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Dr. Ravi Prasad

MBBS

Radiologist, Bangalore

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Dr. Ravi Prasad MBBS Radiologist, Bangalore
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I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family....more
I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family.
More about Dr. Ravi Prasad
Dr. Ravi Prasad is one of the best Radiologists in Chandra Layout, Bangalore. He has done MBBS . You can consult Dr. Ravi Prasad at Sri Vinayaka Hospital in Chandra Layout, Bangalore. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Ravi Prasad on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 41 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Sri Vinayaka Hospital

# 1222,80 Feet Road ,Chandra Layout Extension. Landmark : Near Ganesh TempleBangalore Get Directions
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Sri Vinayaka Hospital

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I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess narrowing with mild thecal sac indentation and abutting transversing nerve fibres and existing neural foramen stenosis.(2) subtle L3 -L4 diffuse posture lateral iv disc bulge causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess effacement. What is the treatment of it .is surgery necessary for it.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing a...
: keep your leg raised while sitting or lying quadriceps strengthening exercises- quad clenches: lie flat on your back or sit upright on a chair with leg kept horizontally on another surface. Now, tighten the muscle on the front of the thigh by pushing your knee down. You should feel your thigh muscles clench, hold for 3 secs. Repeat 10 times twice a day. Short arcs: lie flat on your back or sit upright with your leg placed horizontally on a flat surface like a chair or bed. Place a rolled up towel under the knee. Pull your toes towards you and clench you thigh muscles. Slowly lift your foot up off the bed until your knee is straight (keep your knee resting on the towel). Hold for 3 secs and slowly lower them on the chair. Repeat 10 times twice a day. Straight leg raise: lie flat on your back. One leg and knee will be straight and other leg should be bent. Pull your toes towards you and tighten/clench the muscle on the front of the thigh, locking your knee straight. Lift your foot up in the air, about 6 inches off the bed. Hold for 3 secs and slowly lower the leg. The knee must remain straight the whole time you are doing this exercise.
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I am 38 years old man having back pain lasting for 20 days from mild to severe in left hip side. In consultation to orthopedic surgeon and after MRI one doctor told me the disease sciatica and another its slip disc. MRI of LS SPINE report says the result of AP diameter L1-L2=15, L2-L3=08, L3-L4=15, L4-L5=10 , L5-S1=09 Impression: 1) Degenerative DISC DISEASE with generalised disc bulge at L3-L4. Please tell.

DHMS (Hons.)
Homeopath, Patna
I am 38 years old man having back pain lasting for 20 days from mild to severe in left hip side. In consultation to o...
Hi, it might b sciatica which is painful when you r in absolut rest & b relieved when you r mobile. Take, homoeo medicine: @ rhus tox 1000-6 pills, wkly. Avoid, junk food, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, cold intake, jerks, riding tk, rest.
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I am 39 years my weight is 95 kg, my height is 5.4, I have ligament tear in my right knee, I have slip disc in l4, l5, high bp. Etc, please suggest how to loose weight. Rapidly fast if any medicine that can help to reduce the weight.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
I am 39 years my weight is 95 kg, my height is 5.4, I have ligament tear in my right knee, I have slip disc in l4, l5...
Weight reduction can not be done over night. You have to take it as a way of life. Do diet control. No sugar in tea, coffee, milk etc. No sweets take small frequent feeds. When you get used to it, skip one meal. You should do non weight bearing yoga exercises. For your knee problem you would need arthroscopic knee surgery. It is a very safe procedure in our hands with uniformly good results. We have very good well equipped center in delhi. Do ask for detailed treatment plan. Don? t ignore it lest it become beginning of a bigger problem.
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Fibroid Tumours - 8 Signs You are Suffering From it

MBBS, MD, Registrar, DNB, MNAMS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Fibroid Tumours - 8 Signs You are Suffering From it

Fibroid tumour is the abnormal cell growth in the uterus and they are mostly benign. Fibroids usually affect women in the age bracket of 30 - 40. Fibroid tumours are of three types, depending on their location:

  1. Submucosal fibroids: The tumour develops under the lining of the uterus
  2. Intramural fibroids: The growth is found amongst the muscles in the wall of the uterus
  3. Subserosal fibroids: The growth develops on the wall of the uterus right in the pelvic cavity

Causes behind it
The exact cause of fibroids in not known clearly. But certain factors have been discovered that might influence their formation. These factors include:

  1. Hormones: Progesterone and estrogen are the hormones responsible for recreating the uterine lining during every menstrual cycle. These hormones might trigger the formation of tumour.
  2. Family history: If any member in your family; your mother, grandmother or sister has/had fibroids in their uterus, you may also develop it.
  3. Pregnancy: Your body produces excessive progesterone and estrogen when you are pregnant, which may cause an increase in the size of a pre-existing small fibroid. Myomectomy can be done by giving incision on the abdomen or by laparoscopy depending on the size and location of the fibroids.

