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Treatment of Pregnancy and related Disorder
Treatment of Irregular Periods
Management of Pregnancy
Treatment of Ovarian Cysts
Management of Pregnancy Query
Management of Abortion
Treatment of Painful Periods
Avoiding Pregnancy Procedures
Treatment of Painful Sexual Intercourse
Treatment of Heavy Periods
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Treatment of Breast Pain
Treatment of Vaginal Discharge
Treatment of Miscarriage
Treatment of Vaginal Itching
Treatment of Fertility
Treatment of Delayed Periods
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Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition in which a number of fluid filled sacs or cysts grow in the ovaries. This leads to an imbalance in the reproductive hormones of the woman, causing an increase in male hormones, especially testosterone. These cysts are immature follicles which fail to rupture and release the containing egg inside during the menstrual cycle. This lack of ovulation leads to altered levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which in turn causes disruptions in the menstrual cycle leading to irregular or absent periods.
Some of the most common symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome are:
- Irregular menstrual cycle – including infrequent periods or absent periods (called amenorrhea) or excessively heavy periods.
- Hirtruism – Excessive hair growth on the face and body
- Severe or persistent acne
- Weight gain and obesity
- Patches of thick, dark skin on the body
PCOS disrupts the normal levels of hormones like estrogen and progesterone in the body and increases the levels of androgens or male hormones in the body. This leads to irregular and unpredictable periods, which make it difficult for women to get pregnant. Also, imbalance in hormones can lead to the uterine lining not being formed properly, which prevents implantation.
Problems with ovulation
Hormonal imbalances prevent the eggs contained in the ovary from maturing and being released into the fallopian tubes. As a result, they remain as immature follicles inside the ovaries instead of being available for fertilisation by male sperm. This makes it difficult to get pregnant.
Women with PCOS not only have problems getting pregnant, but may suffer from greater risk of complications during pregnancy such as miscarriages, premature births, high blood pressure during pregnancy, and multiple births.
Even though PCOS can have negative effects on the fertility of a woman, it can be treated and controlled using medication and lifestyle changes including diet and exercise. Further, infertility treatments can also help in cases where PCOS medication does not resolve the problem. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Genital tract infections are infections of the genital tract in both women and men, with it being more common in women. Genital tract infections can be of three types – infections spread through sexual contact, called exogenous infections or sexually transmitted infections (STIs); infections spread without sexual contact, called endogenous infections; and infections caused due to medical procedures such as abortion, called iatrogenic infections. Some of the most common Genital Tract infections are - bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, yeast infections (candidiasis), gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, herpes genitalis, etc.
The symptoms associated with genital tract infections can range from no symptoms to severe ones. Women are more susceptible to contracting GTIs and more likely to suffer from complications of the infection. The most common symptoms of GTIs are:
- Abnormal discharge from vagina – Foul smelling discharge with unusual colour
- Itching or burning sensation in and around the genital area
- Pain or tingling and burning sensation while urinating
- Blisters, sores, persistent rashes, warts or bumps in and around the genitals or anus
- Pain and bleeding during or after intercourseGenital
- Lower abdominal pain
- Excessive vaginal bleeding during menstruation
The consequences of untreated or undetected genital tract infections can be quite severe in women, especially in developing countries. It can lead to a number of harmful effects on the reproductive health of women, including chronic infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes, cervical cancer, pregnancy complications and more. Some of the most severe effects of untreated genital tract infections are:
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
PID occurs when bacteria are spread from the lower genital tract due to unprotected sexual intercourse, or intercourse with multiple partners. PID can lead to scarring and damage to tissues resulting in infertility, chronic pelvic pain and pregnancy complications.
Ectopic pregnancies occur when the zygote is implanted outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. Genital tract infections can cause scarring and block tubal passage which leads to ectopic pregnancies.
Long-term genital tract infections that remain untreated can lead to inflammation and scarring of the fallopian tubes, which block the descent of the egg. This leads to tubal infertility in women. Further, the untreated pelvic inflammatory disease can lead to damage of uterine tissue that again causes infertility.
