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HCG Bangalore Institute Of Oncology Speciality Centre

Multi-speciality Hospital (Anesthesiologist, General Surgeon & more)

# 44 - 45/2, 2nd Cross, Shanthinagar, Off Double Road, Raja Rammohan Roy Extension Bangalore
16 Doctors · ₹0 - 700
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HCG Bangalore Institute Of Oncology Speciality Centre Multi-speciality Hospital (Anesthesiologist, General Surgeon & more) # 44 - 45/2, 2nd Cross, Shanthinagar, Off Double Road, Raja Rammohan Roy Extension Bangalore
16 Doctors · ₹0 - 700
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About

We will always attempt to answer your questions thoroughly, so that you never have to worry needlessly, and we will explain complicated things clearly and simply....more
We will always attempt to answer your questions thoroughly, so that you never have to worry needlessly, and we will explain complicated things clearly and simply.
More about HCG Bangalore Institute Of Oncology Speciality Centre
HCG Bangalore Institute Of Oncology Speciality Centre is known for housing experienced Radiologists. Dr. Sathish M R, a well-reputed Radiologist, practices in Bangalore. Visit this medical health centre for Radiologists recommended by 99 patients.

Timings

MON, WED-THU
08:00 AM - 07:00 PM
TUE, FRI
08:00 AM - 06:00 PM
SAT
08:30 AM - 07:00 PM

Location

# 44 - 45/2, 2nd Cross, Shanthinagar, Off Double Road, Raja Rammohan Roy Extension
Shanthi Nagar Bangalore, Karnataka - 560027
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Doctors

Dr. Sathish M R

MBBS, DNB - Radio Theraphy, Fellowship in Interventional Radiology
Radiologist
16 Years experience

Dr. Ganesh Nayak

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, DABS
Cardiologist
51 Years experience
300 at clinic
Available today
10:00 AM - 07:00 PM
300 at clinic
Available today
04:00 PM - 06:00 PM
700 at clinic
Available today
08:30 AM - 01:30 PM
500 at clinic
Available today
10:00 AM - 04:00 PM

Dr. N.K.Vinod

MBBS
Anesthesiologist
500 at clinic
Available today
10:00 AM - 04:00 PM
Available today
09:00 AM - 04:00 PM
Available today
08:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Available today
10:00 AM - 06:00 PM

Dr. Krithika. M

MBBS
General Surgeon
Available today
09:30 AM - 04:00 PM

Dr. Naveen T

MBBS
Oncologist
Available today
04:30 PM - 06:00 PM
Available today
10:00 AM - 06:00 PM
Available today
02:30 PM - 05:00 PM
Available today
10:00 AM - 06:00 PM

Dr. K R Madhava

MBBS
Oncologist
Available today
02:30 PM - 04:00 PM
Available today
10:00 AM - 06:00 PM
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Keep Track Of Your Obesity And Avoid The Health Risks Associated With Obesity!

MAMC, MRCPCH, MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Noida
Keep Track Of Your Obesity And Avoid The Health Risks Associated With Obesity!

The word obesity in itself isn't a very pleasant sound. Being one of the most common problems in the world, it is become an epidemic in recent years. The best way to deal with it is to control it and to understand the symptoms and causes of obesity, one must know what exactly obesity is. Although there are multiple definitions of obesity, in general, obesity indicates weight that is greater than what is considered healthy. Even though a certain amount of body fat is necessary for storing energy, heat insulation, and shock absorption, an excess amount of body fat leads to obesity.

Causes of Obesity
A person’s weight is determined by a balance between calorie intake and energy expenditure. The body stores the excess calories in the form of body fat. The hormone leptin is responsible for the mechanism of fat regulation. If a person is suffering from leptin deficiency, then he can suffer from obesity. Also, diseases such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovary syndrome contribute severely to obesity. Furthermore, body weight is determined by several factors such as an individual’s genetics, diet, metabolism, environment, culture, and behavior.

Obesity and Associated Health Risks
Obesity is not merely a cosmetic consideration but is also very harmful to a person’s health. Life expectancy is significantly reduced for people with BMI over 40. Obesity leads to insulin resistance which is a pre-diabetes condition that often leads to Type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes.Another major health risk of obesity is high blood pressure. Most obese people suffer from hypertension and increase in blood pressure is found more commonly in women than in men as a result of weight gain. Other health risks of obesity are cholesterol, stroke, heart attack and various forms of cancer such as breast and colon cancer.

How is Obesity Diagnosed?
Your doctor will give you a series of tests to confirm if you are obese. He will analyze your medical history taking into account your weight history, eating and exercise habits, your family’s health history, heart rate, and examination of heart, lungs, and abdomen.