Signs You are suffering from it

  1. Heavy bleeding along with blood clots during or between your periods
  2. Lower back or pelvic pain
  3. Elevated menstrual cramping
  4. Frequent urination
  5. Pain during sex
  6. Longer than normal periods
  7. Bloating or pressure in lower abdomen
  8. Enlargement or swelling of the abdomen

How it can be treated?
Your doctor will formulate the right treatment depending on your age, the mass of the fibroids and your overall health. Your doctor may choose a combination of treatment to cure your fibroids, and they include:

  1. Medication: Gonadotropin releasing hormones (GnRH) agonists, birth control pills and ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory medicine) are prescribed. GnRH agonists reduce the level of progesterone and estrogen in your uterus.
  2. Surgery: Myomectomy and hysterectomy are two common surgical procedures to treat fibroids. Myomectomy is performed by removing the fibroids only by making an incision on the abdomen. But hysterectomy completely removes the uterus. The latter is reserved for serious cases.
  3. Non-invasive surgery: Forced ultrasound surgery, myolysis (shrinking fibroids with laser or electric current), cryomyolysis (fibroids are frozen) and endometrial ablation (an instrument uses heat, hot water, microwaves or electric current to destroy fibroids) are some non-invasive surgical procedures. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
2516 people found this helpful

I have slip disc l4 l5 over three years. What can I do for it some thing different?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Investigations advised - hb, tlc, dlc, esr, sugar f & pp, uric acid, vit d3 urine r/e x ray of the affected part. Anyway you may try- sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Spring beds, folding beds or thick mattress are harmful use no pillow under the head. Do hot fomentation. Paracetamol 250mg od & sos x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab od x10. Do neck back knee & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If no relief in 4_5 days, then inform again.
5 people found this helpful
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Breast Cancer Prevention:

Homeopath,

Breast Cancer Prevention:

  1. Anything that increases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer risk factor; anything that decreases your chance of developing cancer is called a cancer protective factor.

  2. Some risk factors for cancer can be avoided, but many cannot. For example, both smoking and inheriting certain genes are risk factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors for some types of cancer. Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may lower your risk but it does not mean that you will not get cancer. Different ways to prevent cancer are being studied, including:

  3. Changing lifestyle or eating habits. Avoiding things known to cause cancer. Taking medicine to treat a precancerous condition or to keep cancer from starting.


 

General information about breast cancer:

Key points:

  1. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast. Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in india

  2. Breast cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the breast.

  3. The breast is made up of lobes and ducts. Each breast has 15 to 20 sections called lobes, which have many smaller sections called lobules. Lobules end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can make milk. The lobes, lobules, and bulbs are linked by thin tubes called ducts.

  4. Enlarge Drawing of female breast anatomy showing the lymph nodes, nipple, areola, chest wall, ribs, muscle, fatty tissue, lobe, ducts, and lobules.

  5. Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola are shown on the outside of the breast. The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, and other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown.

  6. Each breast also has blood vessels and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels carry an almost colorless fluid called lymph. Lymph vessels lead to organs called lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body. They filter lymph and store white blood cells that help fight infection and disease. Clusters of lymph nodes are found near the breast in the axilla (under the arm), above the collarbone, and in the chest.

     

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may help prevent cancer. The following are risk factors for breast cancer:

  1. Older agea personal history of breast cancer or benign (noncancer) breast diseasea family history of breast cancerinherited gene changesdense breasts

  2. Exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made in the bodytaking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause radiation therapy


 

The following are protective factors for breast cancer:

  1. Less exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made by the bodytaking estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy,

  2. Estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomyselective estrogen receptor modulatorsaromatase inhibitors and inactivators

  3. Risk-reducing mastectomy ovarian ablationgetting enough exercise


 

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of breast cancer:

  1. Oral contraceptives

  2. Factors include smoking, being overweight, and not getting enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and exercising may also help prevent some cancers. Talk to your doctor or other health care professional about how you might lower your risk


 

Older age:

  1. Older age is the main risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

  2. A personal history of breast cancer or benign (noncancer) breast disease

     

Women with any of the following have an increased risk of breast cancer:

  1. A personal history of invasive breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis), or lobular carcinoma in situ (lcis). A personal history of benign (noncancer) breast disease.

