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What causes cervical Cancer?
Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a very common virus in both men and women that can lead to the development of genital warts, abnormal cervical cells or cervical cancer.
This virus can cause normal cells on your cervix (Know more about Cervix Infection) to turn abnormal. Over many years, abnormal cells can turn into cancer if they are not found and treated by your doctor. It can take 10 to 15 years (or more) for cells to change from normal to abnormal, and then into cancer. Abnormal cells are sometimes called 'pre cancer ' because they are not normal, but they are not yet cancer.
You cannot see or feel HPV or these cell changes on your cervix. Screening tests help us to look for these changes or for abnormal cells (Learn more about sexually transmitted diseases)
How is HPV spread?
HPV is transmitted during genital skin to-skin sexual contact. This includes vaginal or anal sex and possibly oral sex.A person can get HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sex. They will never know it because HPV usually has no signs and symptoms.
In most cases, HPV goes away within two years, without causing any health problems. It is thought that the immune system fights off HPV infection naturally
What screening tests exist for HPV- related diseases?
Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer can be detected with routine Cervical cancer screening (Pap test) and follow-up of abnormal results. The Pap test can find abnormal cells on the cervix so that they can be removed before cancer develops. Abnormal cells often become normal over time, but can sometimes turn into cancer. These cells can usually be treated, depending on their severity and on the woman's age, past medical history, and other test results.
An HPV DNA test, which can find certain HPV types on a woman's cervix, may also be used with a Pap test in certain cases (called co-testing). The HPV-DNA test is done to determine if you are infected with one of the high-risk types or if your doctor finds certain type of abnormal Pap test result.
Even women who were vaccinated when they were younger need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccines do not protect against all cervical cancer strains.
Is there a treatment for HPV or related problems?
HPV vaccination could prevent most cancers and other diseases caused by HPV. There is no treatment for the virus itself, but there are treatments for the problems that HPV can cause:
Visible genital warts may remain the same, grow more in number, or go away on their own. The warts can be treated when they appear.
Abnormal cervical cells (found on a Pap test) often become normal over time, but they can sometimes turn into cancer. If they remain abnormal, these cells can usually be treated to prevent cervical cancer from developing. This may depend on the severity of the cell changes, the woman's age , past medical history, and other test results. It is critical to follow up with testing and treatment, as recommended by a doctor.
Post detection of ovarian cancer the doctors , depending on your cancer stage can recommend the treatment more- surgery, medical treatment, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Hi doctor .. my baby is 4 months old.. last week we did vaccination for her.. she was normal that time... From yesterday her body is slightly hot .. when we checked the temperature it was normal.. but her head is hot. What to do
Can you give me an idea how many times in a day a 13 month old baby should eat and an example of what can be given and how many times in a day to give cows milk?
Dear Sir/Madam, My son is 10 month old, His health is very good but teeth is still not yet come. So please tell me what shall I do for it or it is okay if teeth come late? Which food or fruits I give give him for teeth growth. Thanks you.
My 9 and a half months old daughter is taking medicine as prescribed by the doctor for cough n cold. But each time she takes medicine, she immediately vomits. So my question is" if she vomits on taking medicine immediately, should I give the same again then"
Dear sir I am asking this for my son who has just completed 9 month on 25th. Last 2 days he was having dehydration which we thought is bcz he is getting the teeth. He has suddenly starting avoiding his formula milk or any milk which he use to take regularly. He is even not interested in any food and living in ORS. What should we do please suggest.
Hi. And he's 2 1/2 years old. He's studying PRE KG in there some school children health camp program should be conducted. In there one doctor said that he have a some problems in heart may be it will be a hole or some block" we are suffered. I will show some details of ECG report that they given HR: 102 bpm P Dur: 82 Ms. PR int: 110 Ms. QRS dur: 80 Ms. QT/QTC int: 300/392 Ms. P/QRS/T axis: 25/26/25 RV5/SV1 amp: 1.196/1.027 mV RV5+SV1 amp: 2.223 mV RV6/SV2 amp: 0.982/0.794 mV These r the details given by them. And they given a referral slip I Purpose of referral: CVS- Sgs murmur intricupid & RS- BAE + Pls anyone tell me clear solution we are afraid about this. Is there any risk? Or is there any serious problem? Can you tell anyone pls.
