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Epilepsy is a neurological disease which is characterised by recurring epileptic seizures. These seizures can be brief or can persist for prolonged periods. Vigorous episodes which last long can result in physical injuries such as broken bones. Mention that 6th February is International epilepsy day.
Causes of Epilepsy
The cause of this condition isn’t very evident; however, most medical practitioners attribute epileptic seizures to brain injury, tumours, infections in the brain or birth defects. Some doctors believe that epilepsy is caused due to genetic mutations and is an outcome of abnormal activity of cells in the brain. Other causes for this condition can be alcohol or narcotics withdrawal and electrolyte problems.
- Repeated seizures
- Impaired memory
- Bouts of fainting
- Short spans of blackout
- Sudden bouts of blinking and chewing
- Inappropriate repetitive movements
Types of Seizures
A seizure, also known as fit, is usually a brief episode characterised by uncontrollable jerking movement and loss of awareness due to abnormal neuronal activity in your brain. A collective occurrence of these seizures causes epilepsy.
There are three types of seizures an epileptic person usually encounters.
- Idiopathic: This kind of seizure has no apparent cause
- Cryptogenic: The doctors believe that there is a cause for the seizure but cannot detect it
- Symptomatic: These seizures occur due to a reason.
- Medication: Medication is the most common treatment in case of epilepsy. Drugs taken on a regular basis can stop the seizure partially. But in very severe cases, they seem to have no effect at all.
- Surgery: For symptomatic seizures which are caused due to abnormal brain function, surgery can be a way to get rid of seizures. In some minor cases, nerve stimulation in the brain and special diets can be prescribed to control the epileptic seizures.
Five facts about epilepsy you need to know:
- Epilepsy is not psychosis or madness and can be treated easily
- Popular celebraties with epilepsy include Aristotle, Alfred Nobel, Alexander the great, Sir Isaacs Newton, Martin Luther and Julius Caesar etc.
- Woman with epilepsy can have a normal pregnancy
- Newer medicines for epilepsy are effective and very safe
- Surgery can cure epilepsy in some patients.
The symptoms of HIV vary from person to person. There are three main stages of HIV infections, where each stage has different symptoms.
Here are some facts about the three stages of HIV infections along with the accompanying symptoms.
Acute HIV Infection Stage: This is the first stage of HIV infection and after three to four weeks of becoming HIV infected, people experience symptoms, which are similar to flu. This flu usually does not last more than two weeks.
- Rashes on the body
- A sore throat
- Swelling of different glands
- Joint and muscle pain
- Improper digestion
These symptoms appear and indicate that the body is reacting to the HIV. Infected cells circulate throughout the blood, and the immune system produces HIV antibodies in order to attack the viruses. This process is termed as seroconversion, and it takes place within 45 days of getting infected. The levels of virus in your blood are quite high during this stage.
Clinical Latency Stage: This is the second stage of HIV infection, which follows the early stage. This stage is also known as chronic HIV stage. During this stage, HIV is active, but is reproduced at a very low level. People in this stage may not receive symptoms related to HIV or may get mild indications.
In case of people who do not take medicines for HIV treatment, this stage lasts for a long period. Some people, however, progress faster through this stage. Medicines should be taken to keep the virus in check. During this stage, people can transmit HIV to others very easily in spite of not experiencing any symptoms. People who are on medication stay suppressed virally and have a low level of HIV in their blood, and the risk of transmission is less.
Symptomic HIV infection or AIDS stage: This is the third stage of HIV infection, which is characterized by severe damage to the immune system of an HIV-virus affected person. A patient is likely to have serious infections and gets bacterial or fungal diseases. The infections are termed as opportunistic infections. The patient is now said to be having AIDS.
The symptoms of this stage are:
- Loss of weight
- Sweating at night
- Fevers and persistent coughing
- Problems in the mouth and skin
- Infections on a regular basis
- Illness and development of other diseases.
HIV infection affects the body via three stages and leads to AIDS in the third stage. Each stage is accompanied by several symptoms.
Influenza is more commonly known as the flu. It is an infection that affects the respiratory system and is caused by the influenza virus. This injection is recommended for kids who are under the age of 6 months. It ensures that the baby is safeguarded from the virus during an influenza outbreak. Since the nature of virus changes year on year, the immunity doesn’t last for more than 1 year. This vaccination is ideally taken during the month of October and November. The effect of the vaccination typically lasts for 6-8 months.
Ideally, kids who have never had a flu vaccination should take 2 vaccinations within 4 weeks. Kids who have received a shot of flu should undertake this vaccination once in a year. This arrangement is ideal up to 9 years of age. Flu shot is extremely important for a kid due to the following reasons:
- It saves a kid from chronic lung and heart disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis
- Kids suffering from immune deficiency, cancer, and HIV should take this vaccination to avoid further complication of the existing disease
- Kids suffering from diabetes, kidney diseases, and metabolic disorders should go for this vaccination without a second thought
- Kids suffering from a neurological disorder, haemoglobin deficiency, and anaemia should take this vaccination to refrain from the risk of aggravation of the present disease
- Pregnant women should ideally take it for the safeguarding the fetus
Flu shot should not be taken be taken if:
1. A baby is under the age of 6 months.
2. The baby has thimerosal allergy.
Is flu shot safe?