  2. A family history of breast cancer

  3. Women with a family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) have an increased risk of breast cancer.


 

Inherited gene changes:

  1. Women who have inherited changes in the brca1 and brca2 genes or in certain other genes have a higher risk of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and maybe colon cancer. The risk of breast cancer caused by inherited gene changes depends on the type of gene mutation, family history of cancer, and other factors.

  2. Men who have inherited certain changes in the brca2 gene have a higher risk of breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancers, and lymphoma.


 

Dense breasts:

  1. Having breast tissue that is dense on a mammogram is a factor in breast cancer risk. The level of risk depends on how dense the breast tissue is. Women with very dense breasts have a higher risk of breast cancer than women with low breast density.

  2. Increased breast density is often an inherited trait, but it may also occur in women who have not had children, have a first pregnancy late in life, take postmenopausal hormones, or drink alcohol.

  3. Exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made in the body

  4. Estrogen is a hormone made by the body. It helps the body develop and maintain female sex characteristics. Being exposed to estrogen over a long time may increase the risk of breast cancer. Estrogen levels are highest during the years a woman is menstruating.


 

A woman's exposure to estrogen is increased in the following ways:

Early menstruation: beginning to have menstrual periods at age 11 or younger increases the number of years the breast tissue is exposed to estrogen. Starting menopause at a later age: the more years a woman menstruates, the longer her breast tissue is exposed to estrogen. Older age at first birth or never having given birth: because estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy, breast tissue is exposed to more estrogen in women who become pregnant for the first time after age 35 or who never become pregnant.

 

Taking hormone therapy for symptoms of menopause:

Hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone, can be made into a pill form in a laboratory. Estrogen, progestin, or both may be given to replace the estrogen no longer made by the ovaries in postmenopausal women or women who have had their ovaries removed. This is called hormone replacement therapy (hrt) or hormone therapy (ht). Combination hrt/ht is estrogen combined with progestin. This type of hrt/ht increases the risk of breast cancer. Studies show that when women stop taking estrogen combined with progestin, the risk of breast cancer decreases.


 

Radiation therapy to the breast or chest:

  1. Radiation therapy to the chest for the treatment of cancer increases the risk of breast cancer, starting 10 years after treatment. The risk of breast cancer depends on the dose of radiation and the age at which it is given. The risk is highest if radiation treatment was used during puberty, when breasts are forming.

  2. Radiation therapy to treat cancer in one breast does not appear to increase the risk of cancer in the other breast.

  3. For women who have inherited changes in the brca1 and brca2 genes, exposure to radiation, such as that from chest x-rays, may further increase the risk of breast cancer, especially in women who were x-rayed before 20 years of age.


 

Obesity:

Obesity increases the risk of breast cancer, especially in postmenopausal women who have not used hormone replacement therapy.


 

Drinking alcohol:

Drinking alcohol increases the risk of breast cancer. The level of risk rises as the amount of alcohol consumed rises.


 

The following are protective factors for breast cancer:

  1. Less exposure of breast tissue to estrogen made by the body

  2. Decreasing the length of time a woman's breast tissue is exposed to estrogen may help prevent breast cancer. Exposure to estrogen is reduced in the following ways:


 

Early pregnancy: estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy. Women who have a full-term pregnancy before age 20 have a lower risk of breast cancer than women who have not had children or who give birth to their first child after age 35. Breast-feeding: estrogen levels may remain lower while a woman is breast-feeding. Women who breastfed have a lower risk of breast cancer than women who have had children but did not breastfeed.

Taking estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, or aromatase inhibitors and inactivators


 

Estrogen-only hormone therapy after hysterectomy

Hormone therapy with estrogen only may be given to women who have had a hysterectomy. In these women, estrogen-only therapy after menopause may decrease the risk of breast cancer. There is an increased risk of stroke and heart and blood vessel disease in postmenopausal women who take estrogen after a hysterectomy.


 

Selective estrogen receptor modulators:

Tamoxifen and raloxifene belong to the family of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (serms). Serms act like estrogen on some tissues in the body, but block the effect of estrogen on other tissues.


 

Treatment with tamoxifen lowers the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (er-positive) breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ in premenopausal and postmenopausal women at high risk. Treatment with raloxifene also lowers the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. With either drug, the reduced risk lasts for several years or longer after treatment is stopped. Lower rates of broken bones have been noted in patients taking raloxifene.


