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Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Hello. My daughter is one year old. She has been suffering from cold and cough since a week. I am giving her sinarest AF and Brozeet. What else I have to give? Should I massage mustard oil on her feet? Pl help.
1.3 new goals – cure, prevent resistance and break chain of transmission.
2. Introduction of daily regime.
3. Definition and treatment of mono and polyresistance apart from mdr and xdr tuberculosis.
4. Treatment in cat 1 – 2 (hrze) + 4 (hre): continue ethambutol in continuation phase too.
5. Treatment in cat 2 – 2 (hrzes) + 1 (hrze) + 5 (hre).
6. Introduction of bedaquiline as a new drug. Atp synthase inhibitor specifically targets myc. Tb. Indicated in age more than 18 years. Contraindicatef in pregnancy and those taking hormonal ocp. It may be given in patients with stable arrythmia.
7. Definition of presumptive tuberculosis. Duration > 2 weeks etc.
8. New algorithm to diagnose tuberculosis – pulmonary, extrapulmonary, drug resistant.
9. Introduction of newer molecular methods like cbnaat and line probe assay in diagnostic algorithm apart from smear microscopy and chest xray.
10. Diagnosis of tuberculosis based on x-ray will be called as clinically diagnosed tuberculosis.
11. Sputum should be around 2ml and preferably be mucopurulent.
12. Follow up – new and previously treated drug sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis – no need to extend intensive phase, sputum microscopy at end of ip and end of treatment, weight monthly, chest x-ray if required.
13. Follow up – mdr tuberculosis – sputum smear monthly 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 months in intensive phase and at 3 months interval in continuation phase 9, 12, 15, extend ip phase by maximum 3 months total of 9 months.
Some more additions to it, adding here which might help to pg students.
1) monitoring health status of tb treated patients (for recurrence of tb) for 24 months after treatment
2) online monitoring of treatment adherence through 99dots programme (currently it is on pilot basis running for tb-hiv patients)
3) intensified tb case finding in clinically, socially and geographically vulnerable population. It's a provider initiated activity.
4) now'tb suspect' term is replaced by'presumptive tb case.
5) in diagnostic algorithm sputum examination along with chest x-ray is recommended.
6)'nsp' term is replaced by'microbiologically confirmed case'
7) nsn and others r called now onwards'clinically diagnosed tb' case. (terms replaced)
8) definitions of cured, defaulted, treatment completed, failure, failure to respond, loss to follow up are somwhat changed.
9) cat i, cat ii, cat iv terminologies r obsolete n replaced by drug sensitive (new or previously treated) and drug resistant tb categories.
Generally known as Lasoon. To maintain normal health there is no any other substitute except Garlic.
It?s a great n effective natural antibiotic.
How to use:
Skin Problem: with neem for best result
Whooping cough: 1- Tab 2 times in day
Asthma: 3 pcs of Garlic boiled in Milk & drink every day night
Low BP: 1 Tab 2 times in a day
Earache: Boil well in oil and filter, use as ear drops
Phlegm: To Filtered as above & rub on chest and throat
Gas / Indigestion: 2- tab at Night
Its also useful in Fungal Infection, Acne, Obesity,Pimples, Tuberculosis, Ring Worms Etc ?
Sir my child 07 years old but she never feel hungry I have done lot of test like tv, ultrasound and lot of blood test but only tv direct few we have given 9 month medicine but still she is not eating.
My 1 year old son's right eye is red and swollen for 3 days now. Giving him tobra d and ciplox. No improvement. Please advise.?
Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD is a behavioral disorder that comprises impulsive behavior, inattentiveness and hyperactivity. This disorder tends to affect children more commonly, but the symptoms tend to disappear as one ages.
There are a number of symptoms for this disorder:
- Concentration problems: People affected by this disorder have problems in staying focused on routine tasks. You may have problems in listening to conversations, get distracted easily, overlook various important things and have trouble remembering various things.
- Being disorganized and forgetting things: You may exhibit symptoms such as having an extremely cluttered desk. You may also experience difficulties in completing projects and forgetting appointments. You may also lose track of time while doing important things.
- Emotional problems: Various emotional problems such as mood swings, hypersensitivity to criticism, problems in staying motivated and having low self-esteem are common signs of ADD. The disorder may also lead you to be extremely short tempered and be constantly frustrated.
- Hyperactivity: This symptom causes you to remain constantly agitated, unable to focus due to a racing mind, fidgeting constantly and talking excessively.
- Impulsivity: You will exhibit impulsive behavior such as not being able to exercise self-control, blurting out inappropriate comments and have certain addictive tendencies.
Attention Deficit Disorder can cause various problems in your life. Most of these are related to the following domains:
- Work related problems: You may constantly feel a sense of underachievement and will unable to meet your work responsibilities. You may be unable to meet deadlines, and face problems in filing paperwork.
