Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 40 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
Book Clinic Appointment
Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Submit a review for Dr. P. PrabhavathyYour feedback matters!
Hi my age is 23. I am taking fertility treatment from last 4 months. My hsg FSH and lh another tests all are good. I don't have thyroid, But have vitamin d deficiency. Why I didn't get pregnancy. Can you please tell me the tips to get pregnancy early. Thank you.
I am 37 year old, I got married on 2005 still i am not getting any result of pregnancy, I consult dr's here but not get any result they told me that there is problem in you sperm count will be 0 % after discharge.
Hlo, I want to tell you that I have sex with my fionce on 12 april and uske baad 16 april ko hi datte aa gai thi mujhe. Uske baad is month b date aa gai. To maiin ye puchna chahti hu k sex k baad date aa rhi hai mujhe to kya iska mtlb k m not pregnaant ya abi b pregnannt hone ka koi drr hai. Nd kya pregnanncy mein 9 months tj periods bnd honaa jruri hota haii?
I'm 22 year female. I was taking periods postpone tablets on 29th jan and on the same day I had unprotected sex with my boyfriend and I took ipill. Still I'm not done with my periods. I'm nt feeling also. I'm scared. Am I pregnant?
I have gained 10 kgs weight in 2-3 months due to irregularity in periods. What is the best way to lose weight now
Ear buds are meant to be used for outer ear only i. E to clean the folds of outer ear.
Using them inside the ear is not recommended and can lead to dangerous ear infection.
The delicate skin in the ear canal can get damaged and subsequently infection may occur leading to a condition called otitis externa.
I had unprotected sex after two days when my periods are over. My cycle is of 35 days. Will there is a risk of getting pregnant?
I am 6.4 weeks pregnant. In abdominal ultrasound test found that no heartbeat. Please help. Apart from this all are normal.
The biological basis of mental illness
Mental illness is, in part, an illness of the brain. Learning about the brain can:
? give information from a biological and medical perspective (and some idea of its complexity)
? help you understand and support treatment
? assist you in dealing with the stigmas of mental illness
? support the realisation that no one is to blame for the onset of mental illness.
About brain research
A lot of what the community commonly thinks and knows about mental illness is based on previous experience and social stigma. It is often information that is out of date and leaves us with an impression of hopelessness. In fact:
? Over half of what we know about the brain in relation to mental illness we have learnt in the last 10 years. As a consequence, medications and treatments have improved significantly and people who are now being diagnosed with mental illness have a better prognosis than people diagnosed before that time.
? New imaging technology allows the brain to be examined while the person is experiencing mental illness, whereas before we relied on autopsy information.
? Research indicates that physical changes commonly occur within the brain in
? The brain pathways responsible for ?higher? mental functioning (feeling emotions, interpreting information) are affected.
? The linking of an illness to particular changes in the brain is extremely difficult. (Brain scanning techniques are used alongside assessment of behaviour and symptoms.)
? Brain research has already achieved much, and has further capacity to improve medications and other physical treatments.
What changes in the brain when mental illness is present?
Like other body parts, the brain is susceptible to injury and change.
Both the chemical messaging system and the physical structures of the brain can be
altered in mental illness.
The chemical, or neurotransmission system in the brain Neurons.The brain is made up of billions of cells called neurons. Each neuron is a link in a chain and can have thousands of connections to other neurons. These connections of neurons form chains through which messages are relayed in the brain.
The synapse is the meeting point of two neurons. A signal must be transmitted from one neuron across the synapse to the other neuron. These events occur within
? Neurotransmitters are the chemicals that conduct the messages across the
? When a signal arrives at the end of a neuron, the neurotransmitter spills into the gap and crosses the gap.
? Scientists have identified over 50 neurotransmitters that are messengers communicating information from one part of the brain to another, and to all
parts of the body.
? From this simple system, complicated brains are built. And this system seems
affected in many mental illnesses.
Neurotransmitter malfunctions can occur because there is:
? not enough neurotransmitter
? too much neurotransmitter
? malabsorption of the neurotransmitter.
Some important neurotransmitters and their roles are:
? dopamine: activation level, mood, movement Understanding the Brain and
Mental Illness continued.
? norepinephrine: mood, activation level
? serotonin: mood, sleep, appetite, aggression
? acetylcholine: mood, autonomic nervous system.
Malfunction in these neurotransmitters is found in many forms of mental illness. It is possible that, in biologically vulnerable individuals, high stress levels ?trigger? malfunctioning in neurotransmitters (e.G. Production of neurotransmitters cannot
keep up with the body?s demands or the neurotransmitters are
not effectively removed from the system).
There is evidence to strongly suggest that some brain structures are altered or damaged in mental illness. It is clear, however, that many parts of the brain are affected by mental illness, including the following:
The main purpose of the frontal lobe is control of movement
It is also thought to be responsible for behaviour, character, emotional state, short-term memory and planning.
Think of the behaviours that are often displayed when someone is psychotic. They often have poor concentration, they can be emotional or lack emotion and display odd behaviours.
Movement can also be random and disjointed.
The parietal lobe is involved in:
? long-term memory
? obtaining and retaining accurate knowledge of objects
? sensory speech (responsible for perceiving the spoken word).
When a person develops certain mental illnesses, these pathways/speech may be affected. Hence someone with schizophrenia, when psychotic, may develop a language of their own or words of their own, called neologisms. Often people?s
ability to retain information is limited.
Roles of the temporal lobe include:
? auditory (hearing), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the inner ear
? olfactory (smell), the area that receives and interprets
impulses from the nose
? taste, the area that interprets nerve impulses from the tongue.