 

Taking tamoxifen increases the risk of hot flashes, endometrial cancer, stroke, cataracts, and blood clots (especially in the lungs and legs). The risk of having these problems increases with age. Women younger than 50 years who have a high risk of breast cancer may benefit the most from taking tamoxifen. The risk of having these problems decreases after tamoxifen is stopped.


 

Taking raloxifene increases the risk of blood clots in the lungs and legs, but does not appear to increase the risk of endometrial cancer. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (decreased bone density), raloxifene lowers the risk of breast cancer for women who have a high or low risk of breast cancer. It is not known if raloxifene would have the same effect in women who do not have osteoporosis. Talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of taking this drug.


 

Aromatase inhibitors and inactivators:

Aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole) and inactivators (exemestane) lower the risk of a new breast cancer in women who have a history of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors also decrease the risk of breast cancer in women with the following conditions:

Postmenopausal women with a personal history of breast cancer. Women with no personal history of breast cancer who are 60 years and older, have a history of ductal carcinoma in situ with mastectomy, or have a high risk of breast cancer based on the gail model tool (a tool used to estimate the risk of breast cancer).

In women with an increased risk of breast cancer, taking aromatase inhibitors decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body. Before menopause, estrogen is made by the ovaries and other tissues in a woman's body, including the brain, fat tissue, and skin. After menopause, the ovaries stop making estrogen, but the other tissues do not. Aromatase inhibitors block the action of an enzyme called aromatase, which is used to make all of the body's estrogen. Aromatase inactivators stop the enzyme from working.


 

Possible harms from taking aromatase inhibitors include muscle and joint pain, osteoporosis, hot flashes, and feeling very tired.


 

Risk-reducing mastectomy:

Some women who have a high risk of breast cancer may choose to have a risk-reducing mastectomy (the removal of both breasts when there are no signs of cancer). The risk of breast cancer is much lower in these women and most feel less anxious about their risk of breast cancer. However, it is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling about the different ways to prevent breast cancer before making this decision.


 

Ovarian ablation:

The ovaries make most of the estrogen that is made by the body. Treatments that stop or lower the amount of estrogen made by the ovaries include surgery to remove the ovaries, radiation therapy, or taking certain drugs. This is called ovarian ablation.


 

Premenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer due to certain changes in the brca1 and brca2 genes may choose to have a risk-reducing oophorectomy (the removal of both ovaries when there are no signs of cancer). This decreases the amount of estrogen made by the body and lowers the risk of breast cancer. Risk-reducing oophorectomy also lowers the risk of breast cancer in normal premenopausal women and in women with an increased risk of breast cancer due to radiation to the chest. However, it is very important to have a cancer risk assessment and counseling before making this decision. The sudden drop in estrogen levels may cause the symptoms of menopause to begin. These include hot flashes, trouble sleeping, anxiety, and depression. Long-term effects include decreased sex drive, vaginal dryness, and decreased bone density.


 

Getting enough exercise:

Women who exercise four or more hours a week have a lower risk of breast cancer. The effect of exercise on breast cancer risk may be greatest in premenopausal women who have normal or low body weight.


 

It is not clear whether the following affect the risk of breast cancer:

  1. Oral contraceptives

  2. Certain oral contraceptives contain estrogen. Some studies have shown that taking oral contraceptives (" the pill") may slightly increase the risk of breast cancer in current users. This risk decreases over time. Other studies have not shown an increased risk of breast cancer in women who take oral contraceptives.

  3. Progestin -only contraceptives that are injected or implanted do not appear to increase the risk of breast cancer. More studies are needed to know whether progestin-only oral contraceptives increase the risk of breast cancer.


 

Environment

  1. Studies have not proven that being exposed to certain substances in the environment, such as chemicals, increases the risk of breast cancer.

  2. Studies have shown that some factors do not affect the risk of breast cancer.


 

The following do not affect the risk of breast cancer:

  1. Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more fruits and vegetables. Taking vitamins, including fenretinide (a type of vitamin a). Cigarette smoking, both active and passive (inhaling secondhand smoke). Using underarm deodorant or antiperspirant. Taking statins (cholesterol -lowering drugs). Taking bisphosphonates (drugs used to treat osteoporosis and hypercalcemia) by mouth or by intravenous infusion.

