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Treatment of Abdominal Pain
Treatment of Swelling
Treatment of Hemorrhoids
Treatment of Kidney Stones
Treatment of Colic
Treatment of Black eye
Treatment of Hernia
Treatment of Blood in Urine
Treatment of Hydrocele
Treatment of Varicose Vein Disorder
Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombois
Breast Cancer Surgery Treatment
Treatment of Breast Cancer
Treatment of Gallstones
Treatment of Burns
Treatment of Bladder Stones
Treatment of Anal Fissure
Treatment of Keloid
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Hernia is the name given to the condition where an internal part of your body pushes itself into another area of the body where it does not belong. A hiatal is the opening in the muscular wall which is called the diaphragm. This usually separates the abdomen from the chest cavity. In the human body, the food pipe, which is called the esophagus passes through this hiatal and joins the stomach area. Hiatal hernia is a condition when the stomach bulges up through this opening, into the chest.
Causes of Hiatal Hernia:
The main cause of hiatal hernia is not known at present, but there are certain factors that can cause it. It could occur when there is an increased pressure on the abdomen area such as during a pregnancy, coughing, obesity, too much straining at the time of bowel movement. Some people are also born with a wide hiatal opening.
Who needs surgical treatment for Hiatal Hernia?
In most of the cases, hiatal hernia does not show any kind of serious signs and hence you need not have to worry about it, When you experience symptoms such as acid reflux, gastroesophageal reflux disorder or heartburn, then you can treat them with mild medication and with the help of your doctor. But when the symptoms are severe and interferes with the quality of your life, or if the symptoms are not responding to medication, when the blood flow to the herniated tissue is blocked, causes ulcers, or heavy bleeding, you will need a surgery.
There are three types of surgeries for hiatal hernia.
- Nissen Fundoplication: This is the most common surgery done for hiatal hernia. This is also called keyhole surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Small incisions are made in the abdomen area and the hernia is repaired. The surgeon also tightens the stomach in order to avoid the reoccurrence of this condition. It is a less painful and minimal scar process. Recovery time is also less compared to other surgical techniques and you also need not have to stay for a long period in the hospital.
- Open repairs: For the repair of the hernia, a large incision is made in the abdomen area. The stomach is pulled back to its original place from the chest area. A small tube is also inserted in certain cases in order to keep the stomach in its original place and prevent it from moving towards the chest area. This kind of surgery has a lot of risks.
- Endoluminal Fundoplication: This is the latest surgery technique and rarely used. No incisions are made in this procedure. Only a tube and camera are passed through the throat. The stomach is tightened and acid reflux is prevented.
Testicular cancer is one of the most common cancers seen in men in the age group 20 to 38 years. The cause of this cancer is not known, but there are treatments available to treat it and prevent. Symptoms of testicular cancer include pain or swelling in the scrotum and lumps in the testicles. This testicle cancer spreads in a very common pattern and the retroperitoneum’s lymph node is the landing place for the cancer.
Retroperitoneal lymph node excision
Retroperitoneal lymph node excision or dissection is the surgery that is used for treating testicular cancer. The retroperitoneal lymph node is removed during this surgery as cancer first affects this part of the body. There are even many other types of cancers that affect the lymph node. Later this removed lymphatic tissue will be examined in order to determine the spread of this malignant cancer. If there is malignant tissue found, then it is called stage I cancer.
How is retroperitoneal lymph node excision performed?
General anesthesia is required for performing the retroperitoneal lymph node excision. It can be done in both the open surgery method and the laparoscopic method. The duration of the surgery differs from person to person and it also depends on the stage of cancer. Approximately, it takes 6 hours for the surgery to be completed.
The retroperitoneal lymph node is removed from the abdomen. It may be removed only on the side where the cancer is present or on both the sides. This depends on the cancer stage and how it may spread in the future. After the removal of the lymph node, the cut is closed by placing a small tube and then sutured. This tube will help in the quick healing inside and will also help in collecting the fluids draining from that particular area.
In most of the cases, during the retroperitoneal lymph node excision, a surgeon takes care not to remove the nerves or not to cause any kind of damage to the nerves at the back of the abdomen. But in some cases, it is important to remove the nerves or damage may occur to the nerves. This damage or removal may cause side effects such as retrograde ejaculation. This is a condition where the semen is pushed back into the body and is not pushed out.