Obesity is generally measured by calculating the body mass index (BMI). Body mass index takes into consideration a person’s height and weight as the two determining factors to calculate an individual’s appropriate weight. Body mass index is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) by their height in meters (m) squared. BMI shows high correlation with body fat content in adults since it exhibits a ratio between weight and height.

A full-grown adult with a BMI ranging from 25-29.9 is considered overweight while an adult with BMI over 30 is considered obese. An individual with BMI ranging from 18.5-24.9 is of normal weight. Waist circumference is measured to know the amount of abdominal or visceral fat stored around your waist. Women with over 35 inches waist circumference and men with over 40 inches waist circumference are prone to high risks of contracting diabetes and heart ailments.

It is a good practice to measure your BMI and Waist circumference once in a year. If they are more than the normal, it is best to consider a physician to get diagnosed with obesity and plan the best treatment option.

Dry & Itchy Skin - 9 Most Important Tips You Must Follow!

MBBS, Diploma In Dermatology And Venerology And Leprosy (DDVL), DNB dermatology
Dermatologist, Gurgaon
Dry & Itchy Skin - 9 Most Important Tips You Must Follow!

Are you suffering from dry, stretched, itchy or flaky skin? Remember dry skin look older than oily skin, as they show fine lines and wrinkles faster. They also flake, crack and bleed easily. Read on for 10 super easy steps recommended by dermatologists to soothe dry skin

Prevent hot baths and showers which dehydrate skin further. Do these instead for dry skin

  1. Use warm water
  2. Don’t shower for more than 5 minutes
  3. Wash with a gentle and fragrance-free soap
  4. Don’t apply too much soap so that it whips up a thick lather
  5. Don’t rub your skin dry with a towel

Post bath routine

  1. Slather on a rich moisturiser after drying your skin: Moisturisers trap extra moisture in your skin so the right time to use them is immediately after drying yourself with a towel. It’s better to use ointments and creams as these are more effective than lotions. Creams with olive and jojoba oil, Shea butter, lactic acid, urea, hyaluronic acid, dimethicone, glycerin, lanolin, mineral oil, and petrolatum jelly all are good. If the skin on your hand is extra dry and feels stretched then it’s a good idea to carry a non-greasy hand cream with you. Apply it to each washing hands immediately to relieve dry skin.
  2. Use only unscented skin care products: Shun harsh skin products which strip natural oils from skin like-
    • Deodorant soaps
    • Skin care products that contain fragrances, alcohol, retinoids, or alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA)
  3. Wear gloves when washing utensils: This will prevent dry skin on hands. All you have to do is wear latex gloves before you start washing clothes and utensils.
  4. Choose laundry detergent with care: Laundry detergents should be chosen with care as they can irritate skin. Go for detergents labelled “hypoallergenic”.
  5. Avoid toasting yourself by the fireplace or other heat sources in winters: Remember heat is drying. So limit your time in front of a hot stove or fireplace.
  6. Use humidifiers to add moisture to indoor air: Use of humidifier will help prevent excessive drying of skin.
  7. Use milk on skin: Milk is packed with anti-inflammatory and soothing properties that can fight dry and itchy skin. The lactic acid in milk also exfoliates dead skin cells and increases the capacity of your skin to retain moisture.
  8. Honey: Honey is one of the best natural moisturisers. It comes loaded with antioxidants and antimicrobials.
  9. Yogurt: Yogurt is a skin-hydrating agent par excellence. Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties also help soothe dry and itchy skin.


If these things don’t work in alleviating skin dryness, you may require a prescription cream, so see a dermatologist.

What Are The Symptoms and Treatment for Coronary Artery Disease?

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Cardiology
Cardiologist, Jaipur
What Are The Symptoms and Treatment for Coronary Artery Disease?

Your heart is the most important and vital organ of all and regulates the flow of heart to all parts of the body. Thus, the valves and the arteries which take the blood to your heart are also an important component in ensuring that the circulation is constant. Thus, any hindrance to this process will put a lot of pressure on your heart and lead to more serious problems in the long run. Coronary artery disease is one such problem and can seriously put the health of your heart at risk.

What is coronary heart disease?
Coronary arteries are very important blood vessels, which carry nutrients, blood and oxygen to your heart. If the level of bad cholesterol is high in your blood, it will start leaving deposits on the walls of the arteries which are commonly known as plaque. This plaque will start building up over time causing blockage of the arteries and disrupting proper blood flow. Excessive build up of the plaque may then rupture the lining of the plaque. This will then induce blood clotting and further prevent the normal flow of blood.