  2. Cancer prevention clinical trials are used to study ways to prevent cancer.

I have small disk. And my lift leg paining I went doctor he proscribed me some pain lure and nerve medication but still my leg paining. How I can get well and don't take medication. Thanks.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
I have small disk. And my lift leg paining I went doctor he proscribed me some pain lure and nerve medication but sti...
if the disc is small then its unlikely to cause nerve root irritation. other causes of leg pain like inflammatory arthritis, vascular causes and Vit D levels have to be checked.
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I'm suffering with l4 l5 disc bulging minimal thical. I need an acupuncture treatment.?

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Kindly show me a photograph of the affected part. Rule out diabetes & vit. D deficiency or any other metabolic disorder. Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Spring beds, folding beds or thick matress are harmful Do hot fomantation. Paracetamol 250mg od & sos x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab od x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 4-5days, contact me again. Do not ignore. It could be beginning of a serious problem.
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Know More About Meningitis!

Fellowship in Neonatology, MRCPCH(UK), Diploma in Child Health (DCH), MBBS
Pediatrician, Delhi
Know More About Meningitis!

Arguably one of the most fatal diseases that threaten human life, Meningitis has been the cause of a lot of recent deaths. Essentially Meningitis is triggered off by the anomalous inflammation of the protective membranes called meninges in the brain and spinal cord. Spurred by some sort of a bacterial or viral attack, this condition emanates from an infection of the fluids in the cranial chamber. Often such conditions are also stimulated by some external injury, cancerous development or even certain kinds of reaction from a given drug or the other. 

Depending on the precise cause of the disease, Meningitis may be categorized as Bacterial Meningitis, Viral Meningitis or Fungal Meningitis. Other forms of Meningitis include parasitic Meningitis, Amebic Meningitis and Non-Infectious Meningitis. Meningitis could potentially be contagious. Through lengthy and proximal contact like coughing or kissing, if saliva or spit gets exchanged, Meningitis causing germs may spread from one person to the other.

Bacterial Meningitis
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria Meningitidis are the two of the most rampant Meningitis causing bacteria. They have the potential of causing irreversible damage to several vital organs. However, with substantive progress in medical science, effective and suitable medication has been made available to the larger populace. But, immediate attention is imperative in this case.

Viral Meningitis
Viral Meningitis is relatively milder than the other forms of meningitis. Enteroviruses, arboviruses and herpes virus are some of the most common sources of this kind of Meningitis. People with strong immunity are usually able to overcome this without much ado. Vaccines are available widely in the markets to cure viral meningitis.

Fungal Meningitis
Fungal Meningitis are caused primarily from external influences. Inhaling fungal spores from the environment is one of the most prominent factors that lead to Meningitis. People suffering from fatal diseases like cancer, diabetes or HIV are more susceptible to fungal Meningitis. While these are a few of the primary forms of meningitis, other triggers to this disease occur due to various environmental interventions. These are consequent upon interactions with various disease causing allergens. Cure to meningitis is available in the form of intravenous injections. But timely diagnosis and treatment is essential for a good outcome. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.

4481 people found this helpful

I am having problem in my spinal cord disc L4 -L5. With some loss of fluid. Now my knee joint also getting pain. What you wil suggest.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I am having problem in my spinal cord disc L4 -L5. With some loss of fluid. Now my knee joint also getting pain. What...
Core strengthening exercises- straight leg raised with toes turned outward, repeat 10 times, twice a day. Back stretching- lie flat, pull one of the knee forward to chest, hold for 3 seconds, then bring the other knee forward to the chest and again hold for 3 seconds. Then pull both knees towards the chest and hold for 3 seconds. Repeat 10 times each exercise twice a day. Do the cat/cow stretch. Get on all fours, with your arms straight and your hands directly under your shoulders; your knees hip-width apart.
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Brahmi For Brain

BAMS
Ayurveda, Zirakpur
Brahmi For Brain

Stress reduction

If the effects of daily stressors are getting the best of you, brahmi supplementation may be something to explore. Stress reduction is perhaps brahmi’s most well known, traditional use. A study evaluating brahmi supplementation reported significant mood improvement among participants, as well as decreased levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. This suggests that brahmi counteracts the effects of stress by regulating hormones involved with the stress response.

Alzheimer’s therapy?

Alzheimer’s disease is a debilitating and heartbreaking disease, usually caused by a plethora of physiological, genetic, and environmental factors. Amyloid formation in neurons can cause significant brain damage and influence the development of alzheimer’s disease. It’s important to understand that, to date, no herb, plant, drug, or anything — including brahmi — has been found to be the magic bullet against alzheimer’s. Based on its history as an herbal therapy to promote neurological function, some have suggested that brahmi may be a promising therapy for alzheimer’s.

