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Dr. Sampangi Ramaiah S

Radiologist, Bangalore

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Dr. Sampangi Ramaiah S Radiologist, Bangalore
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To provide my patients with the highest quality healthcare, I'm dedicated to the newest advancements and keep up-to-date with the latest health care technologies....more
To provide my patients with the highest quality healthcare, I'm dedicated to the newest advancements and keep up-to-date with the latest health care technologies.
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Dr. Sampangi Ramaiah S is an experienced Radiologist in Mathikere, Bangalore. You can consult Dr. Sampangi Ramaiah S at SR Dianostic Centre in Mathikere, Bangalore. Book an appointment online with Dr. Sampangi Ramaiah S on Lybrate.com.

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SR Dianostic Centre

939, 1st Floor, N M complex, Opp. SK Jwellers, 1st Main Road, YeshwantpurarBangalore Get Directions
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Breast Cancer: 5 Signs You Might Be Suffering From It!

MD - Radiothrapy, MBBS
Oncologist, Pune
Breast Cancer: 5 Signs You Might Be Suffering From It!

Breast cancer is an abnormal growth of cells in the tissues of the breast. Mainly it occurs in females but less than 1% of all the breast cancer cases develop in males. The majority of breast cancers start in the milk ducts. A small number start in the milk sacs or lobules. It can spread to the lymph nodes and to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs and to the brain.

With more reliable early detection methods as well as the trend towards less invasive surgery, there is hope that even more women with breast cancer will be treated successfully and will go on to resume their normal lives.

Signs & Symptoms 
It is painless, especially, during the early stage. Watch out for the following changes in the breast:

  1. A persistent lump or thickening in the breast or in the axilla. 
  2. A change in the size or shape of the breast. 
  3. A change in the colour or appearance of the skin of the breast such as redness, puckering or dimpling. 
  4. Bloody discharge from the nipple. 
  5. A change in the nipple or areola such as scaliness, persistent rash or nipple retraction (nipple pulled into the breast).

Consult a doctor immediately if you notice any of these changes.

Risk Factors 
Being a woman puts you at risk of getting breast cancer. There are certain factors that increase the risk of breast cancer. Some of them have been listed below:

  1. The risk increases with age; most cases of breast cancer develop after the age of 50 
  2. Genetic alterations in certain genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 
  3. Family history of breast cancer 
  4. Being overweight 
  5. Early menarche (onset of menstruation before the age of 12) 
  6. Late ​menopause (after the age of 55) 
  7. Never had children 
  8. Late childbearing 
  9. No breast feeding 
  10. Excessive consumption of alcohol 
  11. Use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) for a long period of time

However, most women who have breast cancer have none of the above risk factors. Likewise, not having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will not get breast cancer.

Early Detection and Screening

More treatment options are available when breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage and hence the chances of recovery is also higher. So regular breast screening is important for early detection even if there are no symptoms. Following are the ways of screening:

  1. Breast Self-Examination (BSE): Perform BSE once a month about a week after your menses are over. If you no longer menstruate, choose a date each month which is easy to remember e.g. your date of birth or anniversary.
  2. Clinical Breast Examination: Get a breast specialist to examine your breast once a year if you are 40 years and above.
  3. Mammogram: Go for a screening mammogram once a year if you are 40 to 49 years old and once every two years if you are 50 years and above even if you do not have any symptom. It is not recommended for younger women (less than 40 years of age) as they have dense breasts, making it difficult for small changes to be detected on a mammogram. So ultrasonography of the breasts is advisable to them.

Types of Breast cancer

  1. Non-Invasive Breast cancer: These are confined to the ducts within the breasts. They are known as Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS).
  2. Invasive Breast cancer: It occurs when cancer cells spread beyond the ducts or lobules. Cancer cells first spread to the surrounding breast tissue and subsequently to the lymph nodes in the armpit (Axillary lymph nodes). These cells can also travel to the other parts of the body such as bones, liver, lungs or brain and hence known as metastatic breast cancer.

Making A Diagnosis 

If you notice any unusual changes in your breasts, you should see a doctor immediately. He will examine you clinically and may ask you to undergo some tests so that a definitive diagnosis can be made. Further, the staging work up is done to find out the stage of the disease and management accordingly.

