Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Gynaecologists in India. You will find Gynaecologists with more than 25 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Gynaecologists online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.
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Endometrial Ablation Procedure
Treatment of Treatment of Breast Cancer
Management of Abortion
Hormonal Replacement Therapy Treatment
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment of Gynae Problems
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Treatment
Treatment of Uterine Bleeding
Antenatal And Postnatal Exercise
The body produces a number of chemicals called hormones which are essential for the regulation of various functions including growth and metabolism. These hormones are produced by endocrine glands which are located in various parts of the body. One such important gland is the pituitary gland which produces the important growth hormone. This is essential for regulating optimal growth during the growing years and for maintaining proper amounts of body fat, muscles, and bones in the later years of life.
Causes: Deficiency of the growth hormones can occur due to a number of causes, some of which are listed below. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life.
The congenital issue could be due to problem in the pituitary gland structure, leading to complete absence or reduced secretion of the hormone.
With age, there is a decrease in the amount of secretion. However, infections, injuries, brain tumors, surgery and radiation can also lead to altered amounts of secretion.
Symptoms: While growth hormone deficiency can occur at any age, symptoms differ depending on the age when the deficiency sets in.
In the early ages:
- Lower rate of growth for a given age
- Delayed developmental milestones
- Delayed onset of puberty
- Short stature/reduced height
- Younger looking compared to other children their age
- Fat deposition around the waist
- Delayed dental development
When the deficiency sets in during the later years, there is
- Low energy levels, constant tiredness
- Decreased strength
- Decreased exercise tolerance
- Decreased overall muscle mass
- Thin and dry skin
- Increased fat deposition and weight gain around the waist
- Changes in social behavior including alternate cycles of anxiety and depression
- Lack of motivation
- History of pituitary tumors
- High levels of fat and cholesterol
The diagnosis depends on the age of the person
- Blood tests are carried out to check the hormone levels in circulation
- In children, in addition to the hormone levels, x-rays to see the status of growth plates is very helpful.
- An insulin hypoglycemia test where insulin is given intravenously to see the levels of the growth hormone after 30 minutes.
- Total cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglyceride levels can be used to supplement the above tests.
- CT scan and/or MRI of the brain may be needed if tumors are suspected.
Treatment: Once diagnosed, replacement therapy is given as shots a few times a week under the skin. This restores normal growth and helps in controlling the symptoms in adults too.
In cases of tumor, radiation or surgery may be required, but most cases are managed with hormone replacement.
Watch out for the symptoms if your child has delayed developmental milestones and early intervention can help restore growth and function to normal levels.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.
My periods is not coming in this month, every month on 25th date come but this time not please suggest me what can I do?
Droplets remain suspended in the air only for a limited period and exposure of less than 3 feet is usually required for human to human transmission of droplet–borne respiratory organisms. In flu, this can be upto 6 feet. The examples of droplet infections are patients with meningitis, influenza, rubella (German measles) etc.
No precautions need to be taken by a person, who is at a distance of 6–10 feet away from the patient. But, if a person is sitting or working even at a distance of 3–6 feet, the non–coughing person should wear simple mask.
In contrast, airborne droplet nuclei, which carry respiratory secretions smaller than 5 microns can remain suspended in the air for extended period and can cause infections to people who are standing even more than 10 feet away. The example of airborne droplet nuclei infections are TB, measles, chickenpox and SARS.
Patients with these diseases need to be placed in an isolation room. And, all those people who are looking after these patients must use a safe N95 mask.
In normal house with open windows, there is a constant exchange of air, which prevents spread of infections but in rooms with air conditioners (ACs) with no air exchange, infections can spread from one person to another.
When sitting in an air conditioned atmosphere, the setting of the AC should be such that the same air is not circulated and fresh air is allowed to exchange. Split ACs, therefore, are more dangerous than the window ACs.
