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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
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Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
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Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
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The primary or milk teeth begins to erupt at about 6 months of life with the complete set in place by 2.5 years of age, and the entire set is replaced by the age of 14. The benefits of some of the preventive dental measures are outlined below.
- Maternal care during pregnancy: The teeth begin to form during the second trimester of pregnancy. It is very important that the maternal diet includes sufficient amounts of calcium, potassium, and fluoride for optimal tooth mineralization. Good tooth structure has greater resistance to decay than hypomineralized teeth.
- Routine oral hygiene: For the first 6 months, though there are no teeth, after each nursing, end it with a spoonful or two of water to wash down the milk. Gradually, the gums can be just wiped with a gauze pad or soft cotton to remove any residual bacteria. The baby also gets used to this habit, and once the teeth are in, there are lesser bacteria for the decay process to begin. Once the teeth begin to erupt, the nursing habits also need to be modified to ensure the baby is not allowed to go to sleep with a bottle. This is a common practice to put the baby to sleep and should be avoided to reduce the occurrence of nursing bottle caries.
- Fluoride application: Fluoride has been shown to have significant benefits in preventing caries. Once routine dental visits begin, then the dentist will be able to tell if fluoride needs to be applied. This can happen either in the form of a gel or varnish that is applied in the dental office or as a paste that is used at home. This helps in building resistance to decay.
- Pit and fissure sealants: The tooth has a number of pits and fissures which are 8 times more vulnerable to decay than other surfaces. Deep pits are shown to harbor more bacteria and thereby greater incidence of caries. There are sealants which are thin resins that can be applied on the tooth, which can reduce bacteria accumulation and further decay.
- Space maintainers: In the event that a child has lost a tooth, either due to trauma or decay and subsequent infection, then a space maintainer should be placed within the next 3 months. This helps in maintaining the space and establishing a good bite during the transition phase and later, once the permanent teeth are in place.
- Orthodontic treatment: If there is malocclusion, then early intervention helps by reducing treatment time and getting better results as the teeth and periodontium are still very elastic and are more malleable to movement.
By doing these preventive measures early in life, the result is a child who has healthier teeth, less decay, less pain, and a happy smile all the time! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dentist and ask a free question.
All diabetic patients who fast should be aware of certain facts if they fast during Ramzan, he further added.
All patients with diabetes should consult with their family physician regarding the Ramzan fast and learn the warning symptoms.
Type 2 diabetes will be controlled by diet and may require no special precautions.
Patients at risk of diabetes should avoid overeating to prevent post meal high blood pressure, after the predawn and/or sunset meal.
The exercise program for patients with diabetes on diet control should be modified to avoid lower blood sugar level. Exercise should be done 2 hours after the sunset meal.
Food restriction and dehydration may cause some cardiac risk in the elderly.
The choice of drugs in diabetes may require consultation with a doctor. Drugs that act by increasing the production of insulin are to be preferred. Some patients on metformin may fast safely with minimal complications. However, two-thirds of the total daily dose should be given just before the sunset meal and rest one-third before the predawn meal. Patients on pioglitazone may require no change in dose. Patients on sulfonylureas may require medical clearance before commencing fast.
Insulin dose also needs to be modified during the fast. Usually two doses of insulin, one before each meal, are sufficient.
If the blood sugar falls below 60, then the fast should be immediately broken.
Fast should also be broken if blood sugar rises to more than 300.
Patients should avoid fasting on sick days.
Child Aphasia is complex disorder that is caused by damage to parts of the brain that controls language and speech. This disorder affects the child's ability to express herself through words and understand the speech of other people. The severity of the problem depends on the extent of the damage as well as the location of the damage. Since this is not a birth disorder, therefore, you should be much more careful as so you notice that your kid is facing language disorder. A speech pathologist can diagnose language disorders and teach your child strategies to help.
What are the leading symptoms of aphasia in kids?
- Not understanding speech is one of the most common symptoms. Most patients cannot understand spoken or written language. Typically in these cases, the patient suffers from fluent Aphasia, which is caused by damage to the left temporal lobe of the brain. The patient's speech might seem meaningless and incoherent with lots of unnecessary words being used. The child usually becomes upset when people don't understand what he is saying.
- Patients suffering from this disorder also have trouble expressing their thoughts and understanding language and they often take more time to communicate. Only short sentences are used by these patients with words often left out, making the sentence sound incomplete. Such children suffer from non-fluent Aphasia where they understand what others are saying, but cannot communicate or speak well themselves. Their speech is almost similar to that of telegraphic languages that are usually followed by those toddlers who are just learning how to speak.
- Some children suffering from Aphasia might have trouble repeating words even though they don't have problem understanding what others are saying. These children suffer from conduction Aphasia and will be able to reproduce only parts of a sentence, if asked to repeat.
- Children affected with this disorder may see to be not listening to you or ignore you.
- Such kids might also have behavioral problems and may not be able to keep up with their friends and classmates. They will also suffer from forgetfulness.
Causes of Aphasia: The leading cause of Aphasia is brain injury, brain infection, brain tumour or abscess or bleeding in the brain.
Diagnosis of the disease: The disorder is diagnosed by a speech therapist who assesses the condition with a variety of tools to figure out the extent of damage. Its best to take your child to a paediatric speech pathologist who is an expert in treating children with brain injuries. The child will then be assessed on auditory comprehension, verbal expression, reading and writing ability and functional communication.
Treatment: There are many people who think that the speech trouble cannot be treated, but they are completely wrong. There are various ways to treat Aphasia. The younger the patient the better the chances of recovery since the brain is not that developed to handle specific functions in kids as in adults. The treatment will depend on the severity of the condition and the goal that is to be achieved. Factors behind this trouble need to be determined first otherwise the perfect treatment cannot be decided. Some of the most prominent factors are aphasia type, brain-injury cause, age, brain-lesion size and positioning and others.
Some of the leading tips that can be applied as per Association of National Stroke are as follows:
- Using props can be helpful in getting across messages.
- Speaking slowly and staying calm while speaking.
- Drawing pictures or words on paper for communication.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.