Treatment options 
Treatment of breast cancer may include various methods such as surgery with or without breast reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. Treatment options offered, depend upon the number of factors such as the stage of cancer and likelihood of cure, your general health and your preference. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2095 people found this helpful

Disk l4 l5 mildly bulged diffusely and posture bilaterally mildly narrowing lateral recesses. I have phasing problem from last 2 months now I got MRI so I got above impression .Is it major and what is the solution and I am getting pain back to but.

Erasmus Mundus Master in Adapted Physical Activity, MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
This is a general low back ache and for this you can follow these measures: one keep a pillow right under the knee while sleeping, next is you can keep ice in the painful area for about 5--10 minutes, if pain still persists you can stretch your body by twisting the waist on both sides how we used to do in the school drill similarly you can try which will help you relax as well will reduce the pain. It looks like you are anaemic. If you have back pain after you sit for long hours then it is due to your haemoglobin levels as it is important to check that. Anaemia always leads to the symptoms of being tired and also having back / leg pain though there may not be any pathological reasons for back pain. If you have leg pain then you have to rule out the casues for having leg pain. First of all check your weight and your haemoglobin levels, as Anaemia always leads to the symptoms of being tired and also having leg pain though there are no issues with the knee joint or back pain. If not if the pain radiates down the back of thigh and legs then it might be due to sciatica. Kindly consult the nearby physiotherapist. Hope you recover soon from the leg pain. •Standing hamstring stretch: Place the heel of your injured leg on a stool about 15 inches high. Keep your knee straight. Lean forward, bending at the hips until you feel a mild stretch in the back of your thigh. Make sure you do not roll your shoulders and bend at the waist when doing this or you will stretch your lower back instead of your leg. Hold the stretch for 15 to 30 seconds. Repeat 3 times. •Cat and camel: Get down on your hands and knees. Let your stomach sag, allowing your back to curve downward. Hold this position for 5 seconds. Then arch your back and hold for 5 seconds. Do 3 sets of 10. •Quadruped arm/leg raise: Get down on your hands and knees. Tighten your abdominal muscles to stiffen your spine. While keeping your abdominals tight, raise one arm and the opposite leg away from you. Hold this position for 5 seconds. Lower your arm and leg slowly and alternate sides. Do this 10 times on each side. •Pelvic tilt: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Tighten your abdominal muscles and push your lower back into the floor. Hold this position for 5 seconds, then relax. Do 3 sets of 10. •Partial curl: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the floor. Tighten your stomach muscles. Tuck your chin to your chest. With your hands stretched out in front of you, curl your upper body forward until your shoulders clear the floor. Hold this position for 3 seconds. Don't hold your breath. It helps to breathe out as you lift your shoulders up. Relax. Repeat 10 times. Build to 3 sets of 10. To challenge yourself, clasp your hands behind your head and keep your elbows out to the side. •Gluteal stretch: Lying on your back with both knees bent, rest the ankle of one leg over the knee of your other leg. Grasp the thigh of the bottom leg and pull that knee toward your chest. You will feel a stretch along the buttocks and possibly along the outside of your hip on the top leg. Hold this for 15 to 30 seconds. Repeat 3 times. •Extension exercise: Lie face down on the floor for 5 minutes. If this hurts too much, lie face down with a pillow under your stomach. This should relieve your leg or back pain. When you can lie on your stomach for 5 minutes without a pillow, then you can continue with the rest of this exercise.
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At L4-L5diffuse disc bulge with right para central protrusion causing severe canal stenosis, compression over the allows sac, nerve root of audacity equine, bilateral traversing nerve roots in lateral recess marked on right side. AtL5-S1 a focal posterior central disc bulge with tear, mild to moderate canal stenosis, compression over the alloy sac, left traversing S1 nerve root in lateral recess. Neural foramina on either side however exiting nerve root look free in neural foramen. Hip n screening within normal limits. This is the report of MRI. please suggest.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery
Podiatrist, Kochi
The MRI report informs that there is intervertibral disc prolapse at L4/5 area with cord compression. There is also disc degeneration of L5 SI. You probably would be having low back pain and pain and discomfort of the lower limbs. If you are markedly symptomatic, then minimal access surgery is indicated to remove the involved disc and relieve cord compression and symptoms. You can consult a Neurosurgeon or Orthopedic surgeon for the same. If you do not have any marked symptoms, doctor would probably advise physiotherapy and wait to see if it relieves your discomfort and then advise accordingly.
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Know More About Bone Cancer!

