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Endometrial Ablation Procedure
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
Management of Abortion
Hormonal Replacement Therapy Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
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With increasing globalization and lifestyle changes, even general practitioners are getting more and more young patients willing to adopt contraceptive measures. An optimum clinical choice of contraceptive can only be done through a mutual discussion between the physician and patient taking into consideration both clinical aspects and patient's choice. This article gives a brief general summary of the methods of contraception.
Contraception is the process of taking steps to ensure about not becoming pregnant after having sex. There are different types of contraceptive measures. They all have pros and cons. Different methods will be right for different couples, or right at different times in life.
Types of contraceptives:
* percentages mentioned within brackets are failure rates
It involves the use of estrogen and progesterone to prevent fertilization; associated with a 2-3% failure rate.
Oral contraceptive pills suppress the action of fsh/lh from the pituitary gland, they also suppress the lh surge, alter the cervical mucosa to inhibit penetration by spermatozoa, and they inhibit atrophic change in the endometrium.
Complications: venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, cva, mi, htn, amenorrhea, cholelithiasis, hepatocellular adenoma. Risks increase with smoking.
Contraindications: dvt, pe, cvd, cva, pregnancy, cancer, abnormal lfts
Monophasic (fixed combination: take estrogen and progesterone on days 1-21 and placebo on days 22-28. Increased estrogen increases the side effects of a headache, weight gain, nausea, and edema decreased estrogen and progesterone increase the risk of breakthrough bleeding and increases the failure rate.
Multiphasic: low-dose estrogen with varying doses of progesterone on days 1-21.
Progestin-only pills: not as effective and can cause breakthrough bleeding.
Levonorgestrel: lasts up to five years.
Medroxyprogesterone: lasts three months.
Decreases the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and decreased the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
It involves the insertion of a small device into the uterus with the hopes of inhibiting implantation, altering tubal motility, or inflaming the endometrium.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices are associated with a relatively low failure rate (2-4% pregnancy rate) but do suffer from a higher rate of complications (e. G, four times increased the risk of ectopic pregnancy).
Intrauterine device (iud) with progestogen: it releases progesterone and must be replaced annually.
Iud with copper-t: it contains copper and can last up to 4-6 years.
Increased blood loss and duration of menses, increased dysmenorrhea
Expulsion of iud, pregnancy, perforation of the uterine wall when inserted, increased risk of tubo-ovarian abscess (esp. Among younger nulliparous females with greater than ;1 sex partner). Pid is not as common with the newer iuds but still a significant risk factor.
Indicated for: multiparous women greater than 35 years who smoke.
Concerns about pelvic infections and subsequent fertility often limit the use of iucds to women who are at low risk for sexually transmitted disease and to those less likely to desire further children, i. E, monogamous multigravid patients.
It involves the use of an artificial device to inserted into the vagina or fitted to the penis with the intent to retain the products of intercourse.
Condoms: condoms have a 2% failure rate in consistent couples and a 10% failure rate in occasional users. They are best indicated for std prevention.
Vaginal diaphragms: they have a 15-20% failure rate, but when combined with a spermicidal jelly and left in for 6-8 hours post-coitus failure rate declines to 2%. Diaphragms are associated with side effects of bladder irritation and cystitis, also colonization with s. Aureus if left in too long.
Cervical caps: they must be properly fitted and can be left in for a longer time than the diaphragm.
It has a 15- 20% failure rate and involves the use of sponges and spermicides.
Spermicides contain surfactants to disrupt cervical membranes; placed in the vagina up to 30 minutes before intercourse.
It involves the avoidance of intercourse from an onset of menses to 2-days post ovulation.
This method involves manipulation of parts of male and female anatomy such that conception is prevented by failure and gametes to combine.
Vasectomy: lesser than 1% failure and can be successfully reversed in some cases.
Tubal ligation: lesser than 1% failure rate. Increase risk of ectopic.
Emergency contraception pills - emergency contraception can be used if one had sex without using contraception; or if someone had sex but there was a mistake with contraception.
Emergency contraception options are usually very effective if started within 3-5 days of unprotected sex. The earlier you take this pill, the more effective it is. It works either by preventing or postponing ovulation or by preventing the fertilized egg from settling in the womb (uterus).
A proper patient counseling informing the success rate and complication of contraception should be an integral part of the treatment regime.
I am 23 years old boy and I have problem of gas. Actually my diet is very irregular. Sometimes I take dinner or lunch sometimes not. I am feeling this problem from last 2 years. I am not taking any medicine. Please give me some advice.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding refers to abnormal vaginal bleeding caused due to an imbalance in hormone levels and hormone signals. The affirmation of such a disorder is attained following the method of elimination. Ruling out factors leading to vaginal bleeding helps confirm the condition of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding. A proficient medical practitioner or a gynecologist so to say, will check if the bleeding is caused during pregnancy or due to a miscarriage, if there is a bacterial infection in the vagina or uterus and if bleeding is the result of a disease like cancer or a disorder like development of fibroids. When all these doubts are answered in negative, you know you are suffering from anovulatory bleeding; another name for the condition in concern. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding is also starkly set against incongruities resulting from systemic disorders, inflammation of the skin of your cervix and frequent consumption of oral contraceptives.