You need to stay for 3 to 7 days in the hospital post-surgery. You will be given pain medication and antibiotics for a fast recovery.
Why is retroperitoneal lymph node excision done?
This surgery is done to:
- Check if the testicle cancer has spread to the lymph nodes
- Remove the lymph nodes that are affected by cancer
- Reduce the occurrence of cancer in the future
Colonoscopy is a testing method that helps a doctor to witness the inner lining of the large intestine. A thin tube known as the colonoscope is used to perform this test. The distinct advantage of this test is the fact that unlike another test, a colonoscopy gives a full view of the rectum and the full colon. This procedure is often used by doctors to eradicate polyps and perform a biopsy.
Detection and eradication of polyps-A polyp size, which has a diameter of more than 1 cm call for a full examination of the colon. Although many doctors suggest colonoscopy with a polyp that is less than 1 cm due to the presence of cancer cells present in preexisting polyps. Colonoscopy is preferred over other tests due to their unique ability to distinguish between malignant and benign structures. It is also very effective in searching for lesions and effectively brings out samples to perform a biopsy.
- The case of bowel resection: For patients who are suffering from colon cancer and needs a bowel resection should have a colonoscopy done. This is all the more true for patients who have already undergone a bowel removal surgery. While many authorities suggest that patients of this nature should undergo colonoscopy every year, other authorities believe that a colonoscopy in every 3 years serves the purpose.
- Cancer in the family: Individuals having a history of adenomatous polyposis are often recommended to under colonoscopy once in every 12 months. The testing should start at the age of 12 and go up to 35 years. Post this screening can happen after every 3 years. Patients suffering from hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer should also go for a yearly colonoscopy from the age of 10 years until the age of 40 years.
- Managing IBD: Patients suffering from Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) should get a colonoscopy done to better manage the disease. Colonoscopy is considered to be more effective than barium enema in comprehending the extent of the inflammation process. Colonoscopy can further distinguish between Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis where clinical and radiologic study fails.
- Detecting and treating acute bleeding: Colonoscopy can successfully trace the site of bleeding for patients suffering from lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is also believed to have a therapeutic intervention. Correctly determining the bleeding source is one key advantage of colonoscopy. If it fails, the doctor might suggest for an angiography.
- Colon decompression: When an intestine twists in the cecum or sigmoid colon, it results in bowel obstruction and can compound to ischemia. This condition is known as a volvulus. Some common symptoms of this disease include nausea, abdominal pain, and obstipation. Typically surgical procedure is necessary to arrest this situation. Colonoscopy is used in decompressing the colon.
Nowadays, people do not have to go for open surgeries for the treatment of certain conditions. You need not have large incisions on your body for getting a surgery done. It can be done with a few small incisions. This kind of surgery has a lot benefits over the open surgery such as less pain, less recovery time, fewer scars and less time in the hospital. So, with so many benefits, who would choose an open surgery? For those who are opting for an endoscopic surgery for any problem and have no knowledge about it, here are some common FAQs about endoscopic surgery.
What is endoscopic surgery?
Endoscopy means inserting a small tube into the body, to inspect the interior. A small endoscope is inserted, which has a camera and light attached to it. This will help in seeing the internal organs of the body without having to cut open the body. Usually, this procedure is used for diagnosing certain health conditions. But in some conditions, it is also used for providing treatment.
Is there anything I should know before the endoscopic surgery?
Yes, your doctor will help you understand what to eat and what not to eat, also he will tell you about when to stop eating. Your body has to be prepared for the endoscopy.
Are there any kind of side effects of endoscopic surgery?
Any kind of surgery will have some pain. It is the same with endoscopy as well. With endoscopic surgery, the pain is less but there is no surgery with zero pain. Hence, you will have some pain at the place of the surgery. This depends on the place of surgery and how far the incisions are made.
Are there any chances of moving to an open surgery during the endoscopic surgery?
This happens in very rare conditions that you need to switch to an open surgery. You need to discuss this with your doctor in advance in order to understand whether it can happen. Not all surgery will require this.
How long does it take for recovery?