In an office with split AC, if one employee is suffering from any of the droplet nuclei disease, he/she can transmit infection to others. Therefore, patients with confirmed TB, measles, chickenpox and SARS should not be allowed to work in offices with split ACs.
Hi sir/ madam, my name is sagar my blood group is AB+ and my wife blood is B- any issues during the pregnant.
Hi I got married on january. My last periods was on 14 march 2016. Till now my period has not come. I check my preg tst 4 days before it came to be negative and my doctor prescribed me a normoz tablet which I have using ot for 4 days from now. On dec and jan my periods had not come. Nd my doctor prescribed me APCOD ND period coming tablet. On feb 28 my period had come. On march 14 my another period without taking medicine. On april my periods had not come. I should wait for one week to check the result or should I had to takr period comg tablet I had pcod since 2 years. Can I have sex in these week to get present. Can I get preg in this month. Pls give me a valuable answer. My husband is going on next mnth 15 on abroad so I need to get pregnant soon. Pls help me to get pregnant.
I am 24 years old female married 2 years back, checked with gynae she have done all the tests (blood, ssg sonogram, folicular study). I have no problem even my husband also having no problem (sperm analysis, duplex scan). But I didn't conceive yet. Please advice.
Hello Sir Myself Nadeem. My Age Is Eighteen. At my Face Many Pimples And Black Spots. How can I Remove It. I am taking Barbarious Aquarium Homoeopathic Tonic as Doctors Decision. Help me.
After mensuration how many days person have sex with his wife with out any without using any pills or condom so that wife could not be pregnant.
1.Water purifies Colon making it easy to absorb nutrients from food that we eat during the day
2.Water acts as a good Antioxidant ,thus helping in Glowing,soft and supple skin by removing toxins from blood
3.Water helps in weight reduction by boosting metabolism by almost 25 %
4.Water helps in balancing body fluids by balancing your Lymphatic system
After unprotected sex after period on 15.10.2016 she no pill take and test is negative and next period date is 11.11.2016 and again unprotected sex on 12.11.2016 ,she no pill take and test is again negative but not come period. What are medicine take for normal period.
She have a sex with her BF 4 days ago. Bt she have a little pain in her vagina and also get little bleeding when goes for toilet. And during bleeding she have little extra pain. It is not her first time then also she is facing this problem. She performed intercourse after 3 day of her periods get over. While having a sex also she have a pain in her vaginal part.
I am 32 yr. My period cycle was 4th March. I had unprotected sex in evening of 24 March. I have taken i-pill on 26 March in evening. Again I had unprotected sex on 28 March evening. Can I get pregnant in that case? If yes than how I can avoid that as my son is very small so wanted to avoid. Pl reply.
Sir my gf's period is normal. But she suffers from normal Likoria problem rest of the month. But recently for sores on tongue she took some powerful medicine from local doctor. After taking that, she didn't get fit. And, now she is feeling always illness, pain in belly, sometimes headache etc. Big problem is that she is now facing some RED-WHITE coloured Likoria. This is happening since last 5 days. At evening, it comes out more RED syrup. As a result of this two problem (mouth problem and likoria) she can't take food properly, always off moored, getting more ill day by day. Please sir/mam, prescribe some medicine and health tips for her likoria problem. Thank you.
I am 31, married for 5 years. Planning for kids from next month. My question - Can I take HPV vaccine after having kids.
Cancer is the abnormal, uncontrolled growth of cells in a particular body part. With continued growth, pieces of this tissue travel through the blood to different body parts and continue to grow in the new area. This is known as metastases. Breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and affects about 1 in 8 women in the USA. Read on to know more details of breast cancer – breast anatomy, causes, symptoms, risk factors, detection, prevention, and of course treatment.
Anatomy: The main function of the breast is lactation through its milk-producing tissue that are connected to the nipple by narrow ducts. In addition, there is surrounding connective tissue, fibrous material, fat, nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic channels which complete the structure. This is essential to know as most breast cancers develop as small calcifications (hardened particles) in the ducts or as small lumps in the breast tissue which then continues to grow into cancer. The spread can happen through lymphatic or blood flow to other organs.