Symptoms
Primary symptoms may include

  1. Shortness of breathThis may occur while you are exercising or performing activities which are mildly exerting.
  2. Heart beats very hard and fast: Your heart may beat very hard and fast, especially when doing everyday activities such as climbing stairs or walking for a prolonged distance.
  3. Angina or chest painYou may experience pain in your chest as if someone was pressing against it with a lot of force. Angina is also triggered due to stressful activities or even emotional stress. It usually occurs on the left or the middle of the chest and may even be felt in the back, arms, and neck.
  4. Heart attackHeart attacks are the most common and the most serious complications of coronary heart disease. You would feel extreme pain, akin to crushing on your chest, shoulder, or arm. It may even be accompanied by jaw pain, and sweatiness.

Treatment
Non invasive forms of treatment are always preferable rather than invasive surgeries or procedures to treat coronary heart disease, especially where the risk of serious complications such as heart attack are still on the lower side. Some of the treatments used for coronary heart disease are as follows:

  1. Making lifestyle changes: Quit smoking, reduce alcohol consumption along with consumption of regulated diet will automatically start cleaning plaque that has built up within the arteries. Losing weight also tends to help.
  2. Medications: Special medications can take care of cases wherein the deposits are still lesser and the plaque buildup can be removed without the requirement of extensive surgery. Anti-cholesterol medications are one example of this.
  3. Surgical procedures: These are usually employed when the blockage is severe and cannot be corrected by the conventional methods mentioned above. Some of the procedures are angioplasty, stent placement, as well as coronary artery bypass surgery.

What Are The Risk Factors of Craniofacial Surgery?

M.Ch (Plastic)
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Chennai
What Are The Risk Factors of Craniofacial Surgery?

A craniofacial surgery is required when there are deformities or abnormalities present in the head or face area of the patient. Depending on the type of deformity, a craniofacial surgery is done to repair or reconstruct it.

The areas that come under a craniofacial surgeon's domain are the cranium (skull), the brain, the face, skin on the face, facial bones, and the nerves. For this reason, in order to conduct craniofacial surgery, a neurosurgeon and a cosmetic surgeon may often work together.

The time taken for completing a craniofacial surgery may vary between four hours and twelve hours.

Why do you need a craniofacial surgery?

There may be multiple reasons why a patient would require craniofacial surgery. These are:

  1. Tumors in the head or face region are one of the most common causes behind this type of surgery. The surgeries conducted to remove these tumors may sometimes lead to the formation of deformities in the region. A craniofacial surgery is conducted in order to correct them.
  2. This kind of surgery can also be used to correct abnormalities formed as a result of injuries or wounds on the face, the jaw or the head.
  3. Some patients may also undergo a craniofacial surgery in order to correct defects that they were born with. Such defects include Apert Syndrome (a syndrome characterized by the premature fusion of certain bones in the skull), cleft palate or cleft lip and craniosynotosis (premature fusion of certain bones in the skull).

Risks related to Craniofacial Surgery:

Certain risks are associated with this type of surgery. These are:

  1. A craniofacial surgery is conducted after putting the patient under general anesthesia. As a result of this, the patient may suffer from breathing problems, blood clots, infections and blood loss. He or she may also react to the medicine in an unwanted way.
  2. As a result of the surgery, the patient may also lose their bone grafts partly or wholly. He or she may go through cranial nerve dysfunction or damage in the brain. The formation of permanent scars is another possible risk of a craniofacial surgery. Some patients, especially children who are of growing age, may need a follow up surgery later on.
  3. Certain patients can face more risks as compared to other patients. These include patients who are malnourished, or suffer from other illnesses like lupus. Those that have suffered nerve damage in the past are likelier to develop complications. Smoking is also another risk factor.

5 Ways to Train Your Brain to Learn Faster and Remember More

MCh Neurosurgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Guwahati
5 Ways to Train Your Brain to Learn Faster and Remember More

The brain is not a stagnant realm fed with a granted quota of intelligence and memory at birth. It is always in a state of flux. Exercising your brain in various ways accelerates its ability to perform better. It is in your hands to have a sharper take on situations and occurrences. Playing games that require brainstorming, solving quizzes, crosswords or playing chess makes you feel rejuvenated and tired at the same time; the reason being activated brain cells. A healthy brain will affect your life decisions positively and you probably will think rightly before you leap.

