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I have some disc problem, in MRI report L5S1, how can I remove this problem, which exercise is useful in this problem.
Brain mapping is a technique where the biological quantities of a human brain are represented as spatial quantities resulting in maps. As with many other medical technologies, brain mapping is fast-evolving as well. Among several uses, brain mapping is chiefly used while performing surgery on the brain.
When surgery is to be performed on the brain such as surgery for epilepsy, the surgeon would want to comprehend how the brain areas are affected by seizures. The surgical intervention is meant for removing as much as seizure focus as possible while preserving crucial functions like understanding, speech, vision, movement, and sensation.
Why is brain mapping performed?
Brain mapping is a process which helps in identification of functions of various parts of the brain. Mapping the brain by stimulating different areas of the brain areas can aid in creating a map for a particular person. The map allows the doctor in understanding what parts of the brain are responsible for performing critical functions including sensation, movement, speech and other functions.
Which functions of the brain can be mapped electrically?
Typical areas of the brain which have motor, language, visual and sensory functions are needed to be mapped. When current is applied to a single area at a time, the doctor understands which part of the brain is responsible for which function.
When the patient is not able to speak due to the current, then the area is likely to be crucial for language function. If the limbs, face or trunk of the patient stop moving as the current passes, the area that is tested is responsible for movement. On the other hand, if the individual experiences tingling, numbing, and other sensations when the current is applied, it means that a sensory region is discovered.
How is electrical brain mapping performed?
Electrical brain mapping for guiding brain surgery for epilepsy can be performed in two distinct processes: directly during the surgery or in a two-stage procedure.
In the first stage of the process, the surgeon creates an opening in the skull which helps in exposing the surface of the brain. Small electrical contacts or electrodes are placed on the brain surface even though no brain tissue is removed. As soon as the electrodes are in the right position, the scalp is closed. The electrodes not only record the seizure of the patient electrically but also allow mapping of various areas of the brain. The last stage is surgery where abnormal brain tissues are removed.
Brain mapping process during surgery:
Electrical brain mapping may also be performed during the surgery which exposes part of the brain. This is termed as intraoperative brain mapping since it occurs while performing the main operation. The process of mapping may last for an hour to several hours at a stretch.
Brain mapping is also used to diagnose neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. In these cases, the brain map shows extreme shrinkage of the brain due to tissue loss. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
I am an advocate and have got sitting job for long hours and walking job too. I am suffer from slip disc. Any treatment?
Symptoms, causes and treatment for Breast Cancer Patients
Hello friends. My name is Dr. Gayatri Juneja. I’m a practicing gynecologist in Model Town for the last 20 years. I’m a visiting consultant in Apollo Cradle Hospital Moti Nagar, and Fortis Hospital Shalimar Bagh, and Sunder Lal Hospital Ashok Nagar. It’s a great pleasure for me to talk to you about certain problems which I think is becoming very important for all of us to know. I am going to talk about Breast Cancer.
Unfortunately, even in India, cancer breast is becoming very common. And it is not that it is a cancer which we cannot pick up at time. The only thing we need is to be aware of it. Only if we know what is happening with our body, is only then we can do what is normal, only then we can see what is not normal, right? It is one of the breast cancer is one of the easiest cancers to pick up. How? My body is my own. I should know what’s happening to me. So minimum a lady can do is do a self examination. Teach your daughters how to do a self examination for the breast. If you find any lump, any time, if you feel there is some pain, which was not there, if you see the nipple is not in the normal position, it is retracted inside, if you see there is skin changes on your breast, if you see any size difference. See minor size difference will be there. That is a natural thing. But if you see there is drastic change, and if you are not comfortable with something, do not neglect it. It’s not at all a normal thing. Go, see a gynaecologist.
