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Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Hi, I take the contraceptive pill and I have just started taking it over a week now but I have missed 4 days of it there.
Hi, my follicular study is going i.e second time .At the first follicular study the follicle became a big cyst of size 40 mm but this time follicle at its normal size but egg is not rapturing even at the 23rd day .What can b the reasons? Please give some fruitful answer.
Hi I have to take this injection on tuesday I do not know about this injection Hcg 5000 IU Injection Can you please tell me why I have to take this injection ?Thanks.
Also known as tubal sterilization, tubectomy is a permanent method of contraception in women. It is a surgical procedure in which a portion of the fallopian tubes are blocked to prevent an egg that is released from the ovaries, from reaching the uterus. In case an egg is present in the uterus, it carries with it the risk of fertilization, thus, can lead to pregnancy. Sometimes the patient may change her decision and ask for a reversal of the process. However, it should also be kept in mind that the surgery is a complex one. The results are often not guaranteed.
- Tubectomy refers to cutting or blocking a small portion of the fallopian tubes that prevent the released eggs from reaching the uterus.
- The surgeon reaches to the fallopian tubes by cutting open a portion of the abdomen in case of an open surgery.
- Laparoscopic techniques are also available to conduct the surgery.
- The fallopian tubes are blocked by an artificial clip to prevent the passage of eggs.
Are there any risk factors involved?
- Tubectomy may create a number of health complications in the long run.
- Tubectomy is not advised for patients who have previously undergone abdominal surgeries.
- Major risks of injury such as perforation surrounding blood vessels, internal haemorrhage or a severely life-threatening situation such as ectopic pregnancy may occur later on. Ectopic pregnancy is when fertilization and implantation occur within the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
- Tubectomy is even more challenging than vasectomy and has higher chance of giving rise to health complications.
Although the procedure is complex, it has a few advantages as well. Minimally-invasive surgeries help in quicker recoveries. It is almost 99% effective as a measure of birth control and thus provides a permanent solution. This surgery can even be done immediately after delivery. Sometimes, in rural areas, family welfare departments, government hospitals and primary health care centres offer free surgery and care to aid and educate about family planning.
Acute pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. It is a potentially life threatening condition caused by bacterial infection. It can occur suddenly and causes the kidneys to swell, which may damage them permanently too. If the condition occurs repeatedly, it is termed as chronic pyelonephritis.
The most common bacteria involved in causing pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Other causative bacteria are Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Infection starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection. Urethra provides an entry for the bacteria, which enter the tract and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. They further travel through the ureters to the kidneys. Any septic infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
How it spreads - Pyelonephritis spreads through two routes, homogenous or from the lower ascending tract (ascending infection).
Risk factors - Urinary obstruction, vesicoureteral reflex, catheterization, pregnancy, Diabetes Mellitus, age over 65.
Symptoms - The symptoms are observed within two days of infection. Common symptoms include:
- High fever of a temperature greater than 102 degree F
- Pain in the pelvic region
- Burning sensation during urination
- Flank pain
- Presence of pus discharge or blood in the urine, fishy odor in urine and vomiting.
The symptoms observed can vary in children and older adults than they are in other people. Mental confusion is common in older adults and it often is their only symptom. In chronic pyelonephritis, people experience only mild symptoms or may even lack noticeable symptoms altogether, which is the major reason of negligence by the patient towards treatment. Flank pain in the abdomen and signs of infection can be observed.
Diagnosis - Uncentrifused urine is analyzed for the presence of pus cells. The leucocyte esterase dipstick method is used to check for Pyuria. However, it is less sensitive than microscopy. In the urine culture, significant bacteriuria is detected on presence of more than 105 colonies/ml of the sample. Imaging studies can be done to check for the presence of kidney stones. Amongst the inflammatory markers, the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), ESR, and plasma viscosity may be raised. An elevated white cell count with neutrophilia is seen on blood culture.
Complications - Abscess formation in either the kidney parenchyma or the surrounding retroperitoneal spaces is a common complication. Other complications include the development of a xantho-granulomatous or emphysematous pyelonephritis. In severe cases, there can be chronic renal failure too.
Treatment - The duration of treatment depends on spread of infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment can be started until the confirmatory tests reports of culture and sensitivity are observed. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime can be given. Medications for acute pyelonephritis are continued for up to 3 weeks, whereas for chronic conditions medicines should be given for 6 months.
Chronic pyelonephritis - It is a morphologic entity which is associated with a predominant interstitial inflammation and scarring of the renal parenchyma. There is a grossly visible scarring and deformation of the pelvic-calyceal system. Chronic pyelonephritis further leads to chronic renal failure.
The two forms of chronic pyelo-nephritis are
- Chronic obstructive pyelonephritis, where obstructive lesions lead to recurrent bouts of renal inflammation
- Reflux nephropathy.
Management includes controlling blood pressure to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, long term antibiotic coverage for urinary tract infection, removal of calculi and antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico-ureteral reflex.