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Dr. Poovamma

Oncologist, Bangalore

Dr. Poovamma Oncologist, Bangalore
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My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them....more
My favorite part of being a doctor is the opportunity to directly improve the health and wellbeing of my patients and to develop professional and personal relationships with them.
More about Dr. Poovamma
Dr. Poovamma is an experienced Oncologist in Hosur Road, Bangalore. She is currently practising at Mazumdar-Shaw Cancer Center in Hosur Road, Bangalore. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. Poovamma on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Oncologists in India. You will find Oncologists with more than 33 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Oncologists online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Mazumdar-Shaw Cancer Center

#258/A, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Hosur Road, Anekal Taluk. Landmark: Behind Narayana HrudayalaBangalore Get Directions
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Penile Cancer - Know Everything About It?

M.Ch - Urology/Genito-Urinary Surgery
Urologist, Guwahati
Penile Cancer - Know Everything About It?

Penile cancer occurs when cancer.us cells form on tissues of the penis.

If caught early, penile cancer is treatable. In early stages, a cancerous tumour can be removed with little or no damage to the penis. But if it is diagnosed late, a man may lose part of or all of his penis and sometimes his life too. Hence, it’s vital that you know more about this cancer.

But first, a small primer on the penis…

The penis has two types of erectile tissues, the spongy tissue that gets engorged with blood leading to an erection:

  1. Corpora cavernosa: This tissue forms most of the penis.
  2. Corpus spongiosum: This tissue forms a small portion of the penis. It also surrounds the urethra, a tube that transports urine and sperm to outside.

The erectile tissue comes wrapped in connective tissue and skin to form the organ.

Penile cancer is usually found on the ‘glans’ or tip of the penis, but can also occur on the shaft of the penis. Some of the common symptoms of penile cancer include sores and lumps on the penis, redness or irritation on the penis and blood discharge.

Factors that increase the risk of developing penile cancer

  1. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV): This virus causes cervical cancer in women. Unprotected skin-to-skin contact as well as unprotected sex with multiple partners, increases the risk of a man getting HPV infection.
  2. Not being circumcised at birth: Circumcision, an operation in which a part or the entire foreskin is removed surgically is a big protection from penile cancer. 
  3. Phimosis: This is a condition in which the foreskin cannot be pulled back over the glans or tip of the penis.
  4. Poor hygiene
  5. AIDS
  6. UV treatment for psoriasis
  7. Use of tobacco: The chemicals in tobacco smoke lead to genetic changes in cells of the penis, thereby leading to cancer.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Detection and diagnosis are done using tests like a biopsy in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the penis and tested for abnormalities due to cancer.

The most common ways of treating penile cancer include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Chances of Survival

Treatment of penile cancer depends on what stage it is detected at and so is prognosis. The location and size of tumour, and whether cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred also affect prognosis.

For stage I and II penile cancer or cancer that is limited only to the penis, the five-year survival rate is 85%.

The survival rate dips substantially if cancer is diagnosed after it has spread to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes in stage III or IV. The five-year survival rate is just about 59%.

1 person found this helpful

Based on 41 PSA, I was detected to have Cr3N0M0 Prostate Cancer and underwent 28 sittings of Radiation and am on Injection Elegrad 22.50 once every three months for 2 years (3 Injections completed so far including one at start of Radiations. PSA reading after first 3 months post radiation is 1.60. Your views on the treatment being followed and results so far. Can I be Prostate Cancer free? Thank You.

M.Ch - Surgical Oncology, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Oncologist, Delhi
Based on 41 PSA, I was detected to have Cr3N0M0 Prostate Cancer and underwent 28 sittings of Radiation and am on Inje...
You have a high risk prostate cancer which has been appropriately treated with radiation therapy followed by hormonal therapy. With psa controlled, I feel that you are cancer free and just under surveillance for now. Your treatment has been appropriate.
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Use seasonal vegetables of different colours

Certification In Smile Makeover, BDS
Dentist,
Use seasonal vegetables of different colours
Oral Cancer (most commonly squamous cell carcinoma) is most common type of Cancer in India.
Common causes include -
1. Use of all forms of tobacco (gutkha, khaini, bidi, cigarette, paan etc.)
2. Irritating or sharp edged dentures or teeth causing chronic non healing ulcers
3. Poor oral hygiene
4. Some hereditary conditions (example - Plummer Vinson Syndrome)

It starts as change in color of oral mucosa or non healing chronic ulcer which grows with time. It may or may not bleed on touch. Pain may be or may not present
Another form of oral cancer which resembles cauliflower is known as verrucous carcinoma.

