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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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I want to do anal sex with my girlfriend for the first time. Can it lead to pregnancy and help how should I prevent it from pregnancy? Help me.
Hi, After taking proluton injection 250 mg for the 1st time during my 28th week of pregnancy Will I have to take it again after 1 to 2 weeks or it’s fine if I don’t and will deliver a baby after nine months? Or still any chance of still having a pre-term birth?
Hai, my sister she was 7 months pregnant in th month when we went for check up we have seen that her sugar levels was raised ,for confirmation glucose tolerance test was advised ,in this it was confirmed .so doctor advised to consult dietician and dietician .so my question will there is chance to control sugar level would baby have any problem, would birth will be healthy generally it is gestational diabetes ,aftr giving birth diabetes will control in mom.
Can medicines as diabetes bipolar disorder bp thyroid drugs be taken during pregnancy? Will they not affect the baby? If yes remedies to be taken.
Hi, Can I have sex in pregnancy if she got pregnant early/ month back. Please help me here Doctor's. How and how long in pregnancy with which precautions, when. I should do Please let me know the best possibilities. And how she should stay from now onwards. Pelase suggest something for that.
Hi. I would like to know the procedure for abortion for a girl (above 24 years) in india in her initial stages. Should parents have to give consent or how it is?
After carrying the baby for nine months and delivering it, the next big step for the mother is to learn to breastfeed. For a woman who has had her first delivery, this could be a thing that can scare her and put her at discomfort. In addition, some mothers can also experience physical pain, which is even more worrisome.
In the initial stages of breastfeeding, it is normal to have pain as the baby and the mother have not yet identified the correct method i.e. the mother in terms of holding the baby, while the baby in terms of latch correctly to get milk. However, in most cases, the mother detaches and repositions the baby. This often helps in relieving the pain and after some repetition of this exercise, both the mother and the baby would know the correct position.
Let down reflex, also called milk ejection reflex, is set off by hormone oxitocin which is released whenever your baby feeds, it stimulates muscle cells in your breast to squeeze milk and may cause pain. Oral thrush, which is a yeast infection, in baby's mouth, can cause sore nipples and pain. The baby’s oral features like a short mouth, short tongue, small chin, high palate, etc., can lead to improper suction and cause pain. However, this pain from suctioning will disappear within a couple of days. Another cause for breast pain could be engorgement. When the breasts are engorged, due to feeding after a long break, there is too much milk, which can cause pain as soon as the baby latches on. Pressing out some milk before the baby latches on can help reduce the pain. lmproper size of bra, too tight or too loose, can be a cause of breast pain.
Nipple pain, when exposed to cold weather, is another condition. This occurs due to constricted blood vessels and is known as Raynaud’s phenomenon. If required, pain medication can be taken, but this type of pain usually subsides.
Allergies such as poison ivy and eczema can also lead to nipple soreness. Even topical issues like use of creams, soaps and deodorants can cause soreness. These require no intervention and minute changes would usually suffice. It is important to remember that any medication taken can reach the baby during the breastfeeding and unless absolutely essential, it is best to avoid any medication for the mother. If a baby is being fed well after the 6th month of life, teething begins and this can be a cause for pain during breastfeeding.
In most cases, proper breastfeeding techniques usually take care of the issue. However, if there are other issues, for instance, the child’s oral features, they may require correction as they not only need to be addressed because of this problem, but also otherwise.
Using warm moist compresses is useful in soothing the pain. Empty the breast properly after feeding the baby. Try to avoid chemicals like Linolin, hydrogel, as far as possible, if applied to cracked nipples, clean it properly before feeding the baby. Applying freshly squeezed milk from the breast is another wonderful option, given its antibacterial properties. The warmth of wet tea bags may also give a soothing effect. Remember to avoid chemicals like lanolin or hydrogel, as this pain is a temporary issue and usually disappears over a period of time.
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In the current season, dengue is not the only cause of decrease in platelet counts. Other causes like malaria, other viral infections, Vitamin B12 and folate defiiency etc can also cause reduction in platelet counts. That said, dengue patients may also clinically present without any decrease in platelet counts.
It is well-known that thrombocytopenia ( reduction in platelet counts) is one of the critical parameters in patient management. Therefore, it is very important that laboratories assess platelet counts with utmost accuracy. The normal range of platelet count in a healthy adult individual is 150000 - 400000/μL. Babies and children have different reference ranges.compared to adults Therefore please check on the lab report for normal age wize reference range. A count of 1.5 lacs would be considered as normal in adults but would qualify as decreased count in a child.
Platelets can be counted either on automated machines( automated method) or on manual blood smear by pathologist.(manual method).
Generally hospitals and laboratories measure platelet counts on automated hematology analyzers- as .these are simple to use and give fast results.However, they suffer from a very big disadvantage. This disadvantage is based on the principle on which these machines work.The machines are programmed in such a manner that any blood particle falling within a predermined size range is counted as platelet and above this range is counted as red cell(RBC – which contains hemoglobin and is responsible for red colour of blood).Although this concept works well in majority of cases, but machine readings are seldom reliable , especially when platelet counts are below 30,000/ cmm. Giant platelets will be counted as RBCs and the machine will give a factitiously low reading of platelets. - Again , if the sample has not been properly mixed at the time of collection, platelets will stick and form clumps. Again the size of these clumps will be more than that of individual platelets and machine will count these as RBCs , thus give a falsely low platelet count. Also, if the sample is collected in a periphery and takes a lot of time to reach the main lab , by this time the platelets would have swelled up due to presence of additives in the blood tube, and not be counted in platelets.but as RBCs instead. (due to size factor)
So what is the solution, ?
All such cases, where platelets are reported low on analyzers, must be screened on peripheral smear by pathologist. Only on looking at the peripheral smear , will the pathologist be able to confirm whether the platelet counts are actually low or not.
Summary : The analyzer is reliable in majority of cases . However, for all cases with low platelets, manual screening by a pathologist is must for confirmation and to avoid unnecessary panic and unrequired platelet transfusions.