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding - How Best to Diagnose It?

Fellowship and Diploma in Laparoscopic Surgery, FOGSI Advanced Infertility Training, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (MRCOG), MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding - How Best to Diagnose It?

It is perfectly normal for women to experience the periodic monthly bleeding cycle. However, if a woman experiences uterine bleeding which is abnormal and dysfunctional, it could be a symptom of infection. Other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding include hormonal imbalance, infection in cervix and cancer of the uterus. Many women can also experience abnormal uterine bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy.

The following are considered to be abnormal or dysfunctional uterine bleeding:

  1. A menstrual cycles occurs between 21 to 35 days, anything shorter or longer than this is abnormal
  2. No period for 3–6 months (amenorrhea) is abnormal
  3. Spotting or bleeding between periods
  4. Spotting or bleeding after intercourse
  5. Bleeding that is heavier or lasts longer than usual
  6. Spotting or bleeding after menopause

What can cause such a situation?

Some of the common causes leading to abnormal bleeding are as follows:

  1. Miscarriage
  2. Ectopic pregnancy
  3. Pregnancy
  4. Cervical or uterine infections
  5. Fibroids
  6. Hormonal imbalances
  7. Problems with blood clotting
  8. Polyps
  9. Polycystic ovarian
  10. Endometrial hyperplasia
  11. Cancer of the reproductive tract

How to Diagnose it?

Most women tend to ignore abnormal bleeding, taking it as something to do with age or hormones. A detailed physical examination and history is done to understand menstrual cycle patterns and family history. In addition, the following would be used.

  1. Ultrasound: The pelvic organs are examined through sound waves to locate the problem area
  2. Hysteroscopy: Through a thin device that is inserted into the vagina, the doctor takes a look at the inside of the organs and identify the cause for the bleeding
  3. Endometrial biopsy: The uterine lining tissue is removed and examined under microscope to look for tissue changes that could be causing the bleeding

How Best to Treat It?

This would depend on the reason for the abnormal bleeding. However, in most cases, combinations of the following are useful in treatment.

  1. Hormone replacement can be done depending on the age and gynecological history, the type and the dose of the hormone would be decided upon. These could be in the form of tablets, vaginal creams, injections, or through an intrauterine device
  2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen are useful in reducing bleeding and controlling cramps during excessive menstrual bleeding.
  3. Antibiotics may be useful if there is infection of the pelvic organs.
  4. Polyps, cysts, cancers, and other growths can be removed via hysteroscopy and sent for biopsy to confirm they are not cancerous.
  5. Endometrial ablation where the endometrial tissue is treated with heat can be used to control bleeding permanently.
  6. Hysterectomy would be done if other forms of treatment have failed. This could depend on their gynecologic history and other considerations as she cannot get pregnant after this.

Do not ignore if you see a change in the pattern of your uterine bleeding. It definitely calls for medical attention and if identified early, can be managed in much simpler ways. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

4116 people found this helpful

Know Everything About Uterine Prolapse!!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Agra
Know Everything About Uterine Prolapse!!

The uterus or womb, is a muscular structure and is held in place by ligaments and pelvic muscles. If these muscles or tendons become weak, they cause prolapse and are no longer able to hold the uterus in its place.

Uterine prolapse happens when the uterus falls or slips from its ordinary position and into the vagina or birth waterway. It could be complete prolapse or even incomplete at times. A fragmented prolapse happens when the uterus is just hanging into the vagina. A complete prolapse depicts a circumstance in which the uterus falls so far down that some tissue rests outside of the vagina. Likewise, as a lady ages and with a loss of the hormone estrogen, her uterus can drop into the vaginal canal. This condition is known as a prolapsed uterus.

Risks: The risks of this condition are many and have been enumerated as follows:

  1. Complicated delivery during pregnancy
  2. Weak pelvic muscle
  3. Loss of tissue after menopause and loss of common estrogen
  4. Expanded weight in the stomach area, for example, endless cough, constipation, pelvic tumors or accumulation of liquid in the guts
  5. Being overweight
  6. Obesity causing extra strain on the muscles
  7. Real surgery in the pelvic zone
  8. Smoking

Symptoms: Some of the most common symptoms of prolapse involve:

  1. Feeling of sitting on a ball
  2. Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  3. Increase in discharge
  4. Problems while performing sexual intercourse
  5. Seeing the uterus coming out of the vagina
  6. A pulling or full feeling in the pelvis
  7. Constipation
  8. Bladder infections