My daughter is 1 year old.In 24 hours she sleep 2 hours in day and 7-8 hours in night but not properly. 1-2 times she wakes up in night. She is also under weight baby. Her weight is only 8 kg. I don't know what should I do. Is she suffering from any kind of diseases? Can I test my baby's thyroid?
Can we give Iso Plus Isotonic or other health drinks to children? Are their any ill effects of it on children?
Hello doctor. My daughter is one year old, when she born her weight is 3.2kg. Nw her weight is 8kg. Is it a normal weight? She do all activities bt looking like little thin. Can you tell me her weight is ok with her age now?
We have a pre mature born daughter now almost turning 4 years in this mid Nov. She is very active (can say hyperactive). However she has problem with sleeping. Few days in a month she will not sleep properly and gets up (in sleep) again and again and cries. Once her mother or I take her in lap (for a few minutes) she settles. This happens few times on such a night. This is most evident when she doesn't sleep in the afternoon and sleeps early. Even otherwise she sleeps late in the night between 11: 30-12: 00. Most of the days she sleeps in the afternoon/eve for about 2 to 2.5 hrs.
The role of parents in language development of children is a primary one. Basically, it will be a one way communication as babies will not respond, but that should not deter you from speaking to them. It has been shown that talking to children early on helps them to talk faster and learn more words. The number of words a child hears is directly proportional to the amount of vocabulary he/she will be able to master.
6 ways to help your baby learn speaking:
- Let them listen a lot: Children learn speaking by listening first. So more and more words they will listen, so do they will speak. Make sure your child comes in contact with children in the peer group and plays with them as with the help of their friends they can learn many words.
- Read a book: You should start reading to your child as early as possible. The type of book is not as important as you may use, various touch and feel books such as graphic novels. Initially, you may start with board books and then move on to picture books and finally to story books. It helps in increasing the child's vocabulary.
- Talk as much as you can: Part of a child's ears and brain that respond to sound are developed since birth, so even though talking to your baby may not make much sense, talking to them enhances their development of speech. The infant absorbs the words which facilitates speaking.
- Look for cues: If the child is interested in something such as a book or a toy, then engage with the child on that subject. Encourage him/her to ask questions and interact as much as possible. These interactions help in enhancing the child's language skills.
- Limit television: Using television to teach vocabulary to your child is not as effective as talking directly. The primary reason is that characters in television do not react to your child's cues. This does not allow the child interact, which results in reduced language learning.
- Treat ear infections early: It is important to treat ear infections early as this causes hearing problems which in turn delays language learning. Consulting a pediatrician to get treatment for ear infections of your child is advisable. You should see to it that the child is being administered medications at regular intervals.
Menu planning for diet of indian toddlers:
Indian diet plan for toddler
In the above given chart, the outer 6 boxes represent the different food groups. This chart will help you in planning your own menu based on your convenience and timing for your baby. Follow the following tips for planning a healthy menu for your toddler.
The trick is to simply add at least 1 item from each group through out the day. Ofcourse you can use a particular group more than 2 times too. But in order to maintain variety in terms of taste and nutrition, its important to plan from each group. Ex – you can plan for rice in the afternoon and oats in the evening menu. Both the items belong to the cereal group and are equally healthy.
Make your choices of food from the given food group more interesting for the kid. Ex – instead of feeding your baby with rice and milk every day, introduce variety. Plan for rice and curd, or lightly lemon flavored rice, mix rice with mung dal from pulses group to add protein and variety to your kids menu.
After your kid turns 15 – 16 months old, you can mix up 2 or more food groups together. Ex – oats porridge with apple. Here oats cover the cereal group, milk will cover up for protein and apple will cover the fruits group. Some kids with good digestibility can tolerate the mixed groups concept right from 12 month on wards.