It is a confidential thing between you and your doctor. Let her examine you. Let her guide you. You give her a proper history, if you have taken any contraceptive pills, even I-pill is very dangerous. I’ll come to it later how. The thing is…your doctor has examined you, then she will guide you what has to be done. There are various ways of diagnosing cancer of breast. First step is, you do a self examination. First step is over. You find the lump, you go to a doctor. Your doctor will ask for a sonography, that is ultrasound of the breast. And another part of it is an x-ray of the breast. Sometimes in younger age group the breast is very dense, and you cannot diagnose anything on mammogram.
You still are suspecting something, then your doctor might ask for an MRI. MRI is very effective in diagnosing, but we do not suggest it as first line treatment, first line of diagnosis. Once it is confirmed that yes, there is a lump, then what we do is, we ask for a biopsy. Now biopsy can be in 2 forms. It can be taken through the needle, which we call FNAC – Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, and other is open biopsy, where we remove the whole lump, and send it for testing. If the test comes negative, good, fine, everything is fine. If it comes positive, then further treatment depends upon the type. Then they will do a special CT scan for you, where the will diagnose if any lymph nodes are involved.
Depending on preliminary staging, your doctor will ask for a surgery. Now the surgery will…it is better that the whole breast gets removed. Or what has to be done will be diagnosed, because it is not a single person specialty, it is going to be a multi-specialty treatment then. Now let’s come down to who are the people who are at higher risk. Why should I consider that I am at higher risk? What…who are those people? First, specially after menopause, obesity. If your lifestyle is not at all healthy, your food habits you eat lot of non-veg and processed food, like pizzas and burgers and frozen food, yes you are at risk. Then comes genetics.
If you have a family history of cancer in your nani, dadi, your bua, maasi, cousin, ya sister ya brother, or even cancer of ovaries, you are at high risk. But that doesn’t mean who all have had the history of cancer will also develop this. You are at higher risk, but it is better only to be careful. Then comes very tall ladies it has been seen they are also prone for diabetes. Obesity, and people who have had hormonal replacement therapy with…and once you’re diagnosed don’t get scared. It is a curable cancer, and life expectancy with variable modalities these days is quite good.The quality of life is also good.
So my suggestion would be, to conclude, that please be aware of what is happening with you, and take good care of yourself. If you are healthy, only then you can look after your family. Thank you so much.
I am 63 year old. I am having sciatica, back pain and numbness in both legs. I do not have BP and my sugar level is with in limit. As per CT scan report the impression are as follows: Lumbar Spondylitis with Disc herniation at L4-5, L3-4 levels and disc bulge at L5-S1 level. Canal stenosis at L4-5 level. Cervical spondylosis - Decreased height of C5 and C6. Vertebral bodies with end plate irregularities at C4-C7 levels. Disc bulge at C3-4 level. Disc herniation with canal stenosis at C4-5, C5-6 and C6-7 levels. Can it be cured with Homeopathy.
One of the things that Shannen Doherty and Rita Wilson, the wife of Tom Hanks, have in common, apart from their fame is that both were affected by breast cancer. No matter how normal a person may seem, breast cancer can strike anyone. In fact, it usually strikes one in eight women. So, it makes good sense to know what it can appear as!
Breast cancer makes up a rather big amount of the general cancer cases as 15% of the cancer cases which are reported on a yearly basis are usually breast cancer cases. That being said, there are quite a few things which can be done in order to reduce a person’s risk to breast cancer.
Effective ways to prevent breast cancer-
As with any other types of cancer, breast cancer is a condition characterized by uncontrolled and rapid cell proliferation and division in the breast, resulting in the formation of a malignant tumor. While breast cancer is known to be one of the most common types of cancer affecting women, men are also susceptible to the condition.
An early diagnosis of the condition gives a mercurial boost to the treatment for breast cancer, often ensuring a full recovery. Unfortunately, in most cases, breast cancer gets diagnosed at a later stage. Some of the symptoms commonly associated with breast cancer include:
- A change in the breast shape, size, or even the contour.
- The appearance of a lump in the breast, often pea sized.
- There may be a fluid discharge (can be clear or blood-stained) from the nipples. In addition to this, the skin around the nipples or the breast may undergo some change. It may appear red, inflamed, scaly or even puckered and dimpled.
