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Dr. Mrs Rajini Uday

Gynaecologist, Bangalore

400 at clinic
Dr. Mrs Rajini Uday Gynaecologist, Bangalore
400 at clinic
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I pride myself in attending local and statewide seminars to stay current with the latest techniques, and treatment planning....more
I pride myself in attending local and statewide seminars to stay current with the latest techniques, and treatment planning.
More about Dr. Mrs Rajini Uday
Dr. Mrs Rajini Uday is a renowned Gynaecologist in New BEL Road, Bangalore. She is currently associated with MS Ramaiah Hospital in New BEL Road, Bangalore. Book an appointment online with Dr. Mrs Rajini Uday on Lybrate.com.

Find numerous Gynaecologists in India from the comfort of your home on Lybrate.com. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 41 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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While having sex with my partner, condom has burst. What are the chances of her getting pregnant and what is the solution to avoid pregnancy?

MBBS, DGO, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Delhi
While having sex with my partner, condom has burst. What are the chances of her getting pregnant and what is the solu...
Chances of her getting pregnant depend upon the day of the cycle and her age. Use emergency contraceptive pill anyway and be safe for future
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I had an ovary cyst laser operation 2 month ago and after that an injection was given in bump. A big lump was formed after the injection. Noe after two months it it becom smaller but itis not going away and sometimes there is pain also in the hip and leg. Please suggest what I should do.

MD-Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Haldwani
I had an ovary cyst laser operation 2 month ago and after that an injection was given in bump. A big lump was formed ...
Hello- try this ayurvedic treatment to further minimize the effects of your previous medications and relive pain. A) avoid spicy, salty, fried and junk food immediately. B) avoid late night sessions. C) avoid fish. D) use ashokarishta 2 tsp twice a day with water. E) tab chandraprabha vati 1 bd f) gulkanda with prawal pishti 1 tsp thrice a day. G) tab bolbadha ras 1 twice daily h) go for basti panchakarama by near by ayurvedic doctor.
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What are the factors that determine the success of your IVF procedure?

Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology - Ireland, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, DGO, MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
What are the factors that determine the success of your IVF procedure?

Factors that determine the success of your IVF procedure

IVF or In Vitro Fertilization is a process wherein an egg is fertilized by a sperm in a laboratory dish to form the embryo (baby's first cell) which after growth in artificial medium in the lab is transferred into the uterus of women, In general, a blood sample is collected to determine whether you're pregnant or not about 10-14 days after the eggs are retrieved.

Coming to the success of the procedure, a number of factors are at play and these are:

  • The age at which you get pregnant - A factor that plays a role in influencing your chances of experiencing success in your IVF procedure is the age at which you opt for this procedure. The lower your age, the chances that you may get pregnant and deliver a healthy child using your own eggs witness an increase. On the other hand, if you're aged 41 and above, or your egg reserve is very low donor eggs are the most preferred option as they help to increase your prospects of meeting a success.
  • Lifestyle habits - Certain lifestyle factors can significantly affect your prospects of getting pregnant through this route. Smoking can reduce your prospect of success using this procedure by about 50%. It can cause you to have lesser number of eggs retrieved during the procedure while increasing instances of miscarriages. Likewise, obesity, alcohol use, consumption of excessive caffeine and drugs can adversely affect your chances of getting pregnant using IVF.
  • Cause of Infertility - If your supply of eggs is normal, success rate using IVF is high. Women who suffer from the problem of endometriosis experience lesser chances of getting pregnant than women who have unexplained fertility.
  • Reproductive history - IVF success rate chances are higher if you've delivered a baby previously using IVF.
  • Embryo status - Embryos that are better developed with good grade stand a higher chance of experiencing success than less developed embryos. More importantly, not every embryo is able to survive the development process.

'Consult'.

Related Tip: 4 Worst Foods Ever To Feed Your Baby!

4745 people found this helpful

I am a 21 years old male I frequently have unprotected sex with my partner she sits in menses every month but this month she is not in periods we have done pregnancy test the I can kit showed the negative sign that means she is not pregnant her date is 9th or 10 but she is not in menses whats the reason?

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics & Gynecology, Fellowship in Infertility (IVF Specialist)
Gynaecologist, Aurangabad
Hi lybrate-user, if pregnancy test is negative then it could be due to hormonal imbalance or stress. It needs to be evaluated.
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My baby is 4 months old I want him to feed exclusively mother milk but unable to do so

MBBS, DNB (Pediatrics)
Pediatrician, Kolkata
Mothers sometimes feel very sad at not being able to breast feed properly. It can be solved with a little patience. Tell me about his/her wieght, urine, stool, vaccines, any other issues etc.
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Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Chandigarh
For non diabetic
In general weaknesses / loss of libido
Take seed out of 3 -4 fresh dates
Boiled in a glass of milk add crushed almonds boil it.
Take it twice weekly

U guys gona rock!
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I am 18 years old girl my breast is very small I wear 28 bra size so please tell how I increase my breast and I masturbate 4 times in weak so please tell me it is harmful or not and when I masturbate there is no liquid come from vagina so please tell me the reason and solution.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
I am 18 years old girl my breast is very small I wear 28 bra size so please tell how I increase my breast and I mastu...
Masturbating 4 times a week is not harmful. Please maintain hygiene. Liquid may not come out from vagina during masturbation.
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Explore Homoeopathy

BHMS, Diploma in Diet and Nutrition
Homeopath, Lucknow
Explore Homoeopathy

Explore Homoeopathy

A VOCABULARY OF PERSONALITY

When personality is talked about, certain terms are used without thinking about them. Many such terms, though their meanings may seem clear and are given precise definitions by psychologists. These narrower meanings reduce the risk of misunderstanding when psychologists discuss personalities.
 

Attitude:

A tendency to like or dislike classes of people or things based on one’s beliefs and feelings. Eg: people who seem to believe that all women are emotional can be said to have a prejudiced attitude.

Character:

In the broad sense, same as personality if used to refer to a person’s total pattern of behavior. However, the word character generally implies the added dimension of ethical or moral values.
E.g: Letters of recommendation may refer to a person’s trustworthy emotionally stable character. A person who cheats on an exam is said to have a questionable character.

Disposition :

A person’s built-in tendency to react to a tendency to react to a given situation in a characteristic way; similar to temperament.
E.g: People who smile easily, are kind to others and are sympathetic listeners are said to have a friendly disposition.