Tips to exercise those brain cells:

  1. Meditate and calm your mind: Ten minutes of meditation each day can help you get over anxiety. When your mind is at peace you think out pros and cons with enhanced insight. This composure reflects in each of your actions. Meditation demands your brain to be quiet when it is accustomed to work; you therefore have greater control over it.
  2. Music can improve your brain abilities: Music is the best antidote for a sloppy brain. Music excites the neurons healing a bruised memory. It gifts you with clarity of thought. Apart from listening to music one must try to play a musical instrument. Teaching yourself things puts your mind through a strict regimen of constructive activities.
  3. Take out time to learn a new language: We are paralyzed the minute our brain gives up. Due to several external and internal reasons each one of us is likely to suffer from cognitive disorders on being subjected to extreme pressure or shock. Trying to learn a new language motivate your brain cells to have a wider vocabulary, which further restricts your chances of brain damage.   
  4. Mental mathematics could better your intelligence: Calculators, computers and phones are ridding us of our ability to compute individual data. Computation and consolidation of data helps your mind to work faster with precision. So, you now know those lessons on mental mathematics in childhood were actually the key to a well rounded brain. 
  5. Think of something novel: The more the number of neurons the merrier is your brain. Take pains to direct your mind on a novel track. Thinking beyond what is given and expected helps your brain grow new neurons. It builds up your creativity letting you discover more of your capabilities.

I am having pain in middle chest when I drink water or eat any thing or food etc and also feeling weakness in my body.

BHMS
Homeopath, Secunderabad
I am having pain in middle chest when I drink water or eat any thing or food etc and also feeling weakness in my body.
You might be having gastric disorder. Please try to change the diet habits and drink a glass of water an hour before every meal. Have light homemade food and avoid all types of junk food, processed or packaged food including cold drinks. Eat in small portions with seasonal fruits and vegetables everyday. Start exercising everyday - walking can be ideal to begin with. Learn Yoga and pranayam from an expert teacher and do it consistently everday. You can also use Homeopathy if you do not feel much change after following the above mentioned health tips. You can contact me for a private consultation.
1 person found this helpful
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Festive Skin Care - Let Your Skin Do The Talking This Festive Season!

MBBS, MD - Dermatology, FAAD(USA)
Dermatologist, Delhi
Festive Skin Care - Let Your Skin Do The Talking This Festive Season!

Festive season is a time of fun, beauty and indulgence. There is always an excitement when Diwali is around the corner. It is all about fun, mingling with your family and friends, and eating sweets and snacks. But during this mood of elation and celebration, one forgets that what goes inside also shows up externally. There are the endless parties for which you would dress up and style. So there will be the blow drying, ironing, styling, make-up, late nights, and to top it all, the alcohol and cigarettes. This, coupled with the excess smoke and pollution affects the skin and hair to a large extent. 

Here are few tips on how can you keep your skin glowing and hair healthy during the festive season. To start with, let me explain what damages your skin and hair and how.

  1. SugarSugar suppresses the activity of our white blood cells and thus makes us more susceptible to infections. It also worsens allergies and causes damage because of the breaking down of good proteins, leading to the formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE). AGE makes the proteins in the collagen and hair stiff and hard; thus speeding up the process of skin ageing and making the hair brittle. One of the main reasons for wrinkles, deep lines, and sagging skin is AGE. So gorging high sugar foods during festivals can lead to fine lines and excessive dryness. So please be mindful of what you are eating during this time.
  2. Smoke – Smoke and pollution damage hair and skin. It makes the skin dry and scalp irritated or even itchy. Too much exposure can lead to boils/ folliculitis, skin rash, and acne exacerbation. To prevent this, you should wash your hair and body thoroughly the day after the festival to counteract the damage caused by smoke and ash.
  3. Excessive make-up and styling – You need to dress up and look pretty on festival days. This means excessive make-up and hair styling products, blow drying, and ironing. Not all this is harmful, but what worsens the situation is when you ignore or forget to remove them all off after the party is over. Always remember to follow your night-time skincare regime and cleanse your hair of all the styling products.
  4. Alcohol and cigarettes – These worsen the condition of your hair and skin. Alcohol makes the skin flushed and dehydrated with broken capillaries. And cigarettes compromise the blood supply to your skin. So cut down on cigarettes and alcohol as much as possible.

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Be on a healthy diet always, especially a month before the festivals start.
  • Avoid too many sweets.
  • Drink plenty of fluids like water, coconut water, and buttermilk.
  • Try to cut down on your alcohol intake and cigarettes.
  • Apply an anti-oxidant cream which contains vitamin A, C, E or Q10 during the day, underneath your sunscreen.
  • Remove every trace of make-up and apply a good nourishing night cream.
  • Start oiling your hair with light oils like the ones which are coconut-based.
  • Do not use mousse on hair. If you do, then wash it off at night or the next morning.
  • Blow drying with low heat is better than ironing. Ironing can lead to hair breakage.
  • Avoid harsh surface chemical treatments during the Diwali month – be it for skin or hair.
  • Include some cardio exercises in your daily routine.

So, follow these simple steps to look gorgeous and feel gorgeous during this festive season!

13 people found this helpful

My friend is having Chest pain on the left hand side comes and goes. It happened previous month also mostly happens once in a month. What can be the reason of the said condition? What should I do? And what is it? Pls tell me what I need to do on this? Please conclude and advice on the same.

