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What is the symptoms of cancer and hepatitis b. What medicine will be good for that disease. Please help me.
If a patient is in the last stage of cancer, is there any chance that he cam survive and recover back?
He has stomach cancer last stage. Which life style or diet or exercise or yoga should he adopt to live a comfortable life?
Hello mam my name is ruchi my age is 29 I having swelling in my breast and offcourse my breast size is heavy so tel me what I should do I even can not wear my fav dresses.
My father is suffering from oesophagial cancer, now he is unable to eat or even drink anything since 25 days. What should we do, we r really worried, any suggestions will help, thnku in advance,
My wife is getting breast pain. Her age is 23 weight is 40. If I touch the breast I can feel something hard. And we are planing for baby from 3 months. She didn't get her periods from 11 weeks. Why that pain? And why she didn't get periods? Can someone explain clearly please. Thank you.
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomy
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not
sir after prostate operation two years back i am ok now and taking Trio Olmighty40,Amlong,MINIPRESSXL5mg tablets my bp is 120/80 i am feeling normal shall i continue it or seek further guidance pls reply me
I have chest tumor in nipple very hard. This is not pain but I have in very depression this about. What is treatment.
My cousins have 1 cm cyst in under armpit in breast .we consulted a doctor .but she checking mammogram and he tell them its negative result and she said just cyst and painful and movable but ahe said better than the remove the cyst and consult surgeon .what can I do. Is this serous problem. And is this suddenly remove?
I have enlargement of prostate gland. Can masturbation in anyway affect prostate gland? What treatment I should take for the ailment?
I had total thyroidectomy due to Thyroid cancer Parathyroids were preserved, before RAI Calcium was 10.2. At the time of discharge from hospital calcium was 8.3. But now my Calcium level dropped to 7.2 post RAI. My recent Albumin level is normal. But I am Asymptomatic. What's causing my Calcium level to drop now? Using calcium supplement for longer periods is not safe is it true? What blood test should I appear for to confirm the cause of low calcium? Please suggest blood test.
In some cases the hcg test has been done for cancer diagnosis. Then in case of cancer what is the level of hcg.
Hpv vaccine update
Three different vaccines, which vary in the number of HPV types they contain, are available
- A bivalent vaccine, targets hpv types 16 and 18
- A quadrivalent hpv vaccine, targets hpv types 6, 11, 16, and 18
- A 9-valent vaccine, targets the same hpv types as the quadrivalent vaccine (6, 11, 16, and 18) as well as types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58
- If cost and availability are not issues, use 9-valent vaccine for individuals for whom hpv vaccination is indicated
- Infection with human papillomavirus&nbsp;(hpv) types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 is implicated in approximately 90 percent of invasive cervical cancers.
- Two types associated with genital warts are (6 and 11)
- Routine immunization should be offered to boys and girls aged 11 to 12, but can be administered as early as nine years of age. Catch-up vaccination should be offered to males between the ages of 13 to 21 and females between 13 to 26 years who have not been previously vaccinated. Repeat vaccination with the 9-valent vaccine is likely not warranted for individuals who have completed a series with a different HPV vaccine.
- Persistent viral infection with carcinogenic HPV types causes virtually all cancer of the cervix and most cases of anal cancer. The carcinogenic types, HPV 16 and HPV 18, which are targeted by the current HPV vaccines, cause approximately 70 percent of all cervical cancers worldwide and 72 percent of anal cancers. Hpv types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 are estimated to cause an additional 19 percent of invasive cervical cancers. Hpv 6 and HPV 11 cause approximately 90 percent of genital warts.
- Hpv immunization is most effective among individuals who have not yet been infected with HPV (eg, before sexual debut).
- The quadrivalent vaccine and 9-valent are administered in three doses at time zero and at two and six months of follow-up. The bivalent vaccine is administered in three doses at time zero, and at one and six months of follow-up.
- Cervical cancer screening is recommended for any woman 21 years of age or older.
- Clinicians should be aware that HPV immunization is not effective in clearing cytologically evident disease or HPV infection that is already present.