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Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, approximately one out of every 14 men and women in the U.S. is diagnosed with cancer of the lung at some point in their lifetime. Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly; almost 70% of people diagnosed with lung cancer are over 65 years of age, while less than 3% of lung cancers occur in people under 45 years of age.
What Causes Lung Cancer?
The development of lung cancer is strongly associated with cigarette smoking, approximately 90% of lung cancers are attributable to use of tobacco. Pipe and cigar smoking can also cause lung cancer, but the risk is not as high as with cigarette smoking. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemical compounds, many of which are cancer causing (carcinogens). Passive smoking, i.e. the inhalation of tobacco smoke by non-smokers who live or work with smokers, is also an established risk factor for the development of lung cancer.
Genetic susceptibility (i.e. family history) may play a role in the development of lung cancer. Other causes of lung cancer include air pollution (from vehicles, industry, and power generation) and inhalation of asbestos fibres (usually in the workplace).
Lung Cancer Symptoms:
Early symptoms and signs of lung cancer:
There may be no symptoms at the onset of the disease. When present, common symptoms of lung cancer may include:
- Coughing: This includes a persistent cough that doesn't go away or changes to a chronic smoker's cough, such as more coughing or pain.
- Coughing up blood: Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm) should always be discussed with your doctor.
- Breathing Difficulties: Shortness of breath, wheezing or noisy breathing (called stridor) may all be signs of lung cancer.
- Loss of Appetite: Many cancers cause changes in appetite, which may lead to unintended weight loss.
- Fatigue: It is common to feel weak or excessively tired.
- Recurring infections: Recurring infections, like bronchitis or pneumonia, may be one of the signs of lung cancer.
Signs of advanced stages of lung cancer: Advanced stages of lung cancer are often characterized by the spread of cancer to distant sites in the body. This may affect the bones, liver or brain. As other parts of the body are affected, new lung cancer symptoms may develop, including:
- Bone pain
- Swelling of the face, arms or neck
- Headaches, dizziness or limbs that become weak or numb
- Lumps in the neck or collar-bone region
Treatment: Treatment for cancer involves a combination of surgery to remove cancer cells, chemotherapy and radiation therapy to kill cancer cells. Lung cancer is incurable unless complete surgical removal of the tumour cells can be achieved. Surgery is the most effective treatment for lung cancer, but only a few percentage of lung cancers are suitable for surgery i.e. Stage I and II NSCLC and cancer that has not spread beyond the lung.
Radiation therapy may be used for both NSCLC and SCLC and is a good option for people who are not suitable for surgery or who refuse surgery. Chemotherapy is used for both NSCLC and SCLC. Chemotherapy drugs may be given alone or in combination with surgery or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is the treatment of first choice for SCLC since it has usually spread extensively in the body by the time it has been diagnosed.
Also used in the treatment of lung cancer are targeted therapies. These are drugs (gefitinib and erlotinib) or antibodies (cetuximab, bevacizumab) that block the growth and spread of cancer by interfering with specific molecules involved in tumor growth and progression. They are used in some patients with NSCLC that does not respond to standard chemotherapy.
Nowadays cancer has increased rapidly day by day. So I want to know if there is any remedy of cancer doctors have found or not?
My mother has a lump in her left chest since one year ,could you suggest what kind of test should be done to know weather it is normal or any other problem. And recently she has undergone a gynaecological surgery for uterus removal just one week before.
Most often than not, cancer comes unannounced and rocks our world. While of late routine tests are being encouraged, it is advisable to keep a look out for symptoms which are commonly overlooked. Some of them are:
1. Peculiar back pain - it has been noticed that the first symptom for liver cancer in many cases is pain the back of the lower back side of the body. Back pain could also be a symptom for breast cancer, in cases where the tumour is pressing backwards, into the chest.
2. Unexplained nail marks - nails often reflect the condition of our health. If there is a sudden and unexplained change in the fingernails, like maybe a dot/a black mark or a brown mark under the nail, this could be a sign of lung cancer.
3. Sensitive skin patches - if there is a lump on the skin or a patch feels sore, is crusty or bleeds very easily then this could be a symptom of skin cancer. It is important to be aware of all changes in your skin, throughout the body.
4. Unexplained facial puffiness - if your face seems puffy, read or swelled, without any logical explanation, this could be a symptom.
5. Unusual menstruation - if you are having unusually heavy and painful periods, it is advisable to request for a transvaginal ultrasound as this could be a symptom of uterine cancer.
6. Changes in breast (s) - this is the most common change which women who have been diagnosed of breast cancer have reported. If the nipple is flattened, inverted or turned sideways, it could be a symptom for breast cancer. Also, if the breast feels read, sore or swollen, it could be a symptom.
7. Frequent stomach problems - frequent upset stomachs and cramps could be the symptom of colorectal cancer.
8. Unreasonable weight loss - if you are losing a lot of weight without even trying to, this could be an early sign of colon or any other digestive cancer. It could also mean that the cancer is spreading to the liver, if your appetite is getting affected.
9. Blood in stool - if there is blood in your stool, this could be a symptom of colorectal cancer and you need to go for a colonoscopy.