BHMS
Homeopath, Secunderabad
My friend  is having Chest pain on the left hand side comes and goes. It happened previous month also mostly happens ...
The advise is to visit a doctor for a formal health check up along with some tests like Blood, urine tests and ECG. The diagnosis depends upon the clinical findings and the reports. Sometime further tests like Treadmill test or 2D echo etc are suggested to rule out cardiac reasons for the chest pain. Please revert after that along with the doctors opinion and test reports for any further clarification.
1 person found this helpful
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Why there are different opinion regarding anal fissures when some colorectal surgeons say after LIS surgery anal fissures do not come if occasionally stool becomes hard where other say it can come if stool get hard? But the fact is fissures occurs due to high resting pressure of internal sphincter muscle and during LIS surgery this high resting pressure reduce to normal pressure so why after surgery still fissure comes if stool get hard? But generally all people do not get fissures or ulcers if stool becomes hard, some people are habitually constipated still no anal fissures face.

General Surgeon, Srinagar
Hello user. Good to see you have researched quite a bit about your disease. Basically high pressure of the int. Sphinc. Is not the cause. It propagates the condition and doesn't allow the fissure to heal. Anal fissure fails to heal because of a cycle between constipation=pain=spasm. By doing LIS (lateral internal sphincterotomy) we break the cycle by targeting spasm and allow nature to heal the fissure. But still you can have hard stool sometimes causing injury to the delicate anal mucosa leading to fissure. But the difference is it will heal quickly as compared to in a patient whose internal sphincter is intact. So even if you have undergone an LIS, You should always avoid constipation by taking lots of fruits and fluids. You can add stool softners to diet. Besides make doing sitz bath bedtime a habit. It Dsnt cost anything. Does it? Hope it clears your doubts. Feel free to enquire more. Regards.
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Having joint pain in right leg ankle and in right hand's thumb finger's first joint and also other joints in body.

BAMS
Ayurveda, Bangalore
Having joint pain in right leg ankle and in right hand's thumb finger's first joint and also other joints in body.
Hi, Take cap. Flexy Forte 1 cap 2 times a day after food and apply Rumalaya liniment to the affected joints and gently massage for 10-15 mins in circular motion. Avoid potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas, channa, newly harvested rice, jackfruit, etc. Walk daily for 30 mins.
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I am 14 year old student ,suffering with neck pain since 3 years, I do neck exercises and some yoga asanas daily but I get only temporary relief after these.In a days 3 to 4 hours I use smartphone / t.v or computer ,and most of the remaining time I study or read books. PLEASE GIVE ME AN SOLUTION FOR PERMANENT RELIEF OF NECK PAIN.

Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
I am 14 year old student ,suffering with neck pain since 3 years, I do neck exercises and some yoga asanas daily but ...
This is cervical pain (neck pain) and that's the reason the pain radiates until the shoulder blades. If you keep ice that would help to reduce the pain and feel relaxed and comfortable. You shall also do hot water fermentation that would improve the blood circulation to the painful area and thereby the pain would be reduced. You shall use cervical collar which would help you to reduce the radiating pain and also that would improve the cervical angle and improve the anatomical posture. The pain actually triggers due to nerve compression and that would definitely improve by wearing a cervical collar.
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I am 24 year old female with lean body. My problem is dark underarms and inner thigh. How to remove this? What cause dark inner thigh? I have pcod and use ayurvedic medicine for 1 year. Now it's normal.

BHMS
Homeopath, Delhi
I am 24 year old female with lean body. My problem is dark underarms and inner thigh. How to remove this? What cause ...
It happend due to melanin pigment on skin. You start applying aloe vera gel at night after washing the area properly. You will see the change.
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I am suffering from fissures from last 2 years. I am afraid of surgery. Pls suggest me some best fibre cereals, fibre rich fruits, food and medicine which is available in indian market. Suggest me medicine and cream from which I can get rid of this or anything from which I can get rid of this. Thank you.

FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Respected lybrate-user, hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. There is no life time cure for fissure, what ever you do it will be remaining in control, so prepare yourself for that first of all before reading further.* Suggestions for better recovery - always drink plenty of liquids.- prefer soft, light diet with more green leafy veg, whole grains, cereals,pulses, legumes,organic fresh fruits, fresh curd with pro biotics.- avoid oily, spicy,non veg, hot beverages, junk foods, dairy fat till possible.- sitz bath (sitting in a tub filled with lukewarm water 5 min. Each mor and eve and after passing stool - bulk forming laxative as ispaghula husk 3 teaspoonful at night with a glass of lukewarm drinking water.- Smuth or Pilorute C cream for local application.- avoid sitting on hard surfaces for prolong periods.- avoid smoking, alcohol,anal intercourse if doing.- regular sound sleep of 8 hours with avoidance of stress, anxiety Hope this will help you for sure. Wishing you fine recovery & happy Diwali in advance. Regards dear take care.
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Sir I have problem of knock knees done knees pass but knees chipkte h kya kare sir isse dur aur I think that also have problem in sex my veins kamjor h.