Cereal group – This group includes cereals like rawa (semolina), ragi, rice, oats, wheat and its products like brown bread, wheat based biscuits. These cereals are easy to digest. Initially its best to grind the food product, or mash it well to avoid choking. Some kids take time to learn to chew.
Milk and milk products group – As the name suggests this group includes all varieties with milk. Cows milk has the best digestibility. Hence it is preferable to give you kids cow’s milk. You can later introduce him with milk products like cheese, curd, buttermilk and paneer. Cheese on brown bread is a good snacking option for your 2+ year old toddler. They relish it.
Non – vegetarian protein group – This group includes chicken, eggs and fish. I would really recommend you to start your kid a little late with fish. May be after he is 2 +. This will ensure his digestion capacity. It is not that kids do not eat fish before this age. There are individual differences and food preferences. All you need to do is ensure about your kids digestion capacity,
And allergic reactions to these foods.
Dals and pulses group – Start with easily digestible dals like mung dal. Once they are tolerated well by the kid, you can then move forward to slowly introduce her with all the other varieties of dals, and pulses. Make sure the first time you try any new pulse, it should be diluted enough. If your baby has any sign of intolerance towards these foods, like change in color of stool, hard stool or watery stool or gases or stomach ache after the intake, reintroduce the food after a week in a diluted form
Fruits and vegetables – The fruits and vegetables that are mentioned under the groups in the above info graphic diagram, can be used in any form. You can mash the fruits, make juice out of it, pressure cook the fruit for 1 whistle and then mash it (apple). Or you can hand over them as slices to your kids. So they also learn to eat on their own. You can use vegetables in soup forms or cooked vegetable form, just the way you consume it at home. Make sure you add little or no spices to the preparation. You can introduce the spices and masala for the baby after she is 2.5 + years of age.
Fats and sugars – This group is placed in the center on purpose. Although you need to use very little amount of fats and sugar for your toddler, but please do not ignore this group. Your baby really needs good fats for better digestion. Don’t forget that these little ones also require tasty foods just like us. You can add sugar or jaggery to their food preparations.
Note – You need to feed your growing toddler every 2- 3 hrs, don’t wait for them to signal for hunger. Kids get really cranky and irritated if they go without food for long. To become a smart mom, you need to set your timetable accordingly. Keep your busiest hours for their milk feeds. But do not over do milk. Excess milk feeds and no solid will make her/ him hate food. They may also get loose motions, uncontrolled bladder. They would become cranky if you don’t give them enough solids. And the kid will want to stick to you at all
Here is an indian diet plan for toddlers for your reference.
Time and menu:
- 7.00 am (after waking up): 1 glass milk + 4 soaked almonds
- 9.00 am Breakfast: Choose any 1 from the mentioned options: Rawa kheer / ragi kheer / vermicilly kheer, Soft cooked rawa upama with finely chopped carrots, Soft cooked mung dal chilla with grated carrots and finely chopped spinach, Curd with soaked poha, (add a little salt or sugar as per your kids taste), Soft dosa or idli with sambar
- 11.00 am: 2-4 slices of apple / orange / water melon /musk melon / pomogranate / papaya / 2 wheat based biscuits / ragi flakes (handful) (any seasonal fruit)
- 1.00 pm: Lunch (choose any 1 from the mentioned options)- Curd rice / dal + rice / sambar + rice / milk + rice / vegetable pulav / kadhi + rice / lemon flavored rice, Vegetable khichadi, Daliya upama (soup consistency), Vermicilly upama, Soft cooked roti or phulka with toru / bottle gourd / palak / methi / potato vegetable
- 2.30 pm: Buttermilk (optional) / ragi kanji
- 4.00 pm: Choose any 1 from thementioned options- Oats porridge with chopped apple or banana, Fruit smoothie with almond or walnut (at room temperature), Milkshakes, Hot milk with 4 biscuits, Aata laddu – 2 small, Dry fruit chikki, Sliced / boiled veggies like carrot, broccoli with curd dip, Tacos with vegetable based greek yogurt dip, Home made wheat cake piece
- 6.00 pm: Spinach soup / carrot soup / tomato soup / mix vegetable soup / corn soup (grind corn kernel in a mixer) / fruit juice during warm climate
- 8.00 pm: Dinner (choose any suitable option from breakfast or lunch menu)
- 10.00 pm: Bedtime- 1 glass milk + 4 soaked almonds
Note – The above mentioned diet plan is a general diet plan. This indian diet plan for toddlers meets the nutritional requirement of an average indian toddler. Some foods may or may not be suitable to some kids, in such a case a personalized approach is necessary.