- Relationship problems: This disorder takes a toll on your relationships such as it can create a rift between you and your family. They may feel that you are not sensitive to their concerns.
- Mental health problems: You may face various mental health problems such as drug abuse, anxiety, self-esteem issues and chronic stress.
Remedies for this disorder are:
- Get proper sleep: You should always aim to sleep for at least 6 hours every day. If you are well rested, then you will be more energetic and stress free.
- Regular exercise: You should exercise on a regular basis to keep yourself fit and healthy. It can also help you avoid problems such as obesity.
- Improve your relationships: You should schedule time for your loved ones and engage with them. It may contribute to your overall mental well-being. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.
My baby has no hair around her occiput area .it is well demarcated and it starts from one temporal side to the other. And she is 3 months old .i wonder if that is a normal variant or not.
My daughter age is 11 now she is having fever, doctor has told he has given 3 days medicine suspecting mums, what she should take?
Your hearing is one of the most important function your body carries out and sometimes you realize that you are losing your sense of hearing, when it is too late to get it back. There are two main reasons for this. One of the reason is age and the other is when the inner ear's hair cells break down and do not pick up sound well.
Here are 7 ways to safeguard your hearing:
- Try to avoid loud places: It is not advisable to go to places where you have to shout to be heard, such as in a street, a concert or a construction site.
- Buy low noise rating equipment: The equipments in your house will make sound that you hear the most. Try to avoid these equipments by buying appliances with a low noise rating.
- Wear hearing protection at loud places: However, it is true that it is not always possible to avoid loud noises. This is when you need to get hearing protection. Earplugs and earmuffs are two of the best ways to make sure that even when you are in a loud place, your hearing does not get affected. Earplugs and earmuffs generally reduce sound by 15 to 30 decibels, which may be crucial to make sure that later in your life, you do not lose your hearing.
- Avoid smoke: Smoking raises your chance of hearing loss. Second hand smoke does the same thing. Therefore, try to avoid, both smoking and secondhand smoking.
- Remove earwax properly: Earwax cannot be removed properly using a cotton swab. Instead, you should use an irrigation kit. Remember this as otherwise; the earwax could muffle your hearing.
- Avoid medications which reduce hearing: Certain medications increase hearing loss. Therefore, double check with your doctor to make sure your medicines will not make you lose your hearing.
- Get your hearing tested: Finally, get your hearing tested as identifying the problem early on can help stop worsen the situation.
My baby boy is 9 month his inguinal hernia nd undescended testicle operation was last week, I want to know in future no problem his fertility.
How can I change the habit of breast feeding of my child of 3 yrs? She is not taking any other foods. please help.
Meri daughter 4 saal ki hai. Uske chehre per 15-20 masse ho gye hai jo abhi shuruat (safed) hai. Unhe rokne or khatam karne ka loi ilaaj bataeye. Dhanyawad.
My baby is 9 months. She has no teeth till now. What kind of food should I give her as she ia not able to chew. If she find any particle she vomits it.
My little baby is 4 years old. She is facing cough, and from 1 week there are so many bumps on her body like rashes. What is it? She not having fever at all.
My child boy age is 7 years. Until now his testis weren't entered into the scrotum. In the sonography, it was found that they remained below the abdomen. What happens if they not enters in the scrotum? What should I do for my child? If to be operated. How much expenditure would be? Pls help me.
My son is 5 year old. In his chest x-ray report it is given that hilar shadows prominent right side and in blood test report mch- 23.2 and mcv- 74.5. Please tell me what is the problem.
What is ADHD?
ADHD, also called attention-deficit disorder, is a behavior disorder, usually first diagnosed in childhood, that is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity. These symptoms usually occur together; however, one may occur without the other(s).
The symptoms of hyperactivity, when present, are almost always apparent by the age of 7 and may be present in very young preschoolers. Inattention or attention-deficit may not be evident until a child faces the expectations of elementary school.
What are the different types of ADHD?
Three major types of ADHD include the following:
ADHD, combined type. This, the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors as well as inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, impulsive/hyperactive type. This, the least common type of ADHD, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility.
ADHD, inattentive and distractible type. This type of ADHD is characterized predominately by inattention and distractibility without hyperactivity.
What causes attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
ADHD is one of the most researched areas in child and adolescent mental health. However, the precise cause of the disorder is still unknown. Available evidence suggests that ADHD is genetic. It is a brain-based biological disorder. Low levels of dopamine (a brain chemical), which is a neurotransmitter (a type of brain chemical), are found in children with ADHD. Brain imaging studies using PET scanners (positron emission tomography; a form of brain imaging that makes it possible to observe the human brain at work) show that brain metabolism in children with ADHD is lower in the areas of the brain that control attention, social judgment, and movement.