Certain genital tract infections such as those associated with human papillomavirus have been found to be linked to the development of cervical neoplasia and lead to cervical cancer.
Genital tract infections can become life-threatening if left untreated for too long, thus it is crucial to consult a doctor as soon as you notice any abnormal symptoms of GTIs. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Uterine fibroids are benign, muscular growths in the uterine wall which may grow within the wall of the uterus or may get attached to the wall. Uterine fibroids can be of many types depending on their location in the uterus – Subserosal fibroids are found on the outer surface of the uterus, just beneath the serosa which is the outer membrane lining the uterus; submuscosal fibroids are located inside the uterine cavity, beneath the endometrium; intramural fibroids are located inside the muscular wall of the uterus; and pedunculated fibroids grow on small stalks either inside the uterine cavity or on its outer surface.
Many women who have uterine fibroids do not show any symptoms and are often unaware of their existence till they have an ultrasound or medical check-up. But depending on the location and size of the fibroids, they can cause certain symptoms such as:
- Heavy bleeding during periods and pain
- Bleeding in between periods
- Frequent urination due to increased pressure on the bladder
- Constipation caused by pressure on the rectum
- Infertility or pregnancy complications
- Uterine fibroids and infertility
Depending on the location of the fibroid in the uterus and its size, uterine fibroids can negatively affect a woman’s fertility or lead to problems during pregnancy. More often, submucosal uterine fibroids, those that grow inside the uterine cavity and fibroids which are quite large in size (more than 5cm in diameter) cause infertility in women. This is because:
- Fibroids which are close to the cervix can block the entrance of or reduce the number of sperm that are able to enter the uterus
- Large fibroids which form near the opening of the fallopian tube in the uterus can block the fertilised egg from entering the uterus thus preventing implantation
- Submucosal fibroids which grow on the endometrium can reduce the total area available for the zygote to implant or reduce the space inside the uterine cavity thus interfering with normal development of the embryo.
- Multiple fibroid growths can deprive the endometrium of regular blood flow thus reducing the amount of estrogen received; this can lead to miscarriages in pregnancy as it compromises the structural integrity of the endometrium and as a result it cannot maintain its thickened state required for sustaining a pregnancy.
Most women with uterine fibroids do not experience problems with conceiving, however if you are experiencing fertility issues it is best to consult a doctor to determine if fibroids are causing the problem and pursuing their suggested course of action. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The size of your belly is not the only thing that changes when you are pregnant. Pregnancy affects every part of a woman's body and visible changes can be noted as the pregnancy progresses. This is partly because of hormonal fluctuations and partly due to the strain of carrying excess weight. Here are some of the changes you can expect to see when you are pregnant.
Changes in the respiratory system
Along with eating for two, you are also breathing for two when pregnant. The increased oxygen consumption leads to increased rate of breathing, shortness of breath and elevated pH levels in the blood.
Changes in the cardiovascular system
The cardiovascular system is readjusted at the time of pregnancy. This increases the volume of blood in the blood. The expanding uterus puts pressure on veins and arteries thus slowing the circulation of blood. You may also notice an elevated resting heart rate and low blood pressure in the second trimester.
Changes in the gastrointestinal system
The enlarging uterus displaces organs of the digestive system and allows stomach acid to travel back into the esophagus. This leads to acidity and heartburn. Pregnant women also often suffer from constipation.
Changes in the breasts
Changes in the abdomen
By the second trimester, the abdomen will begin to expand. As the ligaments and abdominal wall supporting the uterus are stretched, you may experience an ache on one side or the other.
Changes in the urinary system
Pregnant women feel the urge to urinate frequently. This is because the expanding uterus puts extra pressure on the bladder, urethra and pelvic floor muscles. This may also lead to temporary urinary incontinence. Pregnancy also increases the load on the kidneys as they need to filter not only your own blood but also that f the growing baby.
Changes in the skin
As the skin on the body stretches to accommodate the growing uterus, stretch marks are one of the common visible changes. This may also be accompanied by hyperpigmentation of the nipples, face an abdomen, the appearance of spider veins and reddening of palms.
Other common changes include, swelling of ankles, leg cramps, increased body temperature and changes in hair texture.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!