Prevention of cancer includes -
1. Quitting all kind of habits including tobacco
2. Regular dental and oral checkups
3. Maintainance of good oral hygiene,
4. Rounding or removal of ill fitting dentures or prostheses.
133 people found this helpful

Hii I am 48 years old suffering with genital cancer 3rd stage all tomy. Done surgically. After more therapy. Again attract of metastasis in body start what can I do.

DNB, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
Dear sir, please tell us the site of metastases, if it is regional, means lymph nodes or within the region then re -surgery or radiation therapy may be offered. Please also specify the site of primary disease as genitals are wide term, it may be penile, testicle, prostate and the treatment would vary in each case. If metastases is distant then chemotherapy may be needed.
34 people found this helpful
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What the tests will be done to determine if I have cancer? What are the risks associate with these tests?

DNB, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
You can get a comprehensive cancer screening done where broadly all cancers are screened like head and neck chest abdomen, pelvis prostate, anorectum etc or else you can get a detailed examination by ent surgeon, chest xray, ultrasound whole abdomen, cea psa, stool for occult blood etc checked in good lab.
107 people found this helpful
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Hello doctor. I have been diagnosed with enlargement of prostrate gland 5 years back. I am taking flodart 0.4 mg. The problem is under control. Which homeopathic medicine should I take?? suggest please thank you.

Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery (B.U.M.S)
Unani Specialist, Delhi
Hello doctor.  I have been diagnosed with  enlargement of prostrate gland 5 years back. I am taking flodart 0.4 mg. T...
????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ????-???? ?? ???-??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???, ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ???, ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ???, ?? ???? ?? ?? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ???, ?? ???? ??? ???? ????????????? ?? ?????????????????????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????, ????????, ???????????, ????, ??????????, ???????, ??????? ??, ???????, ????? ???? ???? ?? ????????????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??? 60 ????????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????-??????????? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????????????? ?? ?????????????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ? 20 ????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ? ????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ? ?? ? ??? ?????? ?? ??????, ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ? ?? ??? ??? (??? ?? ?????) ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???, ???? ?? ? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ? ?? ? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?-? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? :? * ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????| ???????? ??? ????, ????, ??????, ????, ????, ?????, ????, ????, ????, ?????, ????? ??? ?? ???? ????| ????? ??? ???? ? ??? ?? ??? ????| ???? ??? ???, ?????, ????, ??????, ?????, ?????, ??????, ?????, ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????| ????, ????, ????, ???, ??????, ?????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ? ????| ????, ??? ?????, ?????, ???, ????, ????, ?????, ????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????|
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My father(approx-90 yrs) had prostate problem in 2004 and had been operated in the same year but now (from Oct-2014) blood coming out time to time through urinal with burning sensation and clotted blood without blockage of urine.What will be the treatment please advise me ?

MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Delhi
Don't take the symptoms lightly and consult a Urologist. It may be anything from a simple urinary infection to more serious urinary tract malignancy.
1 person found this helpful

My girlfriend lives in Spain and I am in india now days, actually she has a small muscular hard ball in her breast and she already consult with kinesiology person and taking treatment she don't have normally pain but only pain at the time of pressing the breast. Please suggest me if I can do some treatment for her in india or kinesiology is good for her. Thanks.