Habit:

A learned mode of behavior that is relatively fixed (and hard to change) and occurs again and again in certain situations.
E.g: Taking a vitamin pill every day and fastening one’s seat belt before driving are both havits so are smoking cigarettes and driving too fast.

Mood:

An emotional state that may dominate one’s outlook and manner of expressing oneself for a period of time.
E.g: Winning a major competition puts one in a euphoric mood, being caught in bumper-to-bumper traffic bring on a depressed or irritable mood.

Personality:

The totality of a person’s unique psychological qualities, which consistently determines his pattern of behavior in a variety of situations.
E.g: Two boys were assigned a room together in boarding school. Since one was quiet and studious and the other liked to spend all his time partying, they were found to have incompatible personalities.

Temperament:

One’s inborn manner of reacting to things. It may show itself at birth or soon after, especially in the way a child expresses emotions and in his or her level of activity.
E.g: Some babies are excitable and active, while others show a calm and passive temperament. Some adults are easy-going and relaxed, while others are high-strung.

State:

A set of feeling of a certain kind that one is aware of and that causes some reaction in the autonomic nervous system (faster beating of heart rate, for example). Unlike a trait, a state is only temporary.
E.g: Not being prepared for an exam will cause a state of worrying or stress but always being upset at exams is a sign of the trait called anticipating anxiety.

Trait:

A specific way of behavior that occurs again and again, tends to characterize a person, and is useful in predicting future behavior.
E.g. Someone who gives money to charitable organizations or to friends in need and who gives up leisure time for a worthy cause could be said to possess the trait of generosity.

Type:

A category used to classify people who share similar traits.
E.g: People described as type A are said to behave in competitive and sometimes hostile ways in reaction to the stresses in their lives.

Values:

Qualities that a person had learned to believe are important or worthwhile. They can be principles to live by or goals to be achieved.
E.g: Power and wealth are important to some people others may find friendship and community service to be of greater significance.

DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY

Personality is the product of the interaction of genetic constitutional (intrinsic) factors and the environmental (extrinsic) factors.

Among the intrinsic factors are:

  • Genotype
  • Genotype milieu
  • Constitution comprising physical, physiological and biochemical aspects
  • Endocrine influences
  • Growth and maturation processes

Extrinsic factors include:

  • Parental and family influences
  • Social cultural factors
  • Life experiences
  • Physical or mental handicaps as a reaction to illness

DISEASE AS CREATION

Samuel Hahnemann had already come to the conclusion that the complaints are not the disease. He calls disease a derangement of the vital force, the dynamic or spiritual force which animates man. The disadvantage of this definition is that it is rather vague. It does make it clear however, that he saw the root of disease to be on the energetic or psychic level.

In the section below the root cause of disease will be further explored. The different ways to look at disease will be compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the various points of view will be put next to each other. We will also see how the different points of view could complement rather than exclude each other.

Disease as a process of ‘wear and tear’

This is the first conception of disease, the way it is often used in ordinary medicine. A human being wears out, just like a machine. From time to time we need to replace the worn out parts. This vision of disease as a wearing out process fits well in the mechanistic view of the world. This vision is not so strange. Everybody gets older, weaker and eventually dies. But there are certain problems with this point of view. Isn’t it true that the human body is constantly being renewed and repaired? So it is not clear how and when the wearing out process would win from the ability to repair. This dilemma is represented clearly in the following example. An old woman goes to the doctor with pain in her right knee. The doctor looks at it and says reassuringly: ‘Don’t worry, it is only a bit of wear and tear. Upon which the women reacts with ‘ it is alright for you to say that, but my left knee is just as old and there is nothing wrong with that one’.

The above example shows that such a diagnosis does not really mean anything. It does not make it clear why the ability to repair is not functioning. Let us look at another example. It is an example of a girl with serve acne. We could say then that her immunity is worn out, that it can’t function well anymore because it has been overtaxed. It sounds a bit artificial. That is because it shows one once again that nothing real has been explained.

Disease as a threat

This is the second way of looking at disease. It is also the most obvious: something is not going well, death may even be threatening. On the inner level disease is often experienced like this. There are people who experience disease to be such a threat that even when they do not have a disease, they are constantly afraid of it.

Allopathy also has this view of disease. The disease is something bad, it comes from outside and it need to be fought… The bacteria and viruses have to be killed at any cost, it is ‘either them or me’. We can also associate this with the archetype of the shadow. Jung calls the negative part in man’s psyche the shadow. Many people are inclined to push this negative part away and to make it unconscious. Afterwards projection may take place, the negative part is put in the outside world and does not seem to exist anymore inside man himself anymore. The same then counts for disease. It is something that you have to keep very far away from yourself, but which at the same time is also a part yourself.

Let us return to our example of the girl with eczema. We can see the eczema then as a threat of bacteria in the skin. The threat is not serious yet, only her skin is being threatened. But it could become serious. The viewpoint of disease as a threat has an analogy to the theory of evolution. The ultimate moral is the survival of the fittest. In disease as a threat the central idea is that you have to defend yourself against all negative influences from outside.

Disease as Original state

Hahneman also calls disease a ‘state of being’ or a way to live and be. Sankaran links this state of being to the original situation. The outer original situation is then linked to an inner state of being. The inner state is then an adequate reaction to a certain situation in the environment. Looked at it this way the state is then an excellent reaction to the state of the environment. The only problem is that the reaction can be exaggerated. Or that it can stay even while the original situation has disappeared. The useful reaction is maintained and therefore becomes useless, a waste of energy. From the above it will be clear that in homoeopathy the root cause of disease is of great importance. The situation in which the disease originated is very important in order to understand the diseased and the disease. Let us return to our example once more. On closer investigation it appears that the parents of the girl with acne are constantly quarrelling. She cannot tolerate this. The imminent divorce of the parents causes a great fear of being abandoned. The girl becomes depressed, she retreats into herself and does not have friends anymore. Sometimes she even gets outbursts of anger when everything gets too anymore. Sometimes she reacts to the quarrels by brooding gloomily. When we look at the complaint in this way, then the symptom of acne is a reaction to the situation in the environment. And the reaction is right in that sense that is good to show her parents that they are causing her pain. Perhaps- they will quarrel less for her sake, perhaps they will give her more attention.