Usually, endoscopic surgeries are performed even on an outpatient basis. That means you need not even have to get admitted to the hospital for getting the surgery done. You can take care of yourself at home and keep visiting the doctor as suggested.
What kind of medicine is usually prescribed?
Depending on the type of surgery that you have undergone, you will be prescribed medicine. Along with that, you will also be prescribed painkillers after any kind of surgery. The pain is usually less but taking one or two pills may be required. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
This is a disease that affects the large intestine and the rectum. The Ulcerative Colitis refers to the inflammation in the innermost lining of the large intestine. The main function of the large intestine is to absorb water from indigestible food matter in the body before throwing away any waste. Hence, the large intestine is a vital part of our body. If left untreated, the disease increases risk of colon cancer.
- Diarrhea with blood or pus: A person suffering from Ulcerative Colitis is likely to suffer from loose stools accompanied with blood or pus.
- Stomach pain and Cramping: In many cases, patients complain of severe stomach pain and cramping.
- Rectal pain: At times, many patients feel pain while sitting or even after a bowel movement.
- Bleeding from the rectum: Bleeding can be observed while passing stools.
This disease can be diagnosed by several methods. A simple stool test may be done to check out for bacteria and parasites. A blood test to check the level of C-reactive protein helps determine the inflation rate of the body. Endoscopy, colonoscopy, biopsy are some other methods of diagnosis.
- Oral medication: Treatment involves drug therapy or surgery. The first step in treating Ulcerative Colitis will be an intake of anti-inflammatory drugs, but these may have a side effect. Another option is immune system suppressors, which help to bring down the inflammation by suppressing the immune system response. Antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, pain relievers are some of the additional drug supplements recommended by doctors.
- Surgery: Surgery plays an important role because this disease is pre-malignant in nature. Depending on the severity of the condition, the medical practitioner may advice surgery. The common methods of surgery are:
- Proctocolectomy and Ileostomy: Proctocolectomy involves removal of the colon in part or whole. Ileostomy is carried out by placing a special bag in the small intestine to collect waste from the body.
- Proctocolectomy and Ileo-anal: Ileo-anal pouch is a bag directly created the small intestine and connected to the anus, for diffusing the stools. As colon is removed Ulcerative Colitis cannot re-occur.
Precautions after surgery
It is very important that the patient takes healthy, sufficient and nutritious food so that bowel movement can be carried out with ease and zero strain. The patient has to restrict lifting of heavy grocery, mowing the lawn, any physical activity that can strain the abdomen and related areas.
Hernias are mostly treated by surgeries as definitive care. Post-operative period has become comfortable with the invention of minimal-invasive surgeries. Postoperative recovery is smoother and faster after laparoscopic and robotic surgeries.
Yes, the patient has to go for a surgery, if hernias spreads to quite an extent. In such cases, there are several steps that need to be taken as a part of the post-operative care for this surgery. Hernia surgery is quite common in today’s medical world. All you need to have is a good medical practitioner who would operate on you and you need to have complete trust on the expert and their methods of treatment. There are several ways to take care of yourself after the surgery.
Some of these are explained below.
- Diet includes liquids at first: During the first few days after the surgery, the patient is offered only liquids. Due to the anaesthesia, it becomes difficult to consume solid food initially. Only when the doctor sees that the patient is fit enough to consume solids, will solid foods be given to the patient. This is also an indicator that the patient is recovering well and might be let off soon from the hospital.
- Patient is discharged only after anaesthetic effects are completely gone: For some time after the surgery, the patient is under the effects of the anaesthesia. If it is a local one then it would take a few hours for its effects to completely subside. But if it is a complex one, then it might take some more time for its effects to completely withdraw. Only after the patient is completely out of the effects of anaesthesia, will he/she be allowed a discharge.
- Avoid headache: Patients are made to lie down flat on their back for at least a few hours after the surgery so that they do not experience anaesthetic headache. This can be painful and unbearable at times. But this can be avoided if the patient lies down for quite some time till the effects of it have worn off.
- Shower: Usually there is a restriction in getting the operated area wet. But a shower can be carefully taken after at least two days of the operation.
Thus, these are some of the most important post-operative hernia surgery care tips. If you adhere to these points, your recovery process will speed up and it would prevent you from getting affected by any other health problems in your recovery period.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!