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My Bhabhi has been detected Malignancy , Ductal carcinoma at very early stage, what is this and its treatment best hospital and best doctor's to be consulted for it.
Hi, My father got infected with Oral cancer. The biopsy report says Squamous carcinoma grade 2. What will be treatment now?
I am 39yrs male. I had my sigmoid colon removal due to a stage 2c colon cancer, it has been 9 weeks after my surgery, I am having very frequent bowel movements, that is around 10 times a day, how long will it take for me to have normal bowel movements, that's 2 to 3 times a day.
My brother is suffering from gall bladder cancer we found in biopsy after getting operation of gall bladder with tumor n stones n Dr. has suggested for chemotherapy We r from gaya Bihar n very confused what we do I heard about treatment in vellore Dr. told us he is stage 2 if we diagnosed chemotherapy what is the chance of healing n he can survive for whole life I can send biopsy n other medical records n please provide best suggestion n guide perfectly.
My teenage girls want to use nail polish, but I have heard that many nail polishes contain formaldehyde and can cause cancer. Is it safe for my daughters to use it?
What are told symptoms of cancer? If it passes by jeans or hereditary? If it passes from father to a son?
I am 21 years old and from a few weeks back I am suffering from chest pain. Don't know the reason why I am getting pain. I Am getting fear that I have breast lumps what to do to confirm this?
I am suffering from prostate enlargement that is frequent urination. It can be cured by medicine permanently precrsibe the medicine.
What are the basic symptoms of Cancer to a common man? Can we get treatment of Cancer before it harmful to us?
My present abdomen report- Liver- appear normal Gal bladder- CBD is echo free and measures 4.5 mm approx. Pancreas- normal Spleen- 80 mm x 41 mm Kidney- both are normal size shape position and axis right kidney show cyst measuring 1.8 cm and 2.0 cm approx. Left kidney show cyst measuring 4.2 x 3.7 cms approx. There is no evidence of renal calculi on either side. Right kidney 86 mm x 36 mm Left kidney 87 mm x 43 mm Urinary bladder is normal in size shape and contour no intraluminal lesion seen. Prostate glad is enlarge in size shape and echo pattern prostate measure 37 mm x 40 mm x 42 mm. Prostate volume is 33.3 ml BLOOD REPORT Haemoglobin 10.8 gm/dl W.B.C - 6300/cu. Mm neutrophil - 63% Lymphocytes - 30% eosinophil - 06% monocyte - 01% Basophild - 00% Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 1st hour - 78 mm 2nd hour - 102 mm Average - 64. 5 mm Blood sugar - fasting 116 mg/dl. Post prandial - 174 mg/dl TAKING medicine :- 1. Cap pantocid - L - one in morning empty stomach. 2. Syp. Duphalac - 10 ml two time. 3. Tab. Flodart plus - one at nite. 4. Tab. Niftas 100 mg - two time morning and evening. 5.syp.sucral- three time. 6.cap.becosules z.7.glucobay 25 - morning. 8.glyciphage 500 mg one time. Steel feel heavy stomach not feeling hungry.
Dear Dr's I using tobacco products like chain, and cigarette in last one & half years. My question is how to avoid or precautions about cancer. please Give me a sujetion.
1. Prevents cancer: as a magnificent source of vitamin c and different cell reinforcements, tomatoes can battle the development of abnormal cells that causes cancer. Lycopene has been connected with prostate tumour prevention. Epidemiologists recommend the consumption of tomato as it helps lower the possibility of prostate cancer. High fibre content of beta-carotene in fruits and vegetables has been proven to bring down the risk of colorectal cancer to a great extent.
2. Blood pressure: low sodium consumption keeps circulatory strain solid. Tomatoes are rich in potassium that helps in the same.
3. Heart's well-being: the fibre, potassium, vitamin c and choline content in tomatoes all bolster the heart's well-being. An expansion in potassium as well as a reduction in sodium is the most essential dietary change that an individual can make to lessen their danger of cardiovascular diseases. Tomatoes additionally contain folic corrosive, which keeps the homocysteine levels under control. It reduces the risk of heart diseases.
4. Diabetes: tomatoes help bring down the blood sugar level in people with type1 diabetes. Whereas, people with type 2 diabetes may have enhanced glucose, lipids and insulin levels. One measure of cherry tomatoes gives around 2 grams of fibre and helps them keep their levels neutralized.
5. Constipation: eating foods that are high in water substance and fibre like tomatoes can help with hydration and advance normal solid discharges. Fibre adds mass to stool and is important for bowel movement.
6. Eye health: tomatoes are a rich sources of lycopene, lutein and beta-carotene, which are intense cancer prevention agents. They have been helpful in protecting the eyes against harm related to the advancement of age-related macular degeneration.
7. Skin: collagen, a fundamental part of the skin, hair, nails and connective tissue, is dependent on vitamin c. An inadequacy of vitamin c leads to certain skin problems. As vitamin c is a capable cancer prevention agent, a low intake can affect the skin and cause harm from uv rays, infections and smoke. This usually results in wrinkles, hanging skin, blemishes and other antagonistic skin diseases.
8. Pregnancy: a good amount of folic acid needs to be present before and during pregnancy to ensure the infants good health inside the mother's womb. This can be found in tomatoes.