The flu shot is considered to be very safe. It does not result in flu. Few side effects include:
a. Soreness of the place where the needle is injected. This doesn’t last for more than a couple of day.
b. Body ache and mild fever for the first couple of days after the vaccination is done.
c. There is little to no pain in the place where the injection is injected by the doctor.
What is nasal flu vaccine?
This is an influenza dose that is not injected into the body, but given in the form of nasal spray. Healthy kids above the age of 2 years are fit to get this injection. For those kids who have a history of chronic illness should check with their doctor to go ahead with nasal spray. Each dose is given in each nostril. Like the influenza vaccine, nasal flu vaccine should be undertaken once for those who have already taken this dose once. Kids who have not undergone this vaccination are eligible for 2 dosages each 4 weeks apart from each other.
2 day ago I masturbate since then my testis got swelled little bit and little bit pain is there also. What should I do.
I am 29 year old and from last few months some time I got redness like inflammation in my penis gland mainly after sex. Itching and I also got tightened penis foreskin. Please help what to do.
I had an issue of excess gas production and frequent bowel movement with semi solid stool. I visited my college doctor, who prescribed norflox tz twice a day after meal, along with unienzyme thrice after meal. For 3 days and a pan d in the morning at empty stomach. Is it a fine diagnosis of medication? Since I don't have a doctor near home. Today is the 2nd day of the course of medication, though the gas formation has stopped but the stool is still semi solid though frequency is normal now. Kindly suggest. Thanks.
An unhealthy diet is an absolute no in daily life to remain healthy, fit and without any disease. Unhealthy diets fail to give the body the correct amounts and varieties of proteins and nutrients for a maximum proper health.
Too many intakes of calories lead to an unhealthy diet, which also increases blood pressure. It leads to a very poor calorie ratio-to-nutrient that leads to gain weight and also leads to malnutrition along with various health problems. Unhealthy diets cause chronic disease, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
Therefore, unhealthy eating habits should be avoided and strongly abandoned.
Why Avoid Unhealthy Diet?
- It causes obesity. Increased intake of nutrient-dense foods like fruits, sugar, processed carbohydrates and animal fat leads to obesity.
- Nutrient deficiency is another harmful effect of following an unhealthy diet.
- Illness is another factor. Poor intake of nutrition leads to diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Lack of calcium weakens the bones, lack of vitamin A and C suppress the body immune system leaving a person vulnerable to diseases.
- Increases the risk of coronary artery disease as unhealthy diet contributes to building up of plaque in the coronary arteries which can cause heart attacks.
Coronary Heart Disease - A Serious Issue!
It is a disease which leads to plaque building inside the coronary arteries, which supply rich oxygen blood to the human heart muscle. Over time the plaques either hardened or get ruptured and hardened plaque restricts the coronary arteries, which reduce the oxygen flow to the heart. On the other hand, if the plaque is ruptured blood is formed on its surface which also narrows the coronary artery and restricts the blood flow. And if the blood flow is blocked or reduced, then it might lead to Angina and heart attacks leading to loss of life. Angina causes chest pain it can also cause pain in the neck, back or arms. It is a state where one gets a feeling of indigestion.
Changes in lifestyle, eating habits, intake of medicines and its procedures helps to prevent this disease. These steps can also reduce the chances of health problems. Therefore, a proper healthy diet is a must in a person’s routine because it serves as one of the links to coronary heart diseases. In order to live long, live healthily and live happily one needs to adopt a good eating habit, take care of the medicines they intake, certain input time of exercise, change the monotonous lifestyle to lessen down the chances of their occurrence. Adopting healthy food habits also enables the body to fight against diseases and infections, reducing the rate of illness. It also reduces stress and provides a good healthy and happy life.
Lack of sleep can make you feel tired, worn-out and less productive the next day. However, it might not be your fault entirely because the brain tends to become active when the body is at rest, which could be a reason why you aren’t getting enough sleep at night.
Keep your room dark: Even the faintest light from your mobile is enough to disrupt your sleep. Thus, try and switch off all your lights and gadgets before going to sleep. If doing that doesn’t help either, use an eye mask to keep the light out.
Carefully select your dinner: Don’t go to bed hungry or overstuffed because either of them might cause discomfort while sleeping and lead to a disruption in your sleep. Also, limit your alcohol consumption at night to refrain from making numerous trips to the washroom. Avoid consuming nicotine and caffeine before going to bed as they take a long time to wear off and can cause havoc in your sleep routine.
Don’t exercise before going to bed: Exercising daily is a necessity as it keeps your body healthy and in shape, but exercising right before going to bed can be disruptive as it might make you more pumped up due to the adrenaline rush. Thus, you should avoid exercising heavily right before going to bed.
Plug out all your devices: Create a technology free zone by plugging out all your devices one hour prior to your usual sleep time. The blue light radiated from your devices can trick your brain into believing that it is daylight and cause a disruption in circadian rhythm (which is an ongoing 24-hour physiological process which is regulated by external factors such as sunlight and temperature).
Consume snooze food: Certain food items can be classified as snooze foods as they ensure better sleep at night. Warm milk contains ‘tryptophan’ which is a precursor to melatonin (hormone that is responsible for the onset of sleep) and ensures better sleep or you could have a spoon of honey which releases ‘orexin’ (a chemical that affects wakefulness and appetite) that reduces alertness levels.