It is very efficient to link remedies to situational causes. It makes it much easier to learn and remember the varying symptoms. They will get a meaning and function in the total reaction pattern. And that it quite different from a indigestible heap of little symptoms in the material medica.

Disease as talent strategy

You could also see the reaction patterns of, for instance, the girl in our example as a talent. These survival strategies are also an art or talent. They are an ability to manipulate the environment. You could also call it a strategy, a strategy which works excellently in certain situations in order to make the best of it. It is the positive side of ‘disease’. These reaction patterns are possibilities, talents, abilities to handle situations. Here again the problem is not the talent but the fact that you can’t react in any other way anymore, it become a nuisance. Looked at it this way disease becomes a talent that has gone too far. In other words: the talent turns against you like a boomerang.

Going back to our example you could say that it is rather clever of this girl to make her parents stop fighting. When they see her so silent and gloomy they understand that they are hurting her and they stop quarrelling.

Disease as illusion

Another approach is to see disease as an illusion, the way sankaran calls it a ‘central delusion’. In every disease there is a central theme, something that the patients perceives wrongly. If you find such a central delusion in a patient and if you can find that delusion descried in any homoeopathic literature then you can prescribe on it. In our example the girl lives with the delusion that quarrelling is threatening and that she will be abandoned. This idea, or rather, this delusion is the central theme of magnesium muriaticum. Therefore if someone has this delusion you can prescribe that remedy. This is also possible if the original situation has long since passed. Or even if the original situation never existed, but is merely present in somebody as a feeling or delusion.

The idea disease as original state is linked to that of delusion. The patient has the delusion of still being in the original situation. The magnesium muriaticum girl first takes on the delusion of being abandoned in a situation when her parents, through their quarrelling, might leave her behind. Whether that original situation still exists later on is of less importance. Thus you could also prescribe magnesium muriaticum when the parents got divorced a long time ago. This idea is comparable to the idea of Masi (told during a seminar) of’ primary psora’. Masi has his own addition to the concept of psora, sycosis and syphilis. He perceives sycosis as an active, positive reaction and syphilis as destructive reaction to a primary problem. That problem being a fear, nostalgia or loss, which masi then calls the primary psora. In the Christian way of thinking masi links this primary psora to the idea of original sin. The idea of primary psora is in reality the same as that of delusion. In the above example of magnesium muriaticum you could say that the fear that her parents quarrel, will separate and will abandon her is the primary psora.

One can also find the disease of the patient in his philosophy of life. The delusion gets translated to a conviction, for instance: all people are bad’ or ‘Nobody loves me. Especially terms like ‘always, never, everybody, nothing’ etc. etera point to the fact that people are speaking from their delusion. Their perception of the world is then seen as if it counts for everyone and at anytime. Thus the norms and values of people are a good representation of their problems.

A nice illustration of the relationship between delusion and disease is shown in the book written by siegel ‘Love, harmony and cure’. A woman has ALS, a paralyzing disease where the muscles waste away. She became conscious of the fact that her thoughts were always on her weight, that she always wanted to become slimmer, because then her problems would probably disappear. Suddenly she realizes ‘is it mere coincidence that I always wanted to have a thinner body and that ALS is now fulfilling this wish?’.

In Hawaii now had the same conception of disease as a belief. The only thing that a kahuna healer’ has to do to cure someone is to change his belief system, the rest of the rituals are a secondary matter. Here also a clear link is made between feeling and belief a feeling is energy which is linked to and bound by a belief.

An interesting point in king’s book is the differentiation between three sorts of belief. First there are opinions about which you can have discussions. Secondly there are convictions. When people are confronted with the opposite of their convictions they become emotional, they start heated discussions and react with strong disapproval. And thirdly there are deeply rooted convictions. They are so deep that people hardly recognize them themselves and their reaction to a confrontation is merely surprise. These last mentioned convictions

Disease as temptation

One could also see disease as an addiction. Every pattern has its securities. Predictable reactions and possibilities. The unchangeable reaction patterns makes people very predictable, both for themselves and others. The letting go of a state of disease can bring feelings of insecurity with it. One can get feelings of: what do I do instead?’ or ‘ who am I really? ‘ Also, every solutions to a problem gives you a certain kick, which could make you inclined to continue with these patters even in situations where they aren’t appropriate. Let us look at our example. It could be tempting for the girl to remain in her state of being. She has a lovely feeling of being wronged and she does not have to take up responsibilities. If she left her state of depression she would have to start doing something with her life.

Disease as protection

We could see disease as protection in direct relation to disease as temptation. A certain attitude can keep a danger or a fear at bay and can therefore give a certain amount of protection. That shows at the same time the tempting aspect of that attitude.

But a certain behavior can also serve as ‘diversion tactice’. By being intensively occupied with your work for instance, you could push away or walk around a deeper problem, such as for instance troubles in your marriage. This sometimes appears to lead to unwanted results in the course of treatment. The problem which lay on the surface has been treated, but with it the underlying problem suddenly comes to the surface in full intensity. And the condition for the patient appears to be aggravated instead of ameliorated.

Disease as symbol

In this view a complaint is seen as a symbolic expression of a psychological problem. This view point has been accepted throughout history, as many expressions in our language confirm: ‘This a load on my shoulders, ‘ He is a pain in the neck, ‘This is hard to stomach, etc. Our language contains many of these examples.

Many people have also experienced similar feelings. For instance, there are certain problems within the family and it gives you stomach problems. The problems seem to lie heavily in the stomach. in the more chronic complaints this vision is not as easy to use. But it is possible to see all diseases as symbolic. Dethlefsen describes this view extensive in his book ‘The meaning of being ill’.

Disease as cultural phenomenon

It is also possible to see disease as a cultural phenomenon. Every culture has its norms and values. When these norms and values are very one sided, they could turn into illusions or delusions. And they could then lead to complaints in the different individuals within culture. In our culture it is ;not done’ to show sadness. You don’t suddenly cry, and definitely not in the open. Even at a funeral of a well loved person you are supposed to remain composed. This in contrast for instance to other cultures where the wailing can be heard from far away, and even is the ‘done thing.

If one compares the different types of psychosis in Europe and japan one can see that there are many types that are exist in both cultures. But there are also many types of psychosis that exist in only one or the other culture. There is always a definite connection to the particular norms and values in that culture.