DHMS (Hons.)
Homeopath, Patna
Sir I have problem of knock knees done knees pass but knees chipkte h kya kare sir isse dur aur I think that also hav...
Hello, You are under weight, need to improve your weight, first. You should take plenty of water to hydrate your body. Go for aerobics with stretching of your thighs Sit on Bajrashan for 5 mnts. Tk, homoeopathic medicine:@ Calcarea carb 30-6 pills, thrice. Avoid, junkfood, alcohol, nicotine & cold intake. Tk, care.
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Skincare: Get Rid of Skin Pigmentation Fast!

M.B.B.S, D.D.V.L, M.D DERMATOLOGY
Dermatologist, Bangalore
Skincare: Get Rid of Skin Pigmentation Fast!

Hyperpigmentation is a relatively harmless condition, but can affect a person’s self-image and psyche. This skin condition is characterized by dark patches on the skin due to exposure to UV radiation or as a sign of aging. It is caused by an excessive production of melanin in the body. Hyperpigmentation affects people of all ages and with all skin types. However, fair-skinned people are at a higher risk of suffering from this condition than dark skinned people.

This condition can be treated in a number of ways including:

  1. LaserLaser treatment for hyperpigmentation improves skin tone and boosts collagen production. With advancement in laser technology, scarring is no longer a very big risk with this form of treatment. Depending on the degree of hyperpigmentation argon or carbon dioxide lasers may be used in with short pulses or long pulses. Treatment can take anywhere between 30 to 45 minutes and is relatively pain free. 
  2. Chemical peelsChemical peels rid the skin of its top most layer and bring new cells to the surface. This gives the skin an even tone and eliminates dark spots and patchiness. A light salicylic acid or glycolic acid peel is ideal for hyperpigmentation treatment. This is often used in cases where the patient’s skin is resistant to over the counter topical treatment. The concentration of active ingredients in the peel depends on the skin tone. Mild skin discolouration and blotchiness can be treated with a superficial peel while age spots and freckles require a medium peel. 
  3. Topical ointments: Topical ointments are usually the first form of treatment for hyperpigmentation. Hydroquinone or retinol are the most commonly prescribed ointments. Broad spectrum sunscreen that offers protection against UVA and UVB rays can also help prevent further sun damage and dark spots. Skin lightening creams with soy or niacinamide as active ingredients also help brighten skin tones. 

Apart from these forms of treatment, there are also a number of home remedies for this condition. Some of these home remedies are:

  1. Rubbing a freshly sliced or the juice of a grated potato on the skin
  2. Applying a combination of cucumber and lemon juice on the skin
  3. A grated papaya face mask
  4. Soak almonds in milk overnight and then skin them and puree with the milk. Apply this mixture on the affected areas. 
  5. A mask of guava and banana pulp. Consult an Expert & get answers to your questions!
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Brain Surgery - 12 Reasons When It Becomes A Compulsion!

FRCS - Neurosurgery(UK), M.Ch - Neuro Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Ahmedabad
Brain Surgery - 12 Reasons When It Becomes A Compulsion!

Brain surgery involves several medical procedures, which incorporate fixing issues with the brain, including changes in the tissues of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and brain blood flow. Brain surgery is quite a complicated method of surgery and the type of surgery to be conducted depends on the underlying conditions.

Reasons for Brain Surgery:
Brain surgery is performed for the correction of physical brain abnormalities. These abnormalities could occur because of diseases, birth defects and injuries. A brain surgery is required when the following conditions arise in the brain:

  1. Abnormal blood vessels
  2. Aneurysm
  3. Bleeding
  4. Blood clots in the brain
  5. When the protective tissue or dura is damaged
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Due to nerve damage
  8. Parkinson's disease
  9. Any kind of pressure after an injury
  10. Abscesses
  11. Skull fractures
  12. In case of stroke and tumors

A surgery may not be required for all the above mentioned conditions, but in case of many, a brain surgery is very important as the conditions may worsen health problems.