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Chennai
Know More About Bone Cancer!

Cancer that originates in the bones of a human body is referred to as bone cancer. Any bone could come under the threat of this disease, but generally the longer bones of your body, so to say the bones of your limbs, are at a greater risk. 

A few factors that might push you an inch closer to bone cancer are:

  1. Genes could jinx your health: A few typical genetic syndromes could increase a person's chances of contracting bone cancer. These syndromes could have been active in any person belonging to your lineage. One such syndrome is Li-Fraumeni.
  2. Treatment for one kind of cancer can make you prone to some other kind: Radiation affects your bones adversely. A patient of breast cancer might be undergoing radiation therapy that further increases his or her risk of contracting bone cancer in future.  
  3. Paget's disease can have unfavorable implications: Paget's disease is a disease that affects elderly people. This condition, if left untreated, can turn into bone cancer at a later stage. 

Several symptoms of bone cancer can be found below:

  1. Sudden loss of weight: If you lose a considerable amount of weight in a few weeks time without having made any effort at all, you should probably be worried about the health of your bones. Bone cancer can result in sudden and unintentional weight loss. 
  2. Unexpected bone fracture or breakage: Cancer of the bones is known to gnaw at the strength of your bones. Weakened and diseased bones can break or get fractured very easily. An unexpected fracture should not be overlooked so as to prevent chances of anything more harmful.
  3. Long spans of unyielding exhaustion: Constant fatigue and sleepiness might be hinting at a more serious underlying problem. The bones in your body hold you together; cancerous bone cells can make you feel exhausted without much exertion as your bones lose their inherent potency.
  4. Persistent pain in the bones: Excruciating cramps or pangs of stinging pain in a person's bones either continuously or at odd hours, could be indicative of bone cancer. Such instances require the advice and guidance of an experienced oncologist.
  5. Bone swelling: The area affected by bone cancer can grow big and tender or the bone itself can swell up.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

5498 people found this helpful

Common Causes and Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Common Causes and Symptoms of Uterine Prolapse

The uterus is a muscular structure held in place inside your pelvis with the help of muscles, ligaments, and tissues. These muscles weaken in women due to pregnancy, childbirth or delivery complications and can lead to severe complications. One such complication is a uterine prolapse. Uterine prolapse occurs when the uterus sags or slips from its normal position into the vaginal canal.

The causes of uterine prolapse are varied and include:

- Delivering a large baby
- Pregnancy
- Difficulty in labor and delivery
- Reduction in estrogen levels post menopause
- Traumatic childbirth
- Loss or weakening of the pelvic muscle
- Conditions which lead to increased pressure in the abdominal area such as a chronic cough, straining, pelvic tumors or accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
- Loss of external support due to major surgery in pelvic area

Uterine prolapse can be complete or incomplete depending on how far the uterus sags into the vagina. Women who have minor uterine prolapse may not have any visible symptoms. However, if the condition worsens, it manifests itself in visible signs.

Symptoms of moderate or severe prolapse are:

1. A feeling of fullness or pressure in your pelvis when you sit
2. Seeing the uterus or cervix coming out of the vagina
3. Vaginal bleeding or increased discharge
4. Painful sexual intercourse
5. Recurrent bladder infections
6. Continuing back pain with difficulty in walking, urinating and moving your bowels

Without proper attention, the condition can cause impairments in the bowel, and can also affect bladder and sexual function.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

4833 people found this helpful

Everything You Need to Know About Your Pap Smear!

MD - General Medicine, MBBS
General Physician, Ahmedabad
Everything You Need to Know About Your Pap Smear!

A Pap Smear is a screening test done to to test for occurrence of uterine cancer. Carried out in a quick and simple way to extract a sample, the sample is collected from the cervix area of a woman during a pelvic exam. The examination of the sample takes place under a microscope thereafter to find abnormalities that can point towards cancer and pre cancer changes.

There are many reasons why women should get a pap smear screening done:

1. Women who are HIV positive should get this test done regularly so as to detect any anomalies in the cervix. This condition usually comes with higher risk of infections and cancer, which is why regular screening is required.

2. Age is also another factor and women over the age of 30 should go through an annual screening on a compulsory basis. This is also true for women who have been through pregnancy and child birth.