Disease as myth or fairy tale

Disease can also be seen as a myth or fairy tale. Herein we also see certain themes returning. One person’s problem is seldom unique, you can find it within many people.

Myths and fairy tales are the expression of this fact. If somebody recognizes his own problem in a fairy tale it can touch deeply. The seminars in Bad Boll have shown that many remedies show a preference for a certain type of fairy tale. Someone who is ill therefore takes part in a certain kind of problem. Via the myth one is connected to the whole of humanity. Often the myth also offers the solution to the problem and can thus be a real help. Campbell says ; ‘if you can find out where someone is blocked, it must be possible to find the mythological key to unlock this door.

On the other hand you could say that, by solving his own problems, someone could help humanity to solve its mythological problems. It has become apparent that the best help with a certain problem can be given by those people, who themselves have had and solved that same type of problem. They are best able to feel the essence of the problem and to know where solutions are to be found and where only temporary solutions will fail. Alcoholics Anonymous’ is a good example of this.

Disease as creation or game

Finally there is the view of disease as creation. you could then call disease to be ‘spiritosomatic’ analogous to the terms psychosomatic. A human being crates a certain state within himself and then looks for a fitting situation around that. Here we see the circumstances not as the cause of disease, but instead man is cause of his disease and creator of the circumstances.

In this viewpoint the responsibility comes back to man himself. He himself becomes responsible for his disease and the situation. But within the ability of creating a disease also lies the ability of finding a solution. Man then has the ability to change, to let go of old problems and to create new possibilities. This then is the level at which diseases are created and resolved. Form this viewpoint of disease as creation, terms like good and bad are not applicable anymore. One simply has a whole range of states, creations with experiences belonging to them.

 

EMOTIONS

Naming specific emotions such as love, anger and fear is easier than finding an all-purpose definition. In fact there is no scientific consensus on how to define emotion. Most scientist agree that emotions are different from rational thought (congition), from information known through our senses (perception), and from storing of the information (memory), yet emotions interact with all these mental function.

Not only is the concept of emotion vague and complicated, but also it gets mixed up with other terms, adding to the confusion. Some scientists regard the term ‘Affect’ as synonymous with emotion, but to others, affect means only the part of an emotion that is experienced consciously, aside from any unconscious or bodily responses. In our context, emotion and affect will be synonymous.

As brain develops, emotions grow more complex. Not until the age of two months when the brain advanced enough to manage the first real smile. Four months later, a baby begins to show a fear of separation. As we grow older, our expectations are challenged. For example, if we hope to get a job and then do not, anger disappointment and self-doubt are felt. All these feelings occur at once and add up to a complex total response.

Emotions shade into one another, researchers cannot agree on what counts as a separate emotion. When does impatience turn into anger? Depending upon how such questions are answered, the total number of emotions could be dozens or thousands. Many psychologists have tried to shortlist emotins to the most basic one. Robert pluchik lists eight basic emotions.

Acceptance, anger, anticipation, disgust, fear, joy, sadness and surprise. Some researchers think it is senseless to try to count emotions, because the number is virtually countless. That is why some feel emotions depends entirely on the thinking. Experience and memory of the individual-who is unique among all the people who ever lived.

Any explanation of emotions has to consider three factors.

  • What triggers or arouses an emotion?
  • How, after being aroused, body and mind respond or express their reaction?
  • How our physical and mental responses further change the way we experience an emotion?

Thus, emotion really involves three mysteries, Arousal, Expression and Imprinting.

AROUSAL OF EMOTION

Theories abound on what triggers an emotional response. One that makes sense to many of today’s scientists, states that emotions are aroused when we detect a “discrepancy”. This could be some thing new, a disturbance or some other interruption in the normal and expected course of things.

EXPRESSION OF EMOTIONS

Once emotions are aroused, what happens immediately is automatic, out of control of the conscious mind (the autonomic response).

Amounting to bodily arousal several visceral or “gut” reactions occur, but if they are intense or prolonged it is identical to stress. The heart beats faster, the liver is stimulated to release more energy, releasing glucose into the blood stream, changes in respiratory rate leads to pumping of more oxygen into the body, and the stomach and intestine tighten, the pupils of the eyes dilate, saliva dries up but sweat flows more freely, and skin surface contracts causing a crawly feeling or ‘goose-bumps’. This physical response to emotion is termed ‘stress response’ (flight, fight, fright response) and is governed by Hypothalmic-Limbic-Sympathetic and Autonomic-Adrenal axis.

What happens next is that these bodily events register in the conscious mind. The next step, how the mind reacts, depends entirely on the thinking and memory processes leading to a somewhat delayed physical and behavioral response which is under control of the conscious mind. The response is best expressed on the face.

Researchers believe there are some facial expressions immediately identifiable regardless of the age, sex or sadness, anger and disgust. Most other facial expression are strongly influenced by one’s upbringing and individuality. Mixed emotions like surprise, joy, pride, relief and exhaustion, struggle for expression.

Remember an emotion that persists that persists becomes a mood and a persistent expression in the long run causes a shift in health and behavior. How people express their emotions or in other words their behavior, is a significant clue to mental health. However there is a wide range of behaviours which are normal and a diagnosis of mental illness is rarely made on the basis of one or two seemingly abnormal emotional episodes.

If a person expresses a response to emotion in a way that falls well within the normal range, psychologists say the person is showing Appropriate Affect. On the other hand, people who express less range of emotions are said to have constricted Affect. The apparent reverse of this affect is seen in people who overtly express emotion and they are the ones with Exalted Affect. However, there are people who seem to ride on an emotional roller-coaster, laughing one moment and crying the next; this condition is termed instable Affect. If such emotional responses are severe and long lasting, they are called Affective disorders.

IMPRINTING OF EMOTIONS

As a perfect sensation (sensation felt through sense organs) leaves an imprint in subconscious so does an affect (emotion). The subconscious imprints are classified in the subconscious mind as reward and punishment. Meaning a percept and affect may arouse a feeling of reward and punishment in subconscious.

Rewards acts as ‘drives’ but emotions that induce a feeling of punishment are considered as ‘threats’ to the ego. The memory of the past emotional experience can be as powerful emotion arouser as the event itself. How each of individual thinks and how and what is to be remembered, can heighten or lessen the intensity of a feeling. These feeling can then loop back and affect our bodies.

