatment of Schizophrenia
Treatment of Brain Injury
Treatment of Spasmodic Torticollis
Treatment of Nerve And Muscle Disorders
Treatment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Treatment of Hyperactivity Disorder
Treatment of Paralysis
Treatment of Hyperactivity
Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
Treatment of Meningitis
Treatment of Stroke
Treatment of Seizures
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Patient Review Highlights
Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones. Mention that 6th February is International epilepsy day.
Causes of Epilepsy
The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.
- Repeated seizures
- Impaired memory
- Bouts of fainting
- Short spans of blackout
- Sudden bouts of blinking and chewing
- Inappropriate repetitive movements
Types of Seizures
A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.
There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters.
- Idiopathic: This kind of seizure has no apparent cause
- Cryptogenic: The doctors believe that there is a cause for the seizure but cannot detect it
- Symptomatic: These seizures occur due to a reason.
- Medication: Medication is the most common treatment in case of epilepsy. Drugs taken on a regular basis can stop the seizure partially. But in very severe cases, they seem to have no effect at all.
- Surgery: For symptomatic seizures which are caused due to abnormal brain function, surgery can be a way to get rid of seizures. In some minor cases, nerve stimulation in the brain and special diets can be prescribed to control the epileptic seizures.
Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:
- Epilepsy is not psychosis or madness and can be treated easily
- Popular celebraties with epilepsy include Aristotle, Alfred Nobel, Alexander the great, Sir Isaacs Newton, Martin Luther and Julius Caesar etc.
- Woman with epilepsy can have a normal pregnancy
- Newer medicines for epilepsy are effective and very safe
- Surgery can cure epilepsy in some patients.
Multiple Sclerosis or MS is an ailment that is mainly caused due to the degeneration of nerves in the body. The central nervous system is the main area affected by multiple sclerosis and it has been diagnosed that it occurs more in women than men. The main areas that are affected include optic nerves, brain, and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis in other words also means scar tissues in multiple areas. There are 4 types of multiple sclerosis which include clinically isolated syndrome, relapse remitting, primary progressive, and secondary progressive.
Causes of Multiple Sclerosis
- Multiple sclerosis is regarded as an autoimmune disorder and its exact cause is not known by the doctors. The disease causes demyelination of the brain cells and spinal cord.
- People in the age group of 15-60 are the ones affected by this disease. According to scientists, the four main factors that cause this disease are virus, genetic, environmental and immunological.
- It is a long-lasting disease that causes disturbances in the body functions.
- The condition is examined by the doctors by checking the patient’s medical history, conducting neurological exams, and imaging scans.
- The spinal fluid analysis is also a procedure that can rule out the possibility of multiple sclerosis.
Symptoms Caused by Multiple Sclerosis
- Some of the symptoms that are caused due to this disease include impaired coordination, pain, vision loss, and fatigue.
- The nerves in our body are coated with myelin sheath that protects the nerves.
- The myelin sheath also aids in the conduction of impulses all through the body.
- Inflammation is caused due to multiple sclerosis which eventually results in thinning and destroying of the sheath.
- The nerve without a coating is left with a scratch and this results in the nerve not functioning properly.
- Severe chronic symptoms are faced by patients so at times pain occurs in the eyes and back. In some patients the symptoms are mild thus the disease is not noticed in the early stages.
- The main symptoms include problems with thinking, memory, muscle weakness, numbness, and tingling. Many people even find trouble in walking due to multiple sclerosis.
Effects of Multiple Sclerosis
- The main effects of multiple sclerosis include problems like frequent urination or difficulty in emptying the bladder completely.
- It can also cause bowel problems, sexual dysfunction, vertigo, dizziness, fatigue, tremor, muscle spasms, depression, emotional changes, and inflammation of the optic nerve.
- The lesser known symptoms include swallowing problems, speech disorders, hearing loss, itching, breathing problems, and headache.
- It is an unpredictable disease and people are affected by this disease in different ways. In the early stages, it occurs as a subtle sensation for many people.