Nonsurgical medications include:

  1. Losing weight and getting in shape to take stress off of pelvic structures
  2. Maintaining a distance from truly difficult work
  3. Doing Kegel workouts, which are pelvic floor practices that strengthen the vaginal muscles. This can be done at any time, even while sitting down at a desk.
  4. Taking estrogen treatment especially during menopause
  5. Wearing a pessary, which is a gadget embedded into the vagina that fits under the cervix and pushes up to settle the uterus and cervix
  6. Indulging in normal physical activity

Some specialists use the following methods to diagnose the problem:

  1. The specialist will examine you in standing position keeping in mind you are resting and request that you to cough or strain to build the weight in your abdomen.
  2. Particular conditions, for example, ureteral block because of complete prolapse, may require an intravenous pyelogram (IVP) or renal sonography. Color is infused into your vein, and an X-ray is used to view the flow of color through your urinary bladder.
  3. An ultrasound might be utilised to rule out any other existing pelvic issues. In this test, a wand is used on your stomach area or embedded into your vagina to create images of the internal organ with sound waves. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
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I am having problem in l4 and I5. This problem is from around 3 years. But the condition is improved now. Can you please suggest some exercises?

PG Diploma in Emergency Medicine Services (PGDEMS), Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MD - Alternate Medicine
Ayurveda, Ghaziabad
Hi Apply pranacharya restopain oil or prasarini oil on your affected part then give hot fomentation. Take maha rasnadi kwath 2-2 tsf twice a day. And agni tundi vati and maha yograj guggul 1-1 tab twice a day..
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Why Is Cancer the Biggest Threat to India

PGD IN ULTRAASONOGRAPHY, Non invasive cardiology course, MD - Medicine, MBBS
General Physician, Narnaul
Why Is Cancer the Biggest Threat to India

Cancer is the one of the biggest threat to the young Indian population because of the factors that cause cancer, but also due to late detection. However, certain bad habbits and the factors increase the risk of cancer in India.

Causes of cancer in India:

  1. Overpopulation and the problem of nutrition: As per records, India is the world's third most populous country. However, it lacks in resources to feed the multiplying number of mouths. Nutrition plays a key role in deciding the quality of a person's life. Nutrition has therefore emerged as an essential branch of research and medical care in the last few decades. Lack of nutrition directly results in weakened immunity. Your body becomes prone to diseases, some of which can be fatal. To fight off cancer cells, one must have a strong immune system that comes from the right kind of nutrition.
  2. Smoking is a recurrent habit among children and adults: Smoking can cause cancer. Every cigarette packet reads the same warning messages but it doesn't actually deter smokers in any way. Smoking is prevalent among people of all age groups in India. From poor children to conscious educated adults, all are seen smoking.
  3. A Tropical country and its woes: Tropical countries are known to face the wrath of the sun. While most places in central, western, partly eastern and southern India experience extremes of temperature in summer, other places with moderately hot summers are not exempted from the harmful UV rays. Ultraviolet rays can be very harmful for one's skin, as it can cause skin cancer. Indians have a high amount of melanin, which protects them against sun rays, but the threat exists nonetheless.
  4. The concept of fast food: A global economy has opened avenues awaiting your attention in the realm of food. To suit the tones and moods of a fast life, fast food has been made available to you. We take pride in consuming things that can be prepared in an instant: instant noodles, soups and even curries. Packaged food and junk food are sources of cancer cells.
  5. Lack of awareness regarding the most common types of cancer: Breast and cervical cancer are the two most common types of cancer eating away the health of Indians. The problem lies in being unaware about the root causes, symptoms and treatment procedures related to these kinds of cancer. Social repression turns health concerns into matters of insignificance. Women fear social alienation after coming in the open with their problems.
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My MRI report says, Mild posterior broad base protrusion of L4-L5 intervertebral disc resultant mild central and lateral canal narrowing causing mild compression over thecal sac and right traversing L5 nerve root. I am doing bed rest from 10 days, what's the report says.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
the report says that you have a disc prolapse and the disc is compressing one of the right nerve root. So if you have back and right leg pain then it would fit with your MRI findings. Absolute bed rest is not required for disc prolapse. as it is a mild prolapse there is a chance that the symptoms will improve with medications. avoid lifting heavy weight and reduce your body weight too
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I am a student. Usually I used to sit more than 8 hours a day in chair. Now a days I am feeling very much pain on regions of backbone and neck. Is this a chance of disk failure?