The mind alone can trigger a ‘stress response’. The memory or expectation of a sad event can make us cry, a remembered or imagined argument can make us angry. Similarly if we fall in love, memories of earlier relationships colour our feelings.

SELF (EGO) AND EGO-DEFENCE MECHANISM

Perhaps the Most valueable mental asset is self-esteem, a self image that the individual likes and respects. Without it, we have little chance of possessing what philosophers and scientists have called by many names: Vedic Ahamkara, a sound ego an intact psyche, a healthy personality, a fulfilled self or simply a wise and resourceful mind.

It is a wonder that human beings have an array of defences to protect their self-esteem or Freudian ego. “Threats” come in many disguise, such as anxiety, guilt, shame and conflict between two or more drives or emotions and conflict between two or more drives or emotions. As individuals we continuously face these threats. Often, emotions are automatically repressed repressed and pushed them into unconscious mind. Such repression may be most basic ego defence mechanism, a term Sigmund Freud used to describe the ego’s effort to resolve conflicts between the primal, the moralistic superego and eternal reality.

This concept of ego and defence mechanism was hinted by Hahnemann when he illustrates some sickness spun in the soul. In the recent homeopathic literature a term has crept in ‘Basic delusion’ by this terms the authors mean a basic error in psyche against which a basic ego defence mechanism is constructed and this basic error for a homeopath is a key point in the beginning of chronic diseases. Defence mechanisms were once considered neurotic, but that view has mellowed. The prevailing opinion is that they are at times necessary solutions to the problem of preserving self-esteem.

Freud and his successors identified dozens of defence mechanisms beginning with repression/ suppression. Projection is blaming some body else for one’s own thoughts or actions. Rationaliszation justifies questionable behavior by defining its propriety. Reaction formation is acting exactly opposite to the way one feels, because the real feeling frightens.

The trouble with repressing bad feelings is, that they may pop out later. For example, a child may repress anger caused by anxiety over the unpredictable behavior of a parent. As an adult the child’s anger can erupt in rebellion against all authority.

 

Never Bean Well Since..Aetiology And Homoeopathic Prescription

 

Aetiology – “The Assignment Of A Cause”

Here, a prescription is based primarily on some past trauma, illness or event rather than on the presenting symptoms. The stronger the cause-and-effect relationship between the trauma and the presenting state, the more is the etiological prescription is indicated.

In cases with a direct aetiology, there is a clear and direct relationship between the presenting problem and the trauma which preceded it, no matter how long the problem has persisted. For example, when a patient say ( I have had recurrent headaches ever since a head injury three years ago”) that is a direct etiology. In such a case, a ‘head injury’ remedy first is to be looked for, using the symptoms of the case to differentiate between the remedies in that group. Kent’s repertory contains many etiological rubrics showing those remedies, which from clinical experience have an established reputation in curing ailments following a particular trauma, be it grief, fright, bad news, vaccination, injury, poisoning etc. the appropriate rubric is a good starting place in a case displaying a direct etiology.

Sometimes when the cause and effect relationship is very clear, particularly if there are no outstanding symptoms in the case, the etiology can completely over-rule symptomatology as the basis for the prescription. Thus it is that our ‘trauma’ remedies such as Aconite, Arnica and Hypericum have cured many symptoms and conditions, which never appeared in their respective proving.

In a case having a direct etiology there are three choices for the prescriber: the prescription may be based on the etiology alone, on the symptoms alone or on combination of the two. It is seen that wherever possible the third option is the most reliable one, but the etiology should be used as a starting point provided there are remedies known to have that etiology as a confirmed indication.

 

THE HUMAN BEING IN THE ENVIRONMENT

  •  What is a human being?
  •  How is the human being constructed?
  •  How does the human being function in the context of his universe?

 What are the laws and principles governing the function of the human being in both health and disease?

To begin with, we must recognize that the human organism is not an isolated entity, sufficient unto itself. Every individual is born, lives, and dies inseparably from the larger contexts of physical, social, political, and spiritual influences. The laws governing the physical universe are not separate from those governing the functions of living organisms. So, we must begin by comprehending clearly the setting in which the human being is found, how it influences him, and in turn how he affects it.

As with all things, the human organism was originally designed to function harmoniously and compatibly in the environment are mutually benefited. Any imbalance inevitably leads to destruction, which diminishes both the human being and the universe in which he or she lives. Since human beings are endowed with consciousness and awareness, they carry a great responsibility, both for their own benefit and for that of the Cosmos, to live according to the laws of Nature. Ideally, the human race should have enough consciousness and awareness to live within and contribute to the order of the universe, and thereby be freed to achieve the highest possibilities of evolution.

Instead, we find ourselves in the midst of disorder and disease. In the midst of an age of unprecedented technological advancement, we also see unprecedented damage being done to the atmosphere, the water, and the land. Socially, it is easy to pessimistically conjecture that the modern epidemics of competition, violence, and war may well lead to the actual destruction of the human race. And individually-instead of rejoicing in an increasing degree of vibrant health from generation to generation we witness a continuous decline in health.

Why is this so? In the most basic analysis, we can ascribe this state of degeneration to two dynamics:

Human violations of laws of nature, resulting in contamination of the environment, which in turn places increased stress on the ability of the individual to function.
Mankind has gradually lost the inner awareness which would have enabled correct perception of the laws of nature, which must be respected.

Thus we see that both collectively and individually human beings are simultaneously affecting and are affected by the environment as we deviate increasingly from the laws of nature, a vicious cycle is established which requires grate insight and energy to correct.

For each individual in this situation, there may be a wide variety of possible responses to external stresses. Some people seem to be relatively unaffected by external or internal disturbances. Their organisms are in a state of relative balance which is maintained with minimal effort. Most people, on the other hand, experience degrees of imbalance ranging from slight to very severe this are the individuals we consider dis-eased, in the broadest use of the term. In such people, the disturbance manifests itself in a highly individualistic and varied manner, but always the disturbance can be viewed as an imbalance in the organism’s ability to cope with internal and external influences. If we consider the individual as totality, it is clear that the disturbances do not manifest themselves solely on the physical level of existence, as assumed in modern allopathic medical practice. The entire person is disturbed on all levels of existence, to verying degrees.

2 people found this helpful

I am trying to conceive. My period is due for 6 days still pregnancy tests are negative. Now there is a brown discharge. I am afraid if my periods started. Can this be implantation bleeding. It is light and brown in colour.