When particular nerve cells in the brain don't function properly, it leads to epilepsy, which is a common brain disorder. There are several variants of epilepsy, and the one that you are suffering from would play a major role in the type of seizure you are likely to have. Here are the two most common type of seizures:
Common types of Seizures:
- Generalized seizures: This type of seizures take place when nerve cells on both sides of the brain start misfiring. They may lead to black out, fall or muscle spasms.
- Focal seizures: It starts in a particular area of the brain, and the names of the seizure are based on the affected area of the brain. They may lead to both emotional and physical effects which may affect the way a person feels or sees or hear things that have no real presence. In particular cases, the symptoms of focal seizures are regarded of some other kinds of mental or nervous disorder.
Seizures are not considered an either-or thing since some people tend to have a particular type of seizure which gradually alters its course. It is not always easy to classify certain types of seizures which are called unknown-onset seizures and may lead to both physical and sensory symptoms. Both focal and generalized seizures can be categorized into various groups. The most common are listed below:
Subcategories of focal and generalized seizures:
- Simple focal seizures: It may change how the senses read the surroundings of a person. It can make a familiar taste or smell appear strange. Some people feel dizzy or visualize flashes of light or make the affected individual feel nauseated or sweaty.
- Complex focal seizures: It normally happens when a part of the brain which controls emotion and memory gets affected. The affected person may feel awake even when he has lost consciousness. It can take several minutes for a person to come out of the problem.
Secondary generalized seizures: It starts when a part of the brain spreads to the nerve cells. They may lead to a few physical symptoms including muscle slackness and convulsions.
On the other hand, there are six variants of generalized seizures:
- Clinic seizure: The muscles tend to have spasms which make a face, neck, and arms jerk rhythmically. It can last for minutes together.
- Tonic-clonic seizure: These are the most notable type of seizures and leads to stiffening of the body, jerking and shaking along with the loss of consciousness. It can last between 1 to 3 minutes, and in case they go for a longer span, it is important to seek immediate medical attention. It may lead to breathing issues and may cause the person to bite his tongue or cheek.
- Tonic seizures: When the muscled in the legs or arms or trunk tense up for more than 20 seconds, it is called a tonic seizure. If the affected person is in standing position, he or she may end up falling.
Other types of generalized seizure include atonic seizure, absence seizure and myoclonic seizure which are commonly seen in people who have epilepsy.
Headaches and migraines can vary drastically depending on their duration, specific symptoms and the person they are affecting. The more you know about your specific type of headache or migraine, the better prepared you will be to treat them—and possibly even prevent them. The two types of migraine are-
- Migraine without aura: The majority of migraine sufferers have Migraine without Aura.
- Migraine with aura: Migraine with Aura refers to a range of neurological disturbances that occur before the headache begins, usually lasting about 20-60 minutes.
Symptoms of migraine vary and also depend on the type of migraine. A migraine has four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and postdrome. But it is not necessary that all the migraine sufferers experience all the four stages.
Prodrome: The signs of this begin to appear a day or two days before the headache starts. The signs include depression, constipation, food cravings, irritability, uncontrollable yawning, neck stiffness and hyperactivity.
Migraine Aura: Auras are a range of symptoms of the central nervous system. These might occur much before or during the migraine, but most people get a migraine without an aura. Auras usually begin gradually and increase in intensity. They last for an hour or even longer and are
- Visual: Seeing bright spots, various shapes, experiencing vision loss, and flashes of light
- Sensory: Present in the form of touch sensations like feeling of pins and needles in the arms and legs
- Motor: Usually related with the movement problems like the limb weakness
- Verbal: It is related with the speech problems
In case of a migraine attack one might experience:
- Pain on both sides or one side of the head
- Pain is throbbing in nature
- Vomiting and nausea
- Sensitivity to smells, sound and light
- Vision is blurred
- Fainting and lightheadedness
Postdrome: This is the final phase of the migraine. During this phase one might feel fatigued, though some people feel euphoric.