The cells in this area receive and interpret impulses from the various parts of the body, i.E. Nose, taste buds and ear. When someone is psychotic they may be hearing voices, but the parts of the ear usually involved in hearing (the anvil hammer, etc.)
are not physically moving from sound waves. However, the impulses in the brain are working and sending messages, as if the person is hearing. This also occurs in relation to smell and taste ? people may think the food is being poisoned because it
Message Occipital lobe
The occipital lobe receives impulses from the eye and interprets them as visual impressions. The eyes do not actually do the seeing ? it is the brain that receives the impulses from the eyes and interprets them. When someone experiences visual
hallucinations, the occipital lobe is seen to be very active ? impulses are interpreted and processed ? thus the person sees objects that may not be present.
Thought to influence muscle tone ? if control is inadequate, movements are uncoordinated.
Receives impulses from the body?s sensory nerves associated with pain, temperature, pressure and touch. Here crude, uncritical sensations reach consciousness (e.G. Awareness of pain but not the ability to identify the body part involved). People with schizophrenia may wear lots of clothes on hot days because
this part of their brain is affected by the illness.
Involved in the pituitary gland?s orchestration of hormone release and in the autonomic nervous system (hunger, thirst, body temperature, heart and blood vessels, and defensive reactions such as fear and rage).
? Controls and co-ordinates the movements of various muscle groups to ensure smooth, even and precise actions.
? Maintains balance and equilibrium of the body.
? Jerky, unco-ordinated movements indicate the involvement of the cerebellum in mental illness.
The limbic system
? Is more a functional than an anatomical entity.
? Involves parts of the brain essential for organising emotional responses and processing information.
? Is involved in schizophrenia, which affects the emotions of the person and their ability to process information.
Applying the knowledge ? theories about what happens in the brain relating to
schizophrenia, depression and obsessive compulsive disorder
Current research indicates the following theories about what is happening in the brain in relation to schizophrenia:
There is an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is involved in regulating thoughts and feelings, both of which are disturbed in schizophrenia. It is also thought that high dopamine levels make someone more sensitive to stress.
Research indicates that some people with schizophrenia appear to have larger ventricles. Research also indicates that some people experiencing schizophrenia seem to have a loss of tissue in the anterior hippocampus, which may account for memory problems and irrationality. Recent research carried out in Melbourne seems
to indicate some people have this tissue reduction before the onset of psychosis, which leads to the hope that results of
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used as a predictor
In depression, not enough neurotransmitter appears to be released into the gap between neurons, or too much of it is removed before it has completed its function.
When antidepressants are used, there is more neurotransmitter is available in the gap between neurons, which eases a depressed mood.
Obsessive compulsive disorder
Researchers think obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) may be linked to parts of the basal ganglia involved in fixed patterns of behaviour resulting in an imbalance among a variety of neurotransmitters.
One hypothesis is that the brain signals for a contaminant (like dirty hands) cause the cortex to send signals to preprogrammed cells in an area of the basal ganglia that produce the neurotransmitter serotonin, with other neurotransmitters also involved.
In short, we provide this basic information about the brain and mental illness for the following reasons:
To increase your familiarity with the terms so that when they are described by people in the treating profession, you might recognise them and be able to engage in a discussion that is fruitful for you.
For you to understand more about some of the behaviours associated with mental illness and their origins.
Because our experience is that many families when they first come into contact with mental illness believe that it is due solely to a negative psychological experience early in life (that the family may have caused). More information about the biological origins of mental illness gives you an opportunity to revisit these ideas. Mental Illness Fellowship Victoria - for people with mental illness, their families and friends
What to take if one has 7th week of pregnancy and feels no urge of food, vomiting and lack of energy.
My wife period time irregular. 8years marriage. First child normal delivery. For second child we try. 4 years. But no chance fail.
I am 23 years old. I am suffering frm PCOD. Ans I have gained lot of weight because of it. Please adive me a proper diet to loose weight
I have a mild stomach pain 7 days before my period and also after my period. I am having sex everyday.
Hi my name is Anil Singh. My wife's abortion has been done today. When she can get pregnant again. How much time it will take.
Dear sir/madam I am suffering from gynic problem since last few months my age is 25years not married my weight is 80kgs and height is 5.5" what should I do?
Im 25 years old. I have tsh 6.32 taking eltroxin 50 mcg. Got married. Will I get pregnancy? R will b any complications? My weight is 58 kgs height is 5.4 feet. What care should I take to get proper pregnancy.
I am 19 years old. I had sex with my boyfriend on 12th july. I took unwanted 72 after an hour. I tested on 15th it came negative through prega news. Last month I had my periods on 23rd june. Like others I am not having brown discharge. Am I pregnant ? Is there anything to worry about ?
Soap vs hand wash- what should you wash your hands with?
You might be using both - soaps and hand washes, without understanding what is better for your hands. But you may still not be sure as to what to use for washing your hands. Here's a lowdown on these two.
1. Moisturising aspect
Bar soaps not only wash away dirt but also reduce the moisture content of your skin. Soaps that act as deodorants strip away important oils, giving rise to instances of skin irritation. Furthermore, most bar soaps tend to have higher ph levels with very few on the lower side. Liquid soaps or hand washes, on the other hand, come with moisturisers that prevent your skin from becoming very oily or dry.
2. Presence of bacteria
Due to its reusable nature, bar soaps may be home to a number of bacteria. But since the organisms get rinsed off with the suds, it is improbable that bacteria will get transferred to your hands. The pump or squeeze mechanisms of hand washes reduce the chances of you coming in contact with bacteria.
3. Exercise of control in its use
With bar soaps, you tend to waste less as you stop applying soap on your body once you see lather forming. This does not happen with hand washes, the latter gets used a lot as you may not know the right amount of use, and end up squeezing out more than the you need.
Whether you prefer to use soaps or hand washes, it's a matter of personal choice. Depending on your needs, you can opt for either of the two.