MD - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Diploma in Yog and Ayurveda
Ayurveda, Navi Mumbai
I am trying to conceive. My period is due for 6 days still pregnancy tests are negative. Now there is a brown dischar...
It might be implantation bleeding. please repeat urine pregnancy test after 5 to 7 days. It will be better to go for pelvis-usg scan (sonography)
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I have three tiny bumps of molluscum contagiosum near my vulva outer vaginal area. I apply Glizigen gel and apple cider it's hardly ten days I have got it. Should I apply nethg more to get rid of it and us kissing and smooching allowed as I have a partner. Help needed Thank you.

Diploma in Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MBBS, MD - Community Medicine
Gynaecologist, Lucknow
Hello molluscum contagiosum does not prevent you from having any sexual activity. Anything more is required or not to get relief, depends upon the previous response.
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The Ultimate Guide for Computer Workers to Stay Healthy

MBBS, AFIH, PGDMLS, MD-HRM, MD-HM
General Physician, Gurgaon
The Ultimate Guide for Computer Workers to Stay Healthy

Most people don't realize the impact computers have on their health. Your eyes dry out from staring at the bright screen; the muscles of your hands, arms, and neck stiffen due to extensive use of the mouse and keyboard. All of this can lead to some serious problems in the long term.

It can be stressful, isolating, and can even lead to depression and anxiety. You're compromising your health.

It doesn't have to be that way!
Thankfully, there are some power tips and dynamic exercises you can implement to stay healthy. But first, let's take a look at the full impact computers have on your health so we can better understand how the exercises will benefit you.

Your Eyes are the Biggest Victim
Eyestrain occurs anytime we look at something for too long. Be it driving, reading or looking at a computer screen or even the TV. But there's something about looking at a computer screen that causes more issues, as you constantly need to focus on texts, images, and videos which results in eyestrain.
 In 2015 the Department of Ophthalmology at Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute conducted a survey of 300 patients who were randomly selected from various IT companies. They found that these patients had ocular complaints in descending order such as eye strain (69%), headache (56%), dryness (49%), irritation (47%), burning sensation (41%), blurred vision (39%), itching (32%), watering (29%), redness (21%), and double vision (16%). None of that sounds very good, does it?
Fortunately, eyestrain rarely results in a permanent disease. It's simply a short-term condition which is an irritant throughout your day.

The Impact of Computer on Your Overall Health
We've all heard that when taking long flights, we should get up and move to stretch and get our blood flowing. Whether you are sitting in front of the computer, the TV, or reading a book, sitting for long stretches of time is generally not good for your health. Sitting in one constant position affects your blood circulation, and your back experiences severe stress. Most people also tend to develop bad sitting habits. We've all been there. It's easy to develop bad posture from anything you do habitually, whether it's sitting, standing, or walking. But this can cause shoulder, back, and neck pain which often results in tension headaches. A great article by Dr. Prakesh et al concluded that the widespread usage of computers has given rise to a number of musculoskeletal disorders. The authors feel a strong need for further studies, as most specialists are not even aware of these issues.

The Impact of Keyboard on Your Wrists

The repetition involved in your day job, like typing, often causes repetitive strain injury which affects your hand muscles and leads to a permanent disease called Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). CTS is a common condition that causes pain, numbness, or a dull ache in the fingers and wrists. In most of the cases, CTS can be treated, but not always. The worst case scenario can be surgery, but even non-surgical treatments like wrist splints and corticosteroid injections are annoying. Typically, the best way to prevent CTS is to simply take breaks from your work. It's as easy as that!

The Little Known Shortcuts You Can Implement to Improve Your Health
There's no magic bullet to avoid health issues. But with proper exercises, timely breaks and a healthy diet you can kill most of the symptoms.
Here're some great ways experts suggest that'll help you stay healthy and in shape at work.

1)   Say no to high-calorie food
It's so tempting when you see your coworker having candies at their desk. While working you're likely to feel hungry and those candies can add a few hundred calories to your diet if you're not careful. Take a break, walk around, breathe fresh air, and skip the candy to stay healthy. But if you're feeling hungry eat some fruits like cherries or grapes. These types of sweet fruit help to curb the craving for candy, and at the same time, you're choosing the much healthier option.

2)   Drink an adequate amount of water
It's so easy to forget to drink water. Just plain water. The simple truth is that simply drinking water can solve most health and even concentration issues. Drinking an adequate amount of water - 8 to 10 glasses a day - is very important to stay healthy and maintain your fitness. It helps keep you hydrated, so your mind is on full alert, and it helps cleanse your body at the same time. To help keep track of your drinking, set an alarm (maybe a quiet one so you don't disturb your coworkers) to remind you to take a sip or refill your bottle. Or, get a few coworkers together and set your timers to synch up!
 Another thing you can do is eat fruits like orange, grapefruit, grape, watermelon, and apple. All of these fruits are a great source of water. They have the added bonus of helping those cravings for candies your coworkers are sure to have on their desk.

3)   Take a break and walk around whenever possible
One of the most important things you can do to stay healthy is to exercise. You don't need to train for a marathon, but walking is a great exercise that helps keep your muscles healthy. Not only does it burn up a few calories but it also helps de-stress and refresh your body.

One of the best times to walk around is during your lunch. It's a perfect time to refresh your body by eating healthy food and then going for a quick walk to de-stress. It also helps to clear your mind and allows you to focus on the work you'll need to complete after your break. If you're social, it can be both fun and beneficial to find a partner on whom you can depend on daily. This partner needs to be someone who can drag you from your chair- even if you claim to busy.
Another great and simple  idea is to park your car a little farther than you normally do, so you have a short walk to do before and after work. If you're not in a hurry, avoid going by elevator and instead use the stairs. These are such small changes, but will affect your life and health in a big way.

4)   Eat a balanced healthy diet
Making sure you're eating a healthy diet is as important as exercising. If you exercise daily but are eating not so healthy food then you may as well not exercise. They go hand in hand, but the good thing is that when you eat properly, you have more energy to exercise, and when you exercise more, you have a better mindset. It's a great cycle to be part of.

