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What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.
Sir I get night falls 2 to 3 times in a weak and sometimes 4 and because of which I usually have pain in my legs please tell me how to get rid of it.
I am going to marriage next month but I am very quick like 2 minutes wounder. What to do? For this reason my gf left me please help me.
Hi I am insulin dependent diabetic taking lupisulin m50 25 unit before lunch and 10 unit before dinner and taking Janumet 50/1000 2 time. My sugar lever is normal. From past 5-6 Month I have started strength training and now my strength has increased so I want to know can I take whey protein or protein supplements to gain muscle. Thank you.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition whereby, tiny abscesses and ulcers are formed on the inner lining of the large intestine, or on the colon or rectum. These ulcers may burst frequently resulting in diarrhea and bloody stools. This disease may also be responsible for causing anemia as well as harsh abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis normally alternate periodically from flaring up to receding quickly. These periods of remission can either last for weeks or maybe, even for years at a stretch. They are, however, not permanent and although the disease may seem to have disappeared completely, it can soon show up again in no time. Usually beginning in the rectum, it can, by and by, spread rapidly to other parts of the colon. If it is, however, limited only to the rectum, then it is more commonly referred to as ulcerative proctitis.
Surgery is generally obligatory and mandatory when it comes to treating ulcerative colitis. If surgery is not performed, you may suffer from long-lasting side effects, including cancer and colon rupture. Here are the different types of surgery that you may undergo:
- Colectomy: This is done when the entire colon needs to be removed and is usually performed to eliminate the perils of acquiring colon cancer.
- Proctocolectomy: This concerns the total removal of both colon and rectum and is usually the standard procedure when dealing with ulcerative colitis.
- Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis: If the treatment does not require a permanent stoma, and if you can still manage to let out stool from your anus, then this surgery, also called restorative proctocolectomy would be most appropriate.
Here, both colon and rectum are removed, but at the same time, the small intestine is utilized to form an internal reservoir, called a J-pouch, which is linked to the anus and can hereafter serve as your new rectum.
Hi I had an hairline fracture in tibial plateau and was on cast for 30 days and when removing the cast my X-ray report says linear fracture in tibial plateau so is it fine to walk and more over there is swelling in my knee and pain near fracture when walking please guide me on this.
Hello doctor my name is Abdul rehman and I am suffering from fever can I get a better tablet to get rid of it.
Migraine is a type of headache which can occur in varied intensities; the pain resulting from a migraine is pulsating and throbbing. This sort of a headache is usually accompanied by extreme sensitivity to sounds and light as well as severe nausea. One feature that significantly differentiates between migraine and any other type of headache is that the headache resulting from migraines usually develops on any one side of the head.
Causes of Migraine
The exact cause behind migraine is yet to be fully understood. Migraines are thought to be a result of combination of genetic and environmental factors.In majority of cases, migraines tend to run in families . There are few well known trigger factors for migraine. These are – stress, exertion, gastric disturbances, eating heavy food stuff, taking alcoholic drinks, coffee intake, hormone changes in females.
Symptoms of Migraine
The most characteristic symptom of migraine is one sided headache mostly of violent, throbbing and pulsating in nature. The accompanying symptoms include nausea, vomiting, blurring of vision, flashes of light before eyes, double vision, light/sound sensitivity, confusion and weakness.
Homeopathy is not in the favour of using temporary treatments like popping a painkiller to alleviate the throbbing, pulsating and often intolerable pain caused from migraine. Homeopathy aims at going deep down into the root of the problem and entirely removes the tendency of any patient to be shot with migraine headaches every now and then. That is why homeopathic medications may take some time in showing results. They do not offer any temporary relief like most allopathic treatments do. On the other hand, homeopathic medicines offer a long term relief and can cure the migraine problem permanently.
Though homeopathic treatments vary from person to person, there are a few homeopathic medicines, which are very effective in relieving migraine headaches.
- Belladona for throbbing migraine attack: Belladonna is one of the most effective homeopathic medicines for treating migraine headache that is throbbing and violent in the temporal region of the head. If pain gets triggered without any prior prodromal symptoms and worsens by noise, touching and light, then Belladona is potent in removing the pain. This medicine is also good if you are unable to lie down because of pain and if your face turns red and hot when you are struck with excruciating pain. Have a few drops of Belladona and apply a mild pressure to feel better.
- Glonoine for migraine with congestive headache: When you are struck with congestive headache, a rush of blood reaches the head region causing redness in face and head area with intolerable throbbing pain. You may even feel shocks around the head which get aggravated when exposed to heat or sunlight. It becomes impossible to tolerate any kind of warmth, and you may feel a bit relieved when you uncover the head. If you are affected with congestive headache, then consuming Glonoine can be of immense help.
- Natrum Mur for migraine from grief and stress: This medicine is widely used for alleviating migraine caused from stress and grief. Natrum Mur is also effective in alleviating anaemic headaches, which mostly affect young women. It often leads to temporary sightlessness, and the pain feels as if thousands of small hammers are being throbbed within the brain. The pain tends to rise up after through the day, and the patient may feel better after sunset. If the pain gets triggered when the eye is strained, then Natrum Mur is the medication for you.
As you see, homeopathic treatments are great for reducing migraine attacks and your doctor will be able to guide you better on this matter. Homoeopathy treats each patient of Migraine by individualization and thus treats the root cause of migraine which could be Sun, stress, exertion etc. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a homeopath.