Post Doctoral Research (Ph.D.) (A.M) (Oncology), Integrative Oncology for Physicians (MSKCC, N.Y, USA), Doctor of Natural Medicine (N.D/ N.M.D), Ayurveda (I) Cert., Advanced Strategic Management (APSM), B.E (Computer Sc. & Engg.), Clinically Relevant Herb-Drug Interactions (CME) - (Cine-Med Inc. USA)
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Bhubaneswar
Hi lybrate-user, I appreciate you seeking help. Well, I would advise that she get this clinically examined by her OB/ GYN and proceed with treatment as recommended. Her OB/ GYN, again, may also comment on the usefulness of kinesiology in this regard, as appropriate. Simultaneously, advise not to press the same lest it leads to any complication. For the time being, she can apply an alternating heat and cold treatment for couple of minutes that may alleviate pain. Let her keep her diet / lifestyle streamlined and stay well hydrated. Hope this helps.
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My mother had breast cancer and doctor's says she is in advance stage as per reports its spread in lungs and liver. But after 3 oral chemotherapy she is good recovery and able for any treatment. My question is which is best treatment in this stage?

DNB, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
It is a metastatic breast cancer. If she is er/pr positive then hormonal therapy is the best treatment. She may respond well. If still residual then chemotherapy can be tried.
1 person found this helpful
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Signs and symptoms of bile duct cancer

MD, DTDC , MBBS
General Physician, Delhi
Signs and symptoms of bile duct cancer

Cholangiocarcinoma (Bile duct cancer), like any other cancer, leaves a person physically, mentally and emotionally drained. It has been mostly found to affect people above 60 years of age. The signs and symptoms associated are so common that very few people consult a physician. A delayed diagnosis implies delayed treatment. This goes on to aggravate and complicate the situation further. One needs to be a little alert. Any symptoms, no matter how common, should not be taken lightly. Look for the early signs and symptoms and bile duct cancer can be fully cured.

Signs and symptoms associated with Cholangiocarcinoma:
Bile duct cancer can be Extrahepatic (occurs in the duct outside the liver) or Intrahepatic (cancer develops within the smaller ducts inside the liver). It must be noted that Intrahepatic Bile duct cancer and Liver cancer are different.
-      Bile duct cancer results in blocking the bile duct. This blockage severely effects the secretion of bilirubin and bile from the liver. Thus, the secretions (bile and bilirubin) which are supposed to flow into the intestine move back into the bloodstream. An elevated level of bilirubin in the blood gives rise to a condition, known as Jaundice (a condition resulting in yellowing of the eyes and the skin). The problem lies in the fact that many other factors can equally contribute to Jaundice. Consulting a physician at the earliest is the best resort.
-      A sudden or drastic weight loss and loss of appetite is an alarming sign of Cholangiocarcinoma.
-      Excessive itching can be an indication of something as big as bile duct cancer. Itching can be an outcome of the increased bilirubin (blood) reaching the skin.
-      At an advanced stage of Cholangiocarcinoma, a patient may experience severe abdominal pain.
-      At times, the tumour in the bile duct might exert immense pressure on the nearby organs. This can give rise to an enlarged abdominal mass. Bloated feeling is also very common amongst the patients.
-      An unusual change in the colour of the stool and urine should not be neglected. The elevated bilirubin level from the intestine is usually eliminated out of the system through the urine.  Thus the stool appears lighter and the urine a shade darker.
-      A cholangiocarcinoma patient can, at times feel nauseated. Fever is also a common but an extremely important indication.

Bile duct cancer or cholangiocarcinoma can lead to many other complications. Click below to know every minute detail associated with Cholangiocarcinoma.

3350 people found this helpful

We have 3 months baby to used the Johnson's product soap to the baby. But, few weeks ago using that soap to affect ovarian cancer to the human. So, please clear me which soup is best to the baby?

DNB, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
We have 3 months baby to used the Johnson's product soap to the baby. But, few weeks ago using that soap to affect ov...
Mostly products with least chemical contents would be ideal. We were also shocked with verdict for j&j as it has been brand we most often use. You can try baby care range by himalya or pigeon.
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What do you mean by blood cancer? In which activities in this disease? How to cure blood cancer?

DNB, MBBS
Oncologist, Faridabad
Blood cancer is caused by abnormal uncontrolled proliferation of one of the components of blood causing suppression of others. Hence leading to symptoms like palpable lump or lymphadenopathy, anemia, easy bleeding or bruising, bone pains etc. Blood cancer is treated by chemotherapy.
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Sir I want to know the symptoms of mouth cancer and if someone smoke once in week then is it possible chance of cancer. Sandeep.