The main issue most people have is they eat more than their body needs which, of course, results in weight gain. One of the best ways to avoid these problems is to eat a healthy, balanced diet. If you're still struggling, consider going to a dietician or nutrition expert who can recommend the best food for you to stay healthy. Remember that what may work for your friends and family may not be the best for your body. To give an example of how far off some people are, a recent study conducted by the Indian Market Research Bureau showed that 9 out of 10 people ate an inadequate amount of protein due to an increase in convenience foods which are high in sugars and carbs. Another study showed that 50% of the Indian population suffers from anemia, iron deficiency (which can be caused by not drinking enough water).

Another golden rule is to chew your food 32 times. Speed eating is found to be the biggest contributor to unhealthy weight gain. When you eat quickly, your brain has less time to receive signals from the stomach that it's full. By chewing your food 32 times, you're giving your brain enough time to realize you don't need anymore food.

5)   Vacations can help you stay healthy
Every one of us wants to hear this one, and it's true! Tell your boss. It's very beneficial to get away for a long vacation that will help you recharge your 'batteries'. Stress slowly impairs your immune system and increases the risk of disease and thankfully, vacations are a simple cure for stress.
Vacations help reduce stress and get your mind off work, especially when you're having a conflict with your boss, co-worker, or with a project. It allows you the time to focus on yourself when normally you're the last person you think about. So make sure you take full advantage of your holidays.

6)   Avoid long stretches of work
Working for long periods of time, while productive in the short term, affects your personal life and relationships and can cause burnout. Your entire immune system can be compromised by working too much.

Fortunately, the Pomodoro Technique can help you stay healthy. The Pomodoro technique is an effective way to get your task done in short bursts, while taking frequent breaks to help you maintain your health and in the long run, your productivity actually increases! It's a win for everyone.

Here's how to get started in Pomodoro in 5 easy steps:

  1. Choose a task to be accomplished.
  2. Set the Pomodoro to 25 minutes (the Pomodoro is the timer).
  3. Work on the task until the Pomodoro rings, then put a check on your sheet of paper
  4. Take a short break (5 minutes is OK)
  5. After every 4 Pomodoros take a longer break of 15-20 minutes.

You can also use apps like Pomodairo, Tomato Timer or Focus Booster to achieve better productivity while completing your tasks. This way you'll get more productive without compromising your health.

7)   Invest in a standing desk
Sitting too much is a serious issue, as we've already discussed. Sitting constantly can not only affect your muscles but makes you more vulnerable to diseases like diabetes and heart disease. Some studies even concluded that sitting all day results in obesity and weight gain.
A standing desk can solve your problem. The standing desk is a popular choice among office workers, as it allows them to comfortably work while standing. This increases your physical activity and also your brain gets active which we already know is a good thing!

8)   Follow the 20/20/20 rule to avoid eyestrain
When you're sitting in front of a computer for too long, your eyes are prone to eyestrain and other major eye issues. That's where the 20/20/20 rule comes in. This rule is promoted by optometrists worldwide, so it's something to add to your schedule at work. The rule suggests that after every 20 minutes, focus on an object which is 20 feet away (6 meters) for 20 seconds. I know, I know. It's hard to remember to do that every 20 minutes. You've already set a timer to remind you to drink water, so make that timer go off every 20 minutes. Not only are you relaxing your eyes, you're drinking water to stay healthy too. You can also use tools like EVO or EyeLeo to remind you.

9)   Install f.lux to naturally relax your eyes
Computer screens are designed to work during the day. But at 9PM, 10PM or 3AM your bright screen is impacting your eyes. That's where f.lux comes in.

Flux is a powerful app for your computer which automatically adjusts your display color to the time of the day. When the sun sets, f.lux makes your computer look like your indoor lights. In the morning, it makes things look like sunlight again. I personally use f.lux to reduce eyestrain and dryness.

10)   Self-massage your back, shoulders, and neck
Most people suffer from tension in their necks and shoulders at some time in their lives, which is hardly surprising if you consider the job the neck has to do! It has quite a bit of weight to hold up...not that I'm implying anything. Poor posture, bad working positions, and carrying heavy bags all make the problem worse. However, you can ease the pain with a remedy literally at your fingertips.

  • Hold your left hand up, palm facing outward. Using your right hand, pull the fingers back toward your wrist until you feel a stretch, and hold that position for 5 seconds. Repeat the stretch on your right hand.
  • Press the palms of your hands together at chest height. Lower them towards your lap until you feel the stretch in your wrists. Hold for 5 seconds.
  • Spread your fingers wide for 5 seconds.
  • On your left hand, gently pull the thumb back toward your wrist until you feel the stretch. Hold it for 5 seconds, and then repeat the move on your right hand.
  • Curl your fingers into a fist: Start with your pinky finger, and gradually fold the remaining four fingers into a fist. Then curl your wrists inward until you feel the stretch, and hold it for 5 seconds.
  • Massage the inside and outside of each hand, and then gently shake them out.

11)  Get an ergonomic office chair
Sitting is a position that adds stress to your spine is the main reason behind your back problems. To avoid developing or compounding back problems, it is important to have an ergonomic chair that supports the lower back and encourages good posture. If you've decided to forego the standing desk, remember that although sitting requires less physical effort than standing or walking, it puts a lot of stress on the lumbar area. Combined effects of a sedentary lifestyle and a job that requires sitting can lead to many health problems. The selection of a suitable chair is a critical step in preventing health problems for people working in a sitting position.

A well-designed chair allows the user to sit in a balanced position. Buying an ergonomic chair is a good beginning but it must be combined with proper posture to maximize the benefits!
 
The following features are very important to consider when looking for an ergonomic chair:

  • Seat height - should be easily adjustable.
  • Seat width and depth - should have enough width and depth to support any user comfortably.
  • Lumbar support - lower back support is very crucial.
  • Backrest - should be adjustable in both vertical and backward/forward directions.
  • Arm rests - should be adjustable.
  • Swivel - any ergonomic chair should rotate easily.
  • Stability - a five-star base is recommended for most working environments.
  • Seat material - the material on the seat and back should have enough padding to be comfortable to sit on for extended periods of time.

12)  Follow the Seven-Eight-Ten technique to get an instant energy-burst

Last but not least:
It's common for you to feel tired in your office, mainly because you're (hopefully) putting hard work and energy into that job. But as soon as you're exhausted your productivity goes down, despite the amount of coffee you may drink. The best cure to this problem is the Seven-Eight-Ten technique, a breathing technique utilized by musicians who play wind instruments. When they do this specific warm up exercise it not only improves their breathing capacity but the extra oxygen it generates through their system literally wakes them up!