Preparing for a Pap Smear: To prepare for a pap smear test, you need to ensure that you are not menstruating at the time. Also, you may want to avoid sexual activity just before the test so as to get the most accurate readings. During the process, remember to stay calm and relax your body physically.

Procedure: The pap smear procedure is a quick one that might be only slightly uncomfortable. This test is usually carried out on the examination table at the gynecologist's clinic. The legs will need to be spread and placed in stirrups. The doctor will insert a speculum to hold open the vaginal opening so that the spatula can be inserted easily to take a sample from the area. This sample of the cells will be tested in a lab after due preservation.

Test Results: The test results can either be normal or abnormal. An abnormal result does not point at the presence of cancer. Rather it can simply mean that abnormal cells exist in the cervix. The doctor may ask you to go through these tests and screening more frequently so as to study the anomalies in a more detailed manner. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4896 people found this helpful

I'm 42 years old. I'm suffering from l-s 4 slip disc. please tell what can be done?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
(A) Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. (B) Use no pillow under the head. (C) Kindly take BioD3 Max 1 tab dailyx10 Paracetamol 250mg OD & SOS x5days (D) Do back(spine)/shoulder/knee exercises (E)Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take (F) Do not ignore it. It could be beginning of a serious problem. (G) If no relief in 4_5 days,then contact me again. (H) Contact your family doctor or nearest hospital for emergency help.
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Mastectomy - Understanding The Types!

DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Mastectomy - Understanding The Types!

A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:

Types of Mastectomy

1. Total or simple mastectomy

This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.

2. Preventive mastectomy

Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.

3. Partial mastectomy

Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.

4. Radical mastectomy

Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.

5. Modified mastectomy

It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.

Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:

• Age of the individual

• Health in general

• Size of the tumor

• The spread of the tumor

• The rate of progression of the tumor

• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not 

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

5066 people found this helpful

I am an advocate and have got sitting job for long hours and walking job too. I am suffer from slip disc. Any treatment?

Fellowship In Arthroplasty and Arthroscopy, MS Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Gurgaon
Regular exercises and maintaining good posture whie sitting is the key to avoid most of the back pain problems. Please do take frequent breaks every hr and strech your muscles and do not sit for long.
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How Can You Prevent Breast Cancer?

MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Hubli-Dharwad
How Can You Prevent Breast Cancer?

If you are concerned about breast cancer, you should know about the steps you can take to prevent the condition. Breast cancer is a type of cancer developing from the breast tissue. Symptoms such as a lump in the breast, fluid flowing from the nipple, changes in the shape of the breast and occurrence of red scaly patches on the breast denote breast cancer.

You need to make certain lifestyle changes in order to prevent breast cancer. The ways you should adopt include the following:

  1. Limit your alcohol intake: The more you consume alcohol, the more you put yourself at the risk of getting breast cancer. It is recommended for you not to drink more than one drink per day. Small amounts of alcohol increase the risk of breast cancer as well.

  2. Abstain from smoking: There is a direct link between tobacco smoking and breast cancer, and the risk is even more in premenopausal women. You should quit smoking to reduce the risk of breast cancer along with many other conditions, which can develop because of the ill-effects of smoking.

  3. Control your weight: Obese women are more prone to breast cancer when compared with women with a healthy weight. This is especially true when obesity occurs at a later stage in life, after menopause.

  4. Keep physically active: Regular physical activity is essential for you to maintain a healthy weight, which is important for preventing breast cancer. 150 minutes of moderate aerobic exercises or 75 minutes of vigorous exercises are recommended along with strength training.

  5. Breastfeed: Breastfeeding plays an important role in preventing breast cancer. The more you breastfeed your baby, the more protected you are from breast cancer.

  6. Limit the dosage and duration of hormone therapy: If you undertake combination hormone therapy for more than three to five years, you are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer. In case you are taking hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms, you should talk to your doctor about alternative options such as non-hormonal therapy and medications. If you still require hormonal therapy, you must use the lowest dose that will be effective.

  7. Avoid exposure to radiation and pollution: Certain medical imaging procedures like computerized tomography involves radiation of high doses. There is a link between breast cancer and radiation exposure. Thus, you should abstain from getting exposed to radiation and avoid taking such tests if it is not very urgent.

Maintaining a healthy diet also helps in reducing your risk of developing breast cancer. You should include food items which are plant based in your regular diet, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and legumes. Also, consume healthy fats such as olive oil instead of red meat and butter. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an oncologist.

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