What triggers Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding:
Doctors say that Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding could possibly be the effect of your ovaries not releasing an egg. The frenzied interaction of hormone signals might make you bleed very heavily during menstruation. Menstrual blood is likely to contain clots. Also, menstruation in this case could either be premature or delayed.
Clinical ways to examine the presence of this disorder in a woman
- An ultrasound may be used to detect problems in the pelvic region or in the uterus.
- Hysteroscopy gives a detailed and clearer view of the uterus.
- Hormone tests such as thyroid function tests are also useful.
- Some doctors even make use of Pap smear for diagnosis.
- A pregnancy test can identify signs.
- Biopsy is used to check for cancer or precancerous cells.
Commonly observed symptoms:
Some of the symptoms of Dysfunctional Uterine Disorder are the same as that resulting from hormonal issues;
- Hirsutism or excess hair growth on the face, chest and limbs.
- A kind of tenderness felt in and around the vagina.
- Sudden outburst and mood swings.
Other symptoms characteristic of an ovulatory bleeding are:
- Bleeding or spotting from vagina between two consecutive periods.
- Prolonged and disabling periods: Menstruation for some might last for more than eight to ten days.
- The duration between periods keeps altering every month.
- Heavy blood flow during periods and passage of clots could be worrisome.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bladder needs careful medical assistance and prompt treatment. Delaying the process can make you anemic and severely prone to endometrial cancer.
I went usg on 18-04-2015, but did not found any thing. Lmp 17-02-2015, i sure test kit showing positive. Kindly guide.
I am 30 years old. I have two sons 8 year, and 5 year. Bache hone ke bad meri health bhut down ho gyi h. Breast ka size bi bhut chhota ho gya h. M apni health ki recovery kaise kru?
My wife period time irregular. 8years marriage. First child normal delivery. For second child we try. 4 years. But no chance fail.
I Am pregnant now. 10 weeks is running. Am having lower abdominal pain while sitting, long standing, and position changing times all. Sometimes dark discharge is coming. But my latest sonography is good. Babies heart rate also quite normal. Then why it happens? My past history is Hyperprolactemia and pcod.
She is getting headache onside. At certain period of time'she can not able to tolerate the pain. This is happening daily in the morning interval of time. At once she got out from the bed she use to tell like headache.
Changes in the colour of your urine can reveal important information about your health. If your urine takes on a hue beyond what's normal, it can be indicative of something wrong with your health. In general, the normal urine colour varies from pale yellow to deep yellowish-brown, which is a result of a chemical pigment in the urine called urochrome.
1. Red or Pink
- When your kidneys, urethra, bladder or any other urinary tract organ gets infected or inflamed, blood cells get leaked into the urine, giving it a red hue. The causes behind the presence of blood can be urinary tract infections, kidney cysts, kidney stones, enlarged prostate and even cancer. Taking blood thinners can also cause you to have blood in your urine.
- Certain foods like blackberries, rhubarb and beets can cause your urine to turn pink.
- The use of certain medications like a particular class of antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis can turn your urine red. Likewise, a drug used to numb discomfort in the urinary tract can cause a red/pink discoloration of your urine.
2. Blue or Green
- The consumption of coloured food dyes containing green or blue pigments can cause you to pass urine of such hues.
- Certain anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory medications can turn your urine green/blue.
- A very rare medical condition called familial benign hypercalcemia (fbh), characterised by high levels of calcium in thE blood and low levels of the mineral in the urine can cause your urine to turn blue.
- Green urine can also occur if your urinary tract gets infected by the pseudomonas bacteria.
3. Dark Brown
- Having large amounts of these foods - aloe, rhubarb (a type of leafy green) and broad beans can cause you to pass dark brown urine.
- Certain anti-malarial drugs, laxatives and muscle relaxants can darken the colour of your urine as well.
- Dark brown urine can also be caused by disorders of the kidney or liver as well as infections of the urinary tract.
- Injury of the muscle as a result of excessive training can result in dark brown urine.
- Problems with the bile duct (the duct through which bile from the gall bladder and liver passes before entering the duodenum) or liver along with the passing of light coloured stools can result in orange urine.
- A cause of orange urine may also be dehydration as fluids bring about a decrease in the concentration of compounds present in the urine.
- The presence of calcium or phosphate sediments in the urine can give it a white hue.
- White urine can also be a result of funguria infection (a form of fungal urinary infection wherein the fungus produces white sediments) or a bacterial infection.