Types of brain surgeries:

  1. Craniotomy: During this open brain surgery, an incision is made in the scalp, and a hole is created in the skull, near the area, which is being treated. After this process is complete, the hole or bone flap is secured in its place using plates or wires.
  2. Biopsy: This form of brain surgery helps in the removal of a small amount of brain tissues or tumors. After removal, the tissues or tumors are examined under a microscope. The creation of a small incision and a hole in the skull is indicated as a part of this process.
  3. Minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery: This form of brain surgery enables the removal or lesions and tumors via the nose and sinuses. Private parts of the brain can be accessed without creating an incision. An endoscope is utilized in the process which is used to examine tumors all across the brain.
  4. Minimally Invasive neuroendoscopy: This process is similar to the minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic surgery. This method also involves the use of an endoscope for removal of brain tumors. Small, dime sized holes may be made in the skull to access some brain parts.

Risks:
Brain surgeries may be associated with several risks. They may be:

  1. Allergic reactions to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Blood clot formations
  4. Swelling of the brain
  5. A state of coma
  6. Impairment in speech, coordination and vision.
  7. Problems in memory
  8. Strokes and seizures
  9. Infections in the brain

A brain surgery is a serious and very complex surgery. There are different kinds of brain surgeries, which are conducted depending on the condition and severity of the disease.

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Bariatric Surgery - A Boon For People Suffering From Obesity!

FELLOWSHIP IN COLORECTAL SURGERY, DNB SURGICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY, Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, FELLOWSHIP IN HPB SURGERY, Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS), M.S. GENERAL SURGERY, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Bangalore
Bariatric Surgery - A Boon For People Suffering From Obesity!

Bariatric Surgery is a life-saving surgery and not a cosmetic surgery as it generally is regarded. In fact, it is a gastrointestinal surgery to improve, prevent and/or treat obesity which may be life threatening. This surgery is done by laparoscopy, does not involve removal of fat from the body and the weight loss after surgery is gradual i.e. 4-5kg per month and reaches a stable level after 1-2 years of surgery. Bariatric surgery is known to be the most effective and long lasting treatment for morbid obesity and many related conditions, but now mounting evidence suggests it may be among the most effective treatments for metabolic diseases and conditions including type-2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and obstructive sleep apnea.

Diabetes is a gnawing problem that affects millions throughout the world. It is a disorder that if overlooked can lead to serious diseases; cardiovascular ailments, problems related to vision, kidney problems and many more. While medication tries to regulate your blood sugar levels, it is not always unfailing. Medication along with changes in your diet and lifestyle can still not improve your condition in certain cases. At times it is hard to increase the insulin production in a person's body even after administering medicines solely known for their efficacy. Such kind of diabetic patients can therefore benefit from a Bariatric surgery.

What is a Bariatric surgery?

Bariatric surgery doesn't refer to a single operative method. It involves a host of surgical procedures conducted on a person to rid him or her of obesity. Obesity in combination with diabetes can make a person's life miserable. The treatment of one can come in the way of curing the other. A diabetic patient who also suffers from obesity usually finds it hard to lose weight in spite of exercising or being on diet. Surgery comes to their rescue. This kind of surgery should be fallen back upon as the lender of last resort that is to say when other solutions have not helped. Bariatric surgery is always performed under skilled supervision. It might include reduction of the size of your stomach, removal of a portion of the stomach, or even gastric bypass surgery.

How does Bariatric surgery help reduce Diabetes?

Diabetes can be of three basic kinds;

  • Type 1 diabetes in which the body produces no amount of insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes in which the body produces an insufficient amount of insulin or Gestational diabetes that pregnant women tend to contract.

Bariatric surgery proves to be very advantageous for patients of Type 2 diabetes:

  1. Surgery lowers blood sugar levels considerably. Research shows people with acute diabetes made huge improvements after having undergone a Bariatric surgery. Their blood sugar levels dropped by a noticeable percentage and they felt healthier. Reduced blood sugar is an almost immediate effect in some while for others it does take some time.
  2. Bariatric surgery exercises a control over cholesterol, blood pressure and triglyceride levels.
  3. The impressive benefits of this operation for a Type 2 diabetes patient are not superficial or temporary. If the patient adheres to the lifestyle prescribed by a doctor, takes medication regularly and follows the basics of post- operative care he or she is likely to remain beyond the ambit of this metabolic disorder.
  4. It successfully takes care of ailments resulting from diabetes.
  5. Bariatric surgery can eliminate the need for medication or it can reduce the dosage of medicines you take.                 

Type diabetes

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7 Factors That Can Cause Testicular Cancer!

M Ch Urology, MBBS, MS - Urology
Urologist, Kolhapur
7 Factors That Can Cause Testicular Cancer!