Red flags that the patient may be having underlying serious disorder not migraine
- Onset of headaches >50 years
- Thunderclap headache - subarachnoid haemorrhage
- Neurological symptoms or signs
- Immunosuppression or malignancy
- Red eye and haloes around lights - acute angle closure glaucoma
- Worsening symptoms
- Symptoms of temporal arteritis
Diagnosis of Migraine: Usually migraines go undiagnosed and thus are untreated. In case you experience the symptoms regularly then talk to the doctor, who evaluates the symptoms and can start a treatment. You can also be referred to a neurologist who is trained to treat the migraines and other conditions. During the appointment the neurologist usually asks about the family history of headaches and migraines along with your symptoms and medical history.
The doctor might advise for some tests like:
- Blood Tests: These reveal problems with the blood vessel like an infection in the spinal cord and brain.
- CT scan: Used to diagnose the infections, tumors, brain damage, and bleeding that cause the migraines.
- MRI: This helps to diagnose the tumors bleeding infections, neurological conditions, and strokes.
- Lumbar Puncture: For analyzing infections and neurological damages. In lumbar puncture a thin needle is inserted between the two vertebrae to remove a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid for analysis.
Migraine treatments can help stop symptoms and prevent future attacks.
Many medications have been designed to treat migraines. Some drugs often used to treat other conditions also may help relieve or prevent migraines. Medications used to combat migraines fall into two broad categories:
- Pain-relieving medications. Also known as acute or abortive treatment, these types of drugs are taken during migraine attacks and are designed to stop symptoms.
- Preventive medications. These types of drugs are taken regularly, often on a daily basis, to reduce the severity or frequency of migraines.
Your treatment strategy depends on the frequency and severity of your headaches, the degree of disability your headaches cause, and your other medical conditions.
Some medications aren't recommended if you're pregnant or breast-feeding. Some medications aren't given to children. Your doctor can help find the right medication for you.
A brain stroke can affect anyone at any point of time when the supply of blood to the brain is interrupted. It can threaten major physical functions and can prove to be fatally dangerous at times. The brain stem which is placed right above the spinal cord controls the breathing, heartbeat and levels of blood pressure. It is also in charge of controlling some elementary functions such as swallowing, hearing, speech and eye movements.
What are the different types of strokes?
There are three main kinds of stroke: ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes and transient ischemic attacks. The most common type of brain stroke is the ischemic stroke is caused by narrowing or blocking of arteries to the brain, which prevents the proper supply of blood to the brain. Sometimes it so happens that the blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body have travelled via the blood vessels and has been trapped in the blood vessel which provides blood to the brain. When the supply of blood to a part of the brain is hindered, the tissue in that area dies off owing to lack of oxygen. The other variant of brain stroke is termed as hemorrhagic stroke is caused when the blood vessels in and around the brain burst or leak. Strokes need to be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible in order to minimize brain damage. Remembering the F.A.S.T. acronym can help with recognizing the onset of stroke (Face, Arms, Speed, Time - explained below).
What are the common symptoms of a brain stroke?
The symptoms of the brain stroke are largely dependent on the area of the brain that has been affected. It can interfere with normal functioning, such as breathing and talking and other functions which human beings can perform without thinking such as eye movements or swallowing. Since all the signals from the brain as well as other parts of the body traverse through the brain stem, the interruption of blood flow often leads to numbness or paralysis in different parts of the body.
Who is likely to have a stroke?
Anyone is at a risk of developing brain stroke although ageing is directly proportional to the risk of having a stroke. Not only that an individual with a family history of brain stroke or transient ischemic attack is at a higher risk of developing stroke. People who have aged over 65 accounts for about 33 percent of all brain strokes. It is important to point here that individuals with high blood pressure, high blood sugar, cholesterol, cancer, autoimmune diseases and some blood disorders are at a higher risk of developing brain stroke.
There are a few factors which can increase the risk of developing stroke beyond any control. But there are certain lifestyle choices as well which aids in controlling the chances of being affected by stroke. It is crucial to refrain from long-term hormone replacement therapies as well as birth control pills, smoking, lack of physical activity, excessive use of alcohol and drug addiction. A brain stroke is a life-threatening medical condition, and when an individual has symptoms that resemble that of stroke, it is crucial to seek immediate medical help.