In addition to the medications and treatment, a person with breast cancer can benefit by practicing the following tips diligently:
- Self-awareness: Nobody can know your body better than yourself. The associated complications of breast cancer can be averted if only people stop overlooking the early signs and symptoms. There are many government sponsored campaigns and programs to create awareness about breast cancer. Once a while, self-examine your breasts. Feel your breasts for any lumps or thickenings. If you notice any abnormalities, waste no time and consult a doctor at the earliest.
- BRCA1 and BRCA2 human genes: The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are important with regards to the breast cancer. These genes are responsible for the production of tumor suppressor proteins, which play a pivotal role in the repair of DNA damage (often resulting from mutations or diseases). A mutation (often genetically triggered or hereditary trait) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can wreak havoc, elevating the instances of breast cancer and many other types of cancer (ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and pancreatic cancer, to name a few). Thus, people who have a family history of breast cancer triggered by a mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes should get themselves tested as a precautionary measure.
- Obesity is a big No: Maintaining a healthy body weight is the need of the hour. Various research has found a link between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II, women who put on extra weight (60 pounds or more) after the age of 18, are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer post-menopause as compared to their healthy counterparts. Thus, it is important to keep the body weight within healthy limits. Take care of your diet. Indulge in physical activities and exercise.
- Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: People, particularly women who consume alcohol in excess (2-6 drinks daily) are at an increased risk of breast cancer. Limit your daily dose of alcohol (1 drink or less per day).
Prevention is Prudent-
Get Fit: The first thing which should be done is that a reasonable level of fitness should be maintained. Many studies have found that if a person is significantly heavier than her recommended weight, she is at a far great risk to develop all sorts of cancer and breast cancer, in particular, than a person who is able to keep her weight in check. The difference in cancer risk rates is about 40%. This is because a greater amount of fat leads to more estrogen being produced, which increases the risk of breast cancer.
Quit Smoking: While most people associate smoking as something which increases the risk of cancer to the lungs and are not aware that it increases the risk of breast cancer, too. So, the best solution is to kick the habit!
Get Off the Pill: Once a woman crosses past her mid-thirties, she should try to avoid relying on birth control pills to reduce the risk of pregnancy. This is because these pills have an effect which increases the risk of breast cancer, which heightens as a woman gets older. As long as the woman cuts out the use of the pill, the risk quickly gets cut, as well.
Get Regular Check Ups: While screening for breast cancer by making use of mammograms does not cut the risk of it, the screening helps detect breast cancer early if it does exist. As a result, a woman has a much better chance of fighting breast cancer. So, a woman who is past the age of forty should try to have a mammogram on an annual basis with the frequency of the same increasing as she gets older. However, it is to be kept in mind that going for a mammogram too often is also not a good idea as the tests themselves pose risks of DNA changes.
Women all around the world are susceptible to breast cancer. While there isn’t a 100% chance of avoiding it, taking care of yourself and leading a fit and active lifestyle can significantly cut down your risk of contracting this condition. Remember, your health is in your hands, so the earlier you start, the better! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
If the effects of daily stressors are getting the best of you, brahmi supplementation may be something to explore. Stress reduction is perhaps brahmi’s most well known, traditional use. A study evaluating brahmi supplementation reported significant mood improvement among participants, as well as decreased levels of cortisol, the stress hormone. This suggests that brahmi counteracts the effects of stress by regulating hormones involved with the stress response.
Alzheimer’s disease is a debilitating and heartbreaking disease, usually caused by a plethora of physiological, genetic, and environmental factors. Amyloid formation in neurons can cause significant brain damage and influence the development of alzheimer’s disease. It’s important to understand that, to date, no herb, plant, drug, or anything — including brahmi — has been found to be the magic bullet against alzheimer’s. Based on its history as an herbal therapy to promote neurological function, some have suggested that brahmi may be a promising therapy for alzheimer’s.