Warning signs/symptoms: The following are some symptoms that need to be watched out for if you have a predisposition to breast cancer.
- A lump in either of the breasts or armpits
- Change in size, shape, or contour of either breast
- Redness of your breast or nipple
- Discharge of clear or bloody fluid
- Thickening of breast tissue or skin that lasts through a period
- Altered look or feel of the skin on the breast or the nipple (dimpled, inflamed, scaly, or puckered)
- One area on the breast that looks very different from the other areas
- Hardened area under the breast skin
Either one or a combination of these should be an indication to get a detailed checkup done. Early diagnosis results in controlling the disease with minimal treatment and reduced complications.
Causes and risk factors: The exact cause for breast cancer is yet to be pinned down. However, risk factors are clearly identified, and women with risk factors need to watch out for warning signs.
- Family history: Of all the risk factors, the family history is the most important. Breast cancer runs in families, and if there is a first-degree relative with the breast cancer, the chances of developing it are almost double. Two genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the carriers of the disease, and this testing can be done in women to identify if they are at risk.
- Family history of other cancers: Even if there is no breast cancer, if there are other cancers that run in the family, watch out.
- Age: Women over 50 are at higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Race: Caucasian and Jewish women are at higher risk of breast cancer than African-American women.
- Hormones: Greater exposure to the female hormone estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Women who use birth control pills for contraception and hormone replacement after menopause are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones need to watch out. These include those who attain menarche before 12 years of age, get pregnant after 30, attain menopause after 55, and have menstrual cycles shorter than 26 days or longer than 29 days.
- Obesity and alcohol abuse are also likely to increase a woman’s chances of developing breast cancer.
Stages: Starting from stage 0, higher stages indicate advanced disease.
- Stage 0: The growth which has begun in the milk-producing tissue or the ducts has remained there (in situ) and not spread to any other area, including the rest of the breast.
- Stage I: The tissue slowly becomes invasive and has begun to affect the surrounding healthy tissue. It could have spread to the fatty breast tissue and some breast tissue may be found in the nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage II: The cancer at this stage grows considerably or spreads to other parts. There are chances that cancer may grow and also spread.
- Stage III: It may have spread to the bones or other organs but small amounts are present in up to 9 to 10 of the lymph nodes in the armpits and collar bones which makes it is difficult to fight.
- Stage IV: The cancer is widespread to far-flung areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and even the brain.
Screening: This is one of the most effective ways to identify the disease in its early stages. This will help in controlling cancer from spreading with minimal treatment.
- Self-examination: A thorough self-examination to look for changes in terms of shape, size, colour, contour, and firmness should be learned by all women. Watch for any discharge, sores, rashes, or swelling in the breasts, surrounding skin, and nipple. Examine them while standing and when lying down.
- In most women, annual screening mammograms are advised after the age of 40. However, in women who have a strong family history or genetic makeup, it is advisable to have screening mammograms starting at age 20 every 3 years and then annually from the age of 40.
- Women in high-risk categories should have screening mammograms every year and typically start at an earlier age.
- Ultrasound screening can also be given in addition to mammograms.
- Breast MRI is another way to screen for breast cancer if the risk is greater.
Breast Cancer Prevention: Now that there is so much awareness about causes and risk factors, there are definitely ways to prevent or delay the onset of the disease.
- Exercise and a healthy diet with reduced amount of alcohol are definitely effective in minimising the chances of developing cancer.
- Tamoxifen is used in women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
- Evista (raloxifene) which is used to treat osteoporosis after menopause. It is also widely used in preventing breast cancer.
- In high-risk women, breasts are surgically removed to prevent the development of cancer (preventive mastectomy).
Treatment: As with all cancers, treatment would depend on the stage at which it is identified and include a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. As noted earlier, if you are at risk, look out for warning signs as early diagnosis is the key to maximum recovery.