Treatment for stroke
- Treatment depends on the type of stroke.
- Ischemic strokes can be treated with 'clot-busting' drugs.
- Hemorrhagic strokes can be treated with surgery to repair or block blood vessel weaknesses.
- The most effective way to prevent strokes is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
What is TPA?
TPA is a thrombolytic or a “Clot Buster” drug. This clot buster is used to break-up the clot that is causing a blockage or disruption in the flow of blood to the brain and helps restore the blood flow to the area of the brain. It is given by intravenous (IV). This can be given only within 4.5 hrs of the onset of symptoms
Time is brain
- Remember Every second Loss means brain cells die.
- Rush to the nearest Stroke Centre whenever you experience such symptoms.
- U can save the brain cells dying if you reach within 4.5 hrs by the CLOT BUSTER.
Another treatment option is an endovascular procedure* called mechanical thrombectomy, strongly recommended, in which trained doctors try removing a large blood clot by sending a wired-caged device called a stent retriever, to the site of the blocked blood vessel in the brain
The good news is that 80 percent of all strokes are preventable. It starts with managing key risk factors, including
- High blood pressure,
- Cigarette smoking,
- Atrial fibrillation and
- Physical inactivity.
- More than half of all strokes are caused by uncontrolled hypertension or high blood pressure, making it the most important risk factor to control.
The best way to get better after a stroke is to start stroke rehabilitation ("rehab"). In stroke rehab, a team of health professionals works with you to regain skills you lost as the result of a stroke.
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurological, irreversible, progressive brain disorder. It is a chronic neurodegenerative dementia that causes the death of brain cells, causing memory loss and cognitive decline. It affects a person’s thinking and behavior. The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time passes.
As it is a kind of dementia, Alzheimer’s is caused by the death of brain cells. Over a course of time, brain cells die progressively and at the end, the tissue is left with fewer nerve cells and connections. As a result, the total brain size shrinks. Tiny inclusions called plaques and tangles can be seen in the postmortem. These cannot be seen or tested in a living Alzheimer’s affected brain. These plaques are given the name “amyloid plaques” because they are found among the dying cells of the brain when a protein called beta-amyloid builds. The tangles stay in the neurons; they are formed from a protein called tau.
There are several reasons behind all this, some of which are listed below-
- Anti-anxiety medications
- Hitting on the head too many times
- Regularly sleep-deprived
- Diabetes in the brain
- Old age
- Genetic line
- Down’s syndrome
- Cardiovascular diseases
Alzheimer’s disease damages the brain, so the clinical signs and symptoms begin to show very early. The symptoms are-
- Memory loss
- Agitation and mood swings
- Poor judgment
- The trouble with money calculations
- Difficulty doing familiar tasks
- Trouble in planning or solving a problem
- Confusion with time and place
- Difficulty in communicating
- Loss of motivation
- Inappropriate behavior
- Aggressive personality
- Childlike behavior
Preventing Alzheimer’s disease:
Alzheimer’s disease ultimately results in death. Even if there are treatments, they cannot fully cure it. So it’s better to try to prevent it before it happens. Ways to prevent Alzheimer’s disease are-
- Eating more fruits and vegetables.
- Eating berries every day.
- Increasing omega-3 fatty acids.
- Taking folic acid supplements.
- Drinking grape juice or red wine with evening meal.
- Doing the Mediterranean style diet.
- Controlling the blood pressure.
- Having strong social support.
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease:
- Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is a long time process.
- First of all, doctors perform a physical exam to check the overall neurological health. By this, they check muscle strength, reflexes, walking ability, sense of sight and hearing, coordination and balance.
- Then comes the blood test to find the cause of confusion and memory loss by checking the thyroid disorder and vitamin deficiency.
- Then they perform the neuropsychological test and check the mental status.
- Then there are other tests, like MRI, CT, and PET.
- After all this, drugs are given and a safe and supportive environment is created with proper exercise and nutrition.