MCh - Surgical Oncology, FEBS - Fellow of European Board of Surgical Oncology
Oncologist, Navi Mumbai
Please look out for any white lesion in the mouth. Ulcers that do not heal. Or any other swelling Smoking can not only cause mouth cancer but also cancer of the food pipe, lungs, stomach, pancreas etc. Best way to avoid cancer, is to stop smoking. No number is the right number to avoid cancer. Of course more the cigarettes, more the chances.
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Hello Doctor My wife is experiencing lumps in her right breast, from last 1 year. Sometimes lumps are unable to find & melt. We have not yet consult to any Doctor and did not went for FNAC or Biopsy. Are these lumps are normal or it contain cercemonia. Please reply.

Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS, MD - Community Medicine
Gynaecologist, Lucknow
Hello it appears that you are having hormonal imbalance. It may be the reason for your problem. You can get a mammogram done to rule out any problem. Archana gupta.
2 people found this helpful
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Hello sir what is the food or fruit or anything else we can take which prevent all type of cancer.

MS ( General Surgery)
Oncologist, Mandsaur
They're low in calories and fat and power-packed with phytochemicals and antioxidants that may help reduce your cancer risk.
1 person found this helpful
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My father has enlarged prostate and liver. He has the habit of alcohol and smoking. What might be the further complication.

FMAS, MS
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
My father has enlarged prostate and liver. He has the habit of alcohol and smoking. What might be the further complic...
Respected lybrate-user hi it amy remain benign or in long term may be turn into cancer as last complication due to smoking & alcohol.
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5 Ways to Decrease The Chance of Breast Cancer

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (MRCOG)
Gynaecologist, Alwar
5 Ways to Decrease The Chance of Breast Cancer

While you cannot cure breast diseases, family history and maturing, but there are some hazards or risks that you can control. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no certain approach to forestall breast cancer, there are things you can do that may bring down the hazard. Here are five approaches to ensure your breast's well-being:

  1. Watch your weight: Being overweight or hefty expands breast cancer chances. This is particularly true after menopause and for women who have put on weight as grown-ups. After menopause, the vast majority of your estrogen originates from fat tissue. Having more fat tissue can heighten your chances of getting breast cancer by raising the estrogen levels. Additionally, women who are overweight have a tendency to have more elevated amounts of insulin, than other hormones. Higher insulin levels have been associated with a few tumors, including breast cancer.
  2. Exercise routinely: Many reviews have found that exercise is the sign of having a healthy breast. Studies show that one to two hours of energetic walking each week, lessened a woman’s cancer risk by eighteen percent. Walking ten hours seven days decreased the hazard all the more.
  3. Constrain liquor: Women who have two to five mixed beverages every day have a higher danger of breast cancer than women who have just one drink a day or none . As much as three to six glasses of wine seven days have been found to somewhat increase breast cancer chances. It is not clear how or why liquor raises the hazard. In any case, constraining liquor is particularly essential for women who have other hazard variables for breast cancer, like, breast cancer running in their families.
  4. Restrain time spent sitting: Research has shown that sitting time, regardless of how much exercise you get when you are not sitting, increases the probability of growing cancer, particularly for women. Women who sit six hours or more a day outside of work have a ten percent more serious risk for breast cancer compared to the ladies who sit under three hours a day, and an increased hazard for other cancer types as well.
  5. Stay away from or confine hormone substitution treatment: Hormone Replacement Treatment (HRT) was utilized frequently in the past to control night sweats, hot flashes, and other troublesome manifestations of menopause. In any case, specialists now realize that postmenopausal ladies who take a blend of estrogen and progestin might probably create breast tumors or cancer. Breast cancer disease seems to come back within five years in the wake of ceasing the blend of hormones. Therefore, get a breast cancer test even if you feel a small lump. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
4271 people found this helpful

I am 62 years old from 4 years I have enlarged prostate. Due to this urine not empty in one go. It takes 3 or 5 strokes to clear but I do not have any pain when urinate. Which is good treatment without operation.

MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Ludhiana
I am 62 years old from 4 years I have enlarged prostate. Due to this urine not empty in one go. It takes 3 or 5 strok...
Medical treatment after investigations: RFT, FBS and PSA Urine routine microscopic Ultrasound scans KUB- Prostate Urine Culture and Sensitivity
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Is there any vaccines for cancer? My father was expired due to gallbladder cancer. So I want know the vaccines if there. Any one please tell me how we can avoid cancer.

MBBS, MD - Medicine, MD - Oncology
Oncologist, Delhi
Dear, There is no cancer vaccine so far far preventing the cancer. Coincidental factors of cancer can be controlled like smoking, high fatty diets, use of packaged and preserved foods, inhalation of unwanted gasses, dues, dust, industrial inhalations and so on. Usage of antioxidants like fresh fruits, high fibre foods, Green leafy vegetables will help to keep you away from Cancer.
5 people found this helpful
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Cancer- General Information: Don't Fear, Be Aware

MBBS, MS- Surgery , M.Ch - Surgical Oncology , FIAGES
Oncologist, Delhi
Cancer- General Information: Don't Fear, Be Aware

Cancer

Cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells in any part of the body. Neoplasm or tumor are used variably to describe any swelling or new growth. Benign growths don't have the potential to spread to other organs or parts of the body while malignancy or malignant growths have uncontrolled proliferation and metastatic potential. Transformation is a multistep process with genetic alterations by which normal cells acquire malignant potential, uncontrolled proliferation capacity and capacity to spread to other parts of the body (metastasis) worldwide cancer is responsible for 1 in 8 deaths. Most common cancers are:

Men: oral cancer (in India), prostate, lung

Women: breast, cervix and endometrium, colorectal, lung


What causes cancer? cancer is usually multifactorial 


1. Age- more in age group greater than 60 yrs compared to younger age group

2. Obesity- body mass index greater than 30

3. Tobacco - cigarette, cigar, bidi, hookah, smokeless tobacco like gutka, zarda etc. There is no safe form of tobacco.

4. Pan masala and supari

5. Alcohol

6. Ultraviolet rays exposure

7. Radiation exposure

8. Genetic factors

9. Others- pollution, certain chemicals, infections


Prevention of cancer: 


1. Stay away from tobacco products

2. Eat healthy and daily physical activity- fresh fruits and vegetable are good, maintain optimal body weight

3. Be safe in sun

4. Cancer awareness and early detection: alarming signs are (caution)-
 

  • Change in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that will not heal
  • Unusual discharge or bleeding
  • Thickening or lump in the breast, testicles or elsewhere
  • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
  • Obvious change in a wart or mole
  • A nagging cough or hoarseness


5. Cancer screening: screening is for healthy individuals with education. Rather than going for unnecessary blind tests, a programme for screening should be planned in consultation with your oncologist as requirements are different for different cancers and differ as per age groups and gender. Also, screening is not effective in all cancers. Cancer education and awareness have due importance. Some cancers in which screening has been shown to be effective includes breast, colon, rectum, cervix, prostate, lung in high-risk groups but as mentioned earlier it is planned with participation of both individual and oncologist.


Types of cancer treatment:


Cancer treatment is now a multidisciplinary management in which different surgical, medical and radiation oncologist plan treatment protocol for best possible chances of cure. Advancement in all these fields and their contribution in comprehensive management results in 25-30% improvement in cure rate over previous decades.
 

  • Surgery: involves surgical principles to remove the tumor with adequate margins and possible draining lymph nodes regions. Improvements and understanding of surgical principles even make resection of distant disease or cure of stage iv disease in some selected cases.
  • Chemotherapy: cytotoxic drugs are given either in injectable or oral forms which acts on uncontrolled cancer cells. Advances in this fields result in drugs with better efficacy and less side effect profile and at the same time resulting in better cancer control. Targetted therapy acts on specific pathways of cancer growth. Hormone therapy targets specific hormone receptors for controlling cancer.
  • Radiation therapy: is the delivery of radiation generated by radioactive source over the region of cancer. More and more advances in radiation technologists are emerging like imrt, sbrt to focus radiation over the specific location so as to avoid toxic effect over surrounding area.
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