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I am a student. Usually I used to sit more than 8 hours a day in chair. Now a days I am feeling very much pain on reg...
Neck advice hot fomentation x twice daily. Neck exercises. Neck stretching. Postural correction. Shoulder shrugs. Core strengthening exercises. Take frequent breaks at work use cervical pillow. Use back support. Back advice. Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall. Extension exercises x 15 times x twice daily. Bhujang asana. Core strengthening exercises. Back stretching. Do the cat/cow stretch.
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I have back pain before 3 years. I have checked MRI test in hospital that result show the mild disc dics bulge noted at L4 and L5 level intending the thecal sac without neurological compression. Doctor has given pain relief tablets but no get relaxation. Please give me solution.

DNB (Orthopedics), MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Bhopal
I have back pain before 3 years. I have checked MRI test in hospital that result show the mild disc dics bulge noted ...
Your mri is normal as mild disc bulge is inconsequential. You better start some lower back muscle strengthening exercise (available on internet or visit a physio)
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I have L5-S1 disc extrusion condition from a year resulting in severe pain in the right leg. Is surgery the only solution?

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I have L5-S1 disc extrusion condition from a year resulting in severe pain in the right leg. Is surgery the only solu...
Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall.
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Natural Ways to Treat Swollen Legs, Ankles and Feet

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Natural Ways to Treat Swollen Legs, Ankles and Feet

You know that feeling after a long day when your feet are so sore or swollen that you can’t bear the thought of standing on them for any longer? once you take off your shoes and sit down, or even soak them in a warm bath, it’s still an unpleasant experience. Luckily, I’ve collected 10 natural remedies for such an occasion and I want to share them with you.
 
Important: regular swelling vs potential health risks
When experiencing swelling in the feet and legs, apply pressure to the area with a finger. If the dimple created by the finger remains for more than a couple of seconds, it may indicate oedema, which can be the result of heart, liver, or kidney problems. When this occurs, see a doctor at the first possible opportunity.
If you experience swelling in one leg but not the other, you should also see a doctor as this may be an indication of deep venous thrombosis (a blood clot blocking the blood vessels).
If the swelling is accompanied by shortness of breath, fever, bluish skin, and chest pains, get immediate medical attention.
 
10 natural remedies:

1. Soak your feet in epsom salts
Pour 250g of epsom salt into a hot bath, and take a nice long soak. You can also add essential oils to the mix for enhanced relaxation. Your feet will thank you, your body will thank you, and you’ll emerge from that bath a happier person.
2. Massage the area
Massaging the painful area increases blood flow and moves the fluids that accumulate and cause the swelling. If you want to indulge, get someone to massage your feet for you, preferably with hot essential oils.
3. Stop smoking
If you smoke tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, etc.), you should know that one of the many negative effects of nicotine is constriction of blood vessels, which can lead to sore feet.
4. Stay hydrated
When the caffeine and sodium we consume accumulate in the body, they can cause swelling and pain in the limbs. The best way to dilute them and flush them out is by drinking water. If you want to maximize the efficiency of hydration, squeeze a lemon or lime into the glass of water for a boost of vitamins and antioxidants.
5. Eat healthy, avoid excess salt
While we need salt for our body to function well, when we overdo it, it can have adverse effects. Reduce the amount of salt you consume every day, and consider cutting down on caffeine as well.
6. Elevate the legs
If you’re suffering from chronically sore legs/feet, try keep your legs elevated for 30 minutes, three times a day. You will notice a difference within a couple of days. Also, when you’re in bed, use a couple of pillows to prop up your feet. Elevating the legs helps to drain the excess fluids that causes the swelling and pain.
7. Avoid sitting for prolonged periods
Whether you’re flying, taking the bus, or just sitting in an office all day, keeping your legs stationary can lead to pain and swelling. If you know you’re going to sit for a long period of time, make sure to stand up, stretch, and walk around every 20 minutes or so.
8. Use compression socks when traveling
If you’re going to fly overseas, another excellent solution is to use compression socks. These socks apply pressure to your feet, preventing fluid from building up – the main cause of swelling and pain in the feet.
 9. Exercise
Exercise will help boost your cardiovascular system, which in turn will reduce the possibility of swelling in the limbs. Exercise increases blood-flow in the body and reduces weight. 
10. Take magnesium supplements
Magnesium is essential for our body’s function. That said, many people suffer from a magnesium deficiency. By adding magnesium to your system, you will improve your overall health, reduce hangover symptoms and suffer less pain in your extremities

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