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Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.
Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:
Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways, but common symptoms being :
- Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
- Difficulty in passing urine
The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy under anesthesia.
Treatments for bladder cancer.depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.
- For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
- For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
- Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
- Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
- Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.
Sir, During BCG therapy for low grade cancers or carcinoma, what is the QUANTITY of BCG used for each time. Does it varies from time to time i. E. 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc doses. How many maintenance doses are required. Is there any danger if we shift the schedule by a weak. Thank you.
The prostate gland, an essential part of the male reproductive system grows throughout your life. As you grow older, it becomes imperative to keep this organ healthy.
Here's what you can do to maintain a healthy prostate:
1. Workout to stay fit - Exercising regularly and maintaining an optimum weight can help to keep your prostate gland at an optimal health. Several types of research have revealed the beneficial aspects of exercising. It's said that physically active men are less likely to suffer from enlarged prostate if they performed a physical activity of low to moderate intensity. Likewise, physically active men who ran for 90 to 108 minutes are 20% less likely to develop erectile dysfunction.
2. Eat fruits and vegetables - Including fruits and vegetables in your diet can help to maintain a healthy prostate. Guava, papaya, tomato and watermelon are some of the options that spell good for your prostate. Vegetables like cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts should also be included to boost the health of the gland. Ideally, you should have about 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily.
3. Have more soy products - Eating more soy products like tofu, soy flour, soy nuts can help to keep cancer of the prostate at bay. A study published in the British Journal of Urology International revealed that men who had soy products saw a 40% decrease in their risk of developing an enlarged prostate.
4. Have selenium-rich foods - Having foods rich in selenium (a powerful trace mineral) like tuna, eggs, cashews, onions, garlic, etc can reduce your risk of developing prostate cancer.
5. Say yes to healthy fats and no to trans and saturated fats - Choosing healthy fats like avocados, nuts, and olive oil can aid in boosting prostate health. At the same time, limiting saturated fats and trans fat intake are vital for keeping the prostate gland healthy.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
My daughter, age 65 was under treatment for cancer and after six months has been discharged and at home. She is awfully weak and weighs around 32 kg. She finds it difficult to swallow and does not try enough (in my opinion). Any suggestion to prompt her to slowly get into more solid food and recoup?
Hello sir my father is paralyzed and prostate problem. He is on catheter. Now he is not able to pass urine. What can I do this time. I can change the catheter or doing something else. Reply me fast. Thanks.
I am taking phytolaccberry tablets 2 for three times morning noon and night will it show any side effects because I took for one day that night around 3 am I had sharp paid under my right breast felt little swelling what would be the cause my ecg is normal but BP was 140/80mmhg.
I am 25 years old. Previously I got surgery for brest lumps at right. Now I got lumps at left side also and I have a lump at my right hand. I went to a gynic, she examined and said it was not harmful. If you want surgery you can if you do not want just leave them. Previous surgery results was also normal. But now I feel swelling under arms on left side. Please suggest me that it is better to go for a surgery for that?
I am 75 years and recently had a operation in which a cancerous tumor of 7 kg was surgically removed. Currently I am bed ridden and doctor has advised against chemo as my health is fragile as I am in liquid diet post surgery. I would like to know about any medication apart from chemo or Radio that will improve the health and give stability.
Canker sores can be said to be quite annoying, to say the very least. However, it is a relief to know that most of these sores are not a cause of concern. That being said, when a person has the opportunity to stop the sores from staying on, why should he or she not take it? In order to get to know how to treat canker sores, it is first important to understand what they are and how they are caused.
These sores mainly appear in children. The areas where they appear are the mouth and the tongue, in particular. One of the interesting things about canker sores is the fact that doctors do not know what the exact cause of these sores is. The symptoms of having canker sores include a possible tingling in the area in the run-up to the canker sore appearing, as well as painful red sores. It is to be kept in mind that these sores can develop either on their own or in groups.
Possible reasons why a person may have canker sores can include a bad diet, an infection and also a deficiency in terms of the intake of certain nutrients. One of the key nutrients happens to be folic acid. Iron and the vitamin B12 are not to be forgotten, either.
When a person would like to make an effort to reduce the pain and the discomfort which is associated with a canker sore, he or she should follow a routine in which after a meal is eaten, he or she should take some baking soda and mix it with a little bit of water. After this is done to a sufficient point to make a paste, he or she should apply it on the canker sores in the mouth. If an alternative is required, what could be used is a mix of water along with some hydrogen peroxide. This is to be followed up soon with some milk of magnesia.
The last thing a person wants is for an infection to strike the canker sores he or she may have. Not only is this quite uncomfortable, to say the very least, but there is also a longer time taken to the point of full recovery. In order to combat this, mouthwashes which include tetracycline are welcome. Also rinsing the mouth with a mix of warm water and salt is a smart move. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Pediatrician.