Important tips to consider while following this indian diet plan for toddlers:
• Milk intake:
Give your toddler the regular milk when he wakes up in the morning. Give him 100 to 200 ml of milk in the morning and in case he/she is allergic to milk and milk products, you can replace milk with a whole fruit, almond milk, or soya milk. If your child has crossed 2 years of age, you may consider adding health drinks such as pediasure to his milk. Make sure to give your toddler full cream milk and he/ she requires milk energy to support his body’s functions and to grow into a powerful adult with time. In the evening, give your toddler 100-50 ml of milk depending on his preference. Yes, do value his preference as many toddlers simply hate the taste of milk. You can’t help as i’m sure many of you also hated milk in your childhood. Use your imaginations, make them tasty smoothies or milkshakes
• Water intake
A toddler’s daily water intake may typically consist of at least 5 cups of water. This includes the juices, milk, and other fluids that your toddler consumes throughout the day.
Make sure you give your toddler wholewheat or brown bread or bread that is fortified with vitamins and minerals.
• Fruits and vegetables
You may opt for cooked or pureed food. Cooked or pureed vegetables with bland flavors are the best options for toddlers. These may include vegetables such as pumpkin, potato, sweet potato, squash, carrots, and butternut. Try with mashed food items. It’s better to feed ytout toddler steamed vegetables and pulses
• Homemade food:
Today’s nuclear family setups coupled with an increase in the opportunities for women employment, time has become a scare resource for today’s families. It is always better to avoid tinned and packaged foods as they contain preservatives that may be detrimental to your child’s health. Make sure you invest some time to secure your child’s health and prepare meals at home. We are sure love will help you find that time!
• Oatmeal cereals
It is a good idea to help your child build healthy eating habits since a very young age. You may introduce oatmeal cereals at a very early stage as they are healthy breakfast options and your child is most likely to develop an acceptance for oatmeal cereals as well as other complex carbohydrates.
• Portion intake
1 tablespoon of each food: the rule of thumb. At one time, a one-year old child should be fed 1 tbsp of cooked cereal, pureed fruit, pureed cereal, cooked meat, cooked vegetable, one egg and ½ cup of milk and dairy products. On a similar line, a 2-year old child should be given 2 tablespoons of different foods at a time. And as you can already guess, 3 tablespoons of different foods at a time constitute the perfect dietary portions for a 3-year old child.
• Nutritious snacks
Your kid will eat when he/she is hungry and will stop when he/ she feels full. Sometimes, you may consider providing nutritious snacks to your kid. This does not mean that you have to put a lot of extra effort in preparing healthy snacks as a lot of healthy yet no-hassle snacks are available in the market. Prepare some finger-friendly, bit-size foods and your toddler will take the responsibility of feeding himself/ herself:
• Thinly-sliced fresh fruit
• Low-sugar breakfast cereals
• Mini muffins with whole grain crackers
• Shredded cheese
• 2-4 ounces of pure fruit juice, with one part juice being mixed with two parts of water.
• Start with pureed or strained vegetables such as green beans, squash, or carrots.
Some common mistakes that you should avoid:
• Making your child drink more than 16-24 ounces of milk per day.
• Forcing your child to eat when he/ she is not hungry.
• Allowing your child to eat sugary snacks
Don’t get in to a habit of worrying about your kid’s food. The only thing that you should observe is whether your child is gaining weight with time and whether he is remaining active throughout the day. Too much of restrictions in his/ her diet or too much of ‘çarefree’ attitude may actually harm your child’s health. Refer this indian diet plan for toddlers and enjoy your child’s meal times, be a little creative and allow him to enjoy his/ her creative side as well.