So if you're feeling exhausted at the office, forget about the coffee or energy drink, and try out this technique to pump yourself.
Here's how:

  • Keep your eyes open and stare at one spot in front of you.
  • Now slowly inhale for a total of seven seconds. Count the seconds in your head.
  • Now hold that breath for a total of eight seconds. Count the seconds in your head.
  • Lastly, slowly exhale for a total of ten seconds. Count the seconds in your head.

Now repeat the same exercise 3 times, and you'll feel an extra burst of energy and mental clarity!

The Recommended Cure (And Why It Works)
While everyone wants a magic bullet to dramatically improve our health, I'm afraid there isn't one.
If you start implementing these small changes in your work life, you'll find yourself getting healthier and it'll be easier to complete your tasks and be more productive at work. Your personal life and relationships will also drastically improve.

But for that, you need to start.
Remember just BABY STEPS.

Start with one technique at a time, make it your habit, then move to another.

23 people found this helpful

I got married last week .we don't want baby now and don't want to use condom. Is there any other way of precaution except condom and pills.

MBBS
General Physician, Jalgaon
I got married last week .we don't want baby now and don't want to use condom. Is there any other way of precaution ex...
Please From 1st day of menstrual cycle to 10 th day of menstrual cycle is safe for sex From 11th to 20 th. Unsafe From 21st to 30 th. Safe Use condoms during unsafe period only.
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Pregnancy care - Amniocentesis During Pregnancy

MBBS, DGO, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Pregnancy care - Amniocentesis During Pregnancy

If you are over 35 years of age at the time of conceiving or have a positive triple test( for down's syndrome screening) or have a significant positive family history of a genetic disorder, you may be asked to undergo a procedure called amniocentesis between 15-18weeks of pregnancy.

During pregnancy, the fetus is surrounded by a water bag which acts as a cushion for the baby. This water is mainly formed by the baby and is called the Amniotic fluid.

Amniocentesis is a procedure through which we remove a small amount of amniotic fluid from the water bag in the uterus. This fluid contains cells shed by the fetus and these cells can be analyzed in the lab to give us genetic information that we need.

The procedure usually involves getting an ultrasound done and then under constant ultrasound guidance,a needle is introduced through the mother's abdomen into the water bag. Around 15-20 ml of fluid is removed and sent to the genetics lab so that the cells can grow and be analyzed. Early results are usually available in about 3 days a and the final reports are available by 3 weeks.

Amniocentesis is a definitive test and helps to confirm a tentative diagnosis of an abnormality previously found with other screening tests. It may also find that a fetus does not have the abnormality that was suspected.

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Mattresses & Pillows

MPTh/MPT, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Bangalore
Mattresses & Pillows

PILLOWS AND MATRESSES.

“My neck pain started two days ago, Immediately I removed my pillow”

This is the very usual dialogue that I hear in my daily practice from my patients who are suffering from neck pain. Is pillow that important factor in causing neck pain or in relieving neck pain?? Let us know the facts.

Neck pain can be caused because of various reasons. Poor neck posture is one of the reasons for neck pain. So, what should be your sleeping posture? How can a pillow alter your normal sleeping posture?

Body needs rest and sleep gives our body rest so that body and mind work efficiently. It is very important that we maintain a normal sleeping posture so that muscles also get rest.

Ideally,

  • Spine has to be straight
  • Neck has to be in line with the body.
  • It is better to avoid sleeping on tummy, as you will be forced to turn your neck to one side to facilitate breathing. Whole length of your sleep is spent with the neck turned to one side, out of alignment with the body, forcing the brain to sense something wrong and you wake up with a stiff neck. Pillow has no role here!!!

So, what kind of pillow can be used?

  • Pillow can neither be too hard as it doesn’t absorb the shock/ weight of head, nor it can be too soft as the weight of the head can depress the pillow down and might take neck too low than body.
  • Ideally the pillow has to regain its original shape faster once you wake up from lying position. If a pillow takes too long to come back to its original shape or doesn’t come at all or remains in the same shape, its time for you to change your pillow.
  • If you are lying on your back, its better to use a thin pillow which supports your head and neck. Please do not use a thick pillow in this position, as it may raise or bring your head and neck forward or higher than body causing stress to your spine.

Not using a pillow when you lie down in this position can take your neck backwards and might cause trouble breathing.

Recommended to use a thin/ lighter pillow when you lie down on your back.

  • If you are lying on your side (right or left), its better to go with a thicker pillow. Ideally the pillow should be as thick as the distance between your shoulder and neck, so that when you lie down on your side the neck doesn’t go down or go up and stays in line with the body. Pillow has to be used!!

Recommended to use a thicker pillow when lying on side.

Pillow is not a major cause of neck pain. Its always better to use a pillow than not using at all. Removing the pillow the moment neck pain starts is definitely not a good solution for your neck pain. Chose the right pillow and more importantly consult your Physiotherapist.

Mattress:

As with the pillow for neck pain, mattress is not a major cause for back pain.

  • Mattress should not be too hard, should not be too soft either.
  • If it is too soft, the broader areas of our body like the hips and shoulders, might press the mattress down thereby reducing the support for other body parts, which strains them as they do not get proper support.
  • If its too hard, the mattress wont be able to support the various natural curvatures of our body (broader and narrower areas), forcing the muscles to work more and get strained.
  • Its better to change a sacked mattress or too depressed mattress.
  • Mattress should be uniform in contour.
  • Lying bare on floor wont work!!!!

And more importantly consult your Physiotherapist for back related issues.

lying lyingpillow pillow

Have a pain free life…..

10 people found this helpful

Will having sex on 4th day of periods causes pregnancy? Short cycle is 30 longest is 45 and this time it it 33.PLease tell.

Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Will having sex on 4th day of periods  causes pregnancy? Short cycle is 30 longest is 45 and this time it it 33.PLeas...
Hi Mr. Lybrate-user, having sex on 4th day of the period doesn't cause pregnancy in most of the cases.
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Six pack workout challenge

Dietitian/Nutritionist, Bangalore
Six pack workout challenge
Hi all,

Here is a six pack workout.

Repeat 3-4 times a weeks.

Download the image and start now.
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