Here are a few things you should know about Testicular Cancer (TC): 

  1. Age: The commonest affected age group is 20-45 years with germ cell tumours. Half of all cases occur in men less than 35 years. Non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) are more common at ages 20-35, while seminoma is more common at age 35-45 years. Rarely, infants and boys below 10 years develop yolk sac tumours and 50% men above 60 years with TC have lymphoma.
  2. Race: White Caucasian people living in Europe and the US have the highest risk. Whites are three times more likely to develop TC than blacks in the US. With the exception of the New Zealand Maoris, TC is rare in non-Caucasian races.
  3. Previous TC: Confers a 12-fold increased risk of metachronous TC. Bilateral TC occurs in 1-2% of cases.
  4. Cryptorchidism: 5-10% of TC patients have a history of cryptorchidism. Ultrastructural changes are present in these testes by age 3 years, although earlier orchidopexy does not completely eliminate the risk of developing TC. According to a large Swedish study, cryptorchidism is associated with a two-fold increased risk of TC in men who underwent orchiopexy less than 13 year, but risk is increased 5-fold in men who underwent orchiopexy aged above13 years. A meta-analysis showed risk of contralateral TC almost doubles while ipsilateral TC risk is increased 6-fold in men with unilateral cryptorchidism.
  5. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (testicular intraepithelial neoplasia, TIN): Synonymous with carcinoma in situ, although the disease arises from malignant change in spermatogonia; 50% of cases develop invasive germ cell TC within 5 years. The population incidence is 0.8%. Risk factors include cryptorchidism, extragonadal germ cell tumour, atrophic contralateral testis, 45XO karyotype, Klinefelter's syndrome, previous or contralateral TC (5%), and infertility.
  6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Patients develop seminoma 35% more frequently than expected. Genetic factors: appear to play a role, given that first-degree relatives are at higher risk by 4-9-fold, but a defined familial inheritance pattern is not apparent.
  7. Maternal oestrogen exposure: At higher than usual levels during pregnancy appears to increase risk of cryptorchidism, urethral anomalies, and TC in male offspring.

Trauma and viral-induced atrophy have not been convincingly implicated as risk factors for TC.

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Head And Neck Pain - Know Everything About It!

MD, FIPP
Pain Management Specialist, Kolkata
Head And Neck Pain - Know Everything About It!

Movement of the head and neck is enabled by the various joints in this region, the main role being played by the cervical spine. This is a part of the vertebra or the spine and supports the head and neck in all movements. There are cervical vertebrae, ligaments, muscles, and nerves which ensure this movement happens smoothly. However, given the complexity of the whole structure, head and neck pain are also two of the most common joint pains.

The Neck Bone’s Connected to the Head Bone…

The vertebrae of your neck (cervical spine) support the weight of your head and all its motions, which may not seem like much – until you realize your head weighs as much as a bowling ball. When your neck bones are not positioned properly, the result is tightening of the muscles and irritation of the nerves that connect with your head. Your head and neck symptoms may include some or all of the following:

  1. Sharp or dull pain or discomfort in your neck
  2. Stiffness in your neck
  3. Inability to turn your head to one side
  4. Headache
  5. Shoulder pain
  6. Jaw pain

Fortunately, you don’t have to live with head and neck pain – and you don’t have to take drugs to eliminate the pain. 

Causes:

The causes for head and neck pain can range from muscle strain to arthritis to pinched nerve to cancer.

  1. Posture problems: Not providing adequate support when being seated grows to be a menace. With the changing lifestyle where people end up staring at a monitor, there is tremendous stress on the neck muscles, leading to pain and stiffness. There is also loss of flexibility, leading to a stiff neck and headaches.
  2. Muscle strain: This can occur due to a sudden movement, either when doing something or as a result of accident (like a whiplash injury). The muscle can be torn or injured and this can result in pain, swelling, and inflammation of the affected area.
  3. Stress: One of the most common identifier of stress is the constant ache/nagging pain in the back of the neck.
  4. Disk herniation: When the disk is moved out of its space due to excessive movement and rotation, the disk gets herniated and the nerve gets ‘pinched.’ This can cause a sharp, shooting pain to the area where the nerve emerges out of that disk.

Spondylitis, arthritis, etc., are other chronic inflammatory conditions which can affect the neck and head areas.

Side effects:

When there is pain in the head and neck area, the whole body function is affected. The movement is limited and therefore vision, neck movements, and other functions are affected. This, in turn, affects the overall quality of life.

Management:

  1. Identify the problem with a thorough examination, X-ray, and if required soft tissue examination.
  2. Ice the area for relief of pain temporarily.
  3. Improve ergonomics in terms of height of the monitor, seat/chair, etc., so the strain is minimized.
  4. Develop an exercise regimen, which gives adequate exercise to the head and neck muscles.
  5. Manage stress. Be it physical, chemical, or emotional stress, it takes a toll on the head and neck area. Managing the stress (there is no escape from it!) will definitely see the pains and stiff neck go away.
  6. Engage in pain management, which is holistic (as above) and does not always resort to medications.
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