Who is affected by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Estimates suggest that about 4% to 12% of children have ADHD. Boys are 2 to 3 times more likely to have ADHD of the hyperactive or combined type than girls.
Many parents of children with ADHD experienced symptoms of ADHD when they were younger. ADHD is commonly found in brothers and sisters within the same family. Most families seek help when their child's symptoms begin to interfere with learning and adjustment to the expectations of school and age-appropriate activities.
What are the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
The following are the most common symptoms of ADHD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. The 3 categories of symptoms of ADHD include the following:
Short attention span for age (difficulty sustaining attention)
Difficulty listening to others
Difficulty attending to details
Poor organizational skills for age
Poor study skills for age
Often interrupts others
Has difficulty waiting for his or her turn in school and/or social games
Tends to blurt out answers instead of waiting to be called upon
Takes frequent risks, and often without thinking before acting
Seems to be in constant motion; runs or climbs, at times with no apparent goal except motion
Has difficulty remaining in his/her seat even when it is expected
Fidgets with hands or squirms when in his or her seat; fidgeting excessively
Has difficulty engaging in quiet activities
Loses or forgets things repeatedly and often
Inability to stay on task; shifts from one task to another without bringing any to completion
The symptoms of ADHD may resemble other medical conditions or behavior problems. Keep in mind that many of these symptoms may occur in children and teens who do not have ADHD. A key element in diagnosis is that the symptoms must significantly impair adaptive functioning in both home and school environments. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.
How is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed?
ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder of childhood. A pediatrician, child psychiatrist, or a qualified mental health professional usually identifies ADHD in children. A detailed history of the child's behavior from parents and teachers, observations of the child's behavior, and psychoeducational testing contribute to making the diagnosis of ADHD. Because ADHD is a group of symptoms, diagnosis depends on evaluating results from several different sources, including physical, neurological, and psychological testing. Certain tests may be used to rule out other conditions, and some may be used to test intelligence and certain skill sets. Consult your child's doctor for more information.
Treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Specific treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder will be determined by your child's doctor based on:
Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
Extent of your child's symptoms
Your child's tolerance for specific medications or therapies
Expectations for the course of the condition
Your opinion or preference
Major components of treatment for children with ADHD include parental support and education in behavioral training, appropriate school placement, and medication. Treatment with a psychostimulant is highly effective in most children with ADHD.
Treatment may include:
Psychostimulant medications. These medications are used for their ability to balance chemicals in the brain that prohibit the child from maintaining attention and controlling impulses. They help "stimulate" or help the brain to focus and may be used to reduce the major characteristics of ADHD.
Medications that are commonly used to treat ADHD include the following:
Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Concerta, Methylin)
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat)
A mixture of amphetamine salts (Adderall)
Atomoxetine (Strattera). A nonstimulant SNRI (selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) medication with benefits for related mood symptoms.
Psychostimulants have been used to treat childhood behavior disorders since the 1930s and have been widely studied. Traditional immediate release stimulants take effect in the body quickly, work for 1 to 4 hours, and then are eliminated from the body. Many long-acting stimulant medications are also available, lasting 8 to 9 hours, and requiring 1 daily dosing. Doses of stimulant medications need to be timed to match the child's school schedule to help the child pay attention for a longer period of time and improve classroom performance. The common side effects of stimulants may include, but are not limited to, the following:
Rebound activation (when the effect of the stimulant wears off, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors may increase for a short period of time)
Most side effects of stimulant use are mild, decrease with regular use, and respond to dose changes. Always discuss potential side effects with your child's doctor.
Antidepressant medications may also be administered for children and adolescents with ADHD to help improve attention while decreasing aggression, anxiety, and/or depression.
Psychosocial treatments. Parenting children with ADHD may be difficult and can present challenges that create stress within the family. Classes in behavior management skills for parents can help reduce stress for all family members. Training in behavior management skills for parents usually occurs in a group setting which encourages parent-to-parent support. Behavior management skills may include the following:
Contingent attention (responding to the child with positive attention when desired behaviors occur; withholding attention when undesired behaviors occur)
Teachers may also be taught behavior management skills to use in the classroom setting. Training for teachers usually includes use of daily behavior reports that communicate in-school behaviors to parents.
Behavior management techniques tend to improve targeted behaviors (such as completing school work or keeping the child's hands to himself or herself), but are not usually helpful in reducing overall inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity.
Prevention of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
Preventive measures to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children are not known at this time. However, early detection and intervention can reduce the severity of symptoms, decrease the interference of behavioral symptoms on school functioning, enhance the child's normal growth and development, and improve the quality of life experienced by children or adolescents with ADHD.