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Dr. H S Prashanth Ishwar

Radiologist, Bangalore

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Dr. H S Prashanth Ishwar Radiologist, Bangalore
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Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; a......more
Hello and thank you for visiting my Lybrate profile! I want to let you know that here at my office my staff and I will do our best to make you comfortable. I strongly believe in ethics; as a health provider being ethical is not just a remembered value, but a strongly observed one.
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Dr. H S Prashanth Ishwar is an experienced Radiologist in Jalahalli, Bangalore. You can visit him at Dr. H S Prashanth Ishwar in Jalahalli, Bangalore. Save your time and book an appointment online with Dr. H S Prashanth Ishwar on Lybrate.com.

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A-169 Sector-2 HMT Post, Jalahalli, H.M.T Watch FactoryBangalore Get Directions
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Hello Dr. My mother facing the problem regarding slip disk in the year of 2012 now she is fine but some time he faced pain what I will do so he will get normal.

Dip. SICOT (Belgium), MNAMS, DNB (Orthopedics), MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Hi thanks for your query and welcome to lybrate. I am Dr. Akshay from fortis hospital, new delhi. In asymptomatic periods in slipped disc, one should go for intensive back exercises daily brisk walks for 2-3 km every day in morning try to keep your weight to normal levels - take adequate supplementation of calcium and vitamin d as per requirement avoid heavy physical activity, acute forward bending in early morning as disc is hydrated in morning and has high chances of prolapse, avoid travelling on uneven surfaces for a long time. The mainstay is exercises, and more she does them, better is is, also keeping yourself physically fit is very important. Do not hesitate to contact me if you need any further assistance.
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I am a student. Usually I used to sit more than 8 hours a day in chair. Now a days I am feeling very much pain on regions of backbone and neck. Is this a chance of disk failure?

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I am a student. Usually I used to sit more than 8 hours a day in chair. Now a days I am feeling very much pain on reg...
Neck advice hot fomentation x twice daily. Neck exercises. Neck stretching. Postural correction. Shoulder shrugs. Core strengthening exercises. Take frequent breaks at work use cervical pillow. Use back support. Back advice. Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall. Extension exercises x 15 times x twice daily. Bhujang asana. Core strengthening exercises. Back stretching. Do the cat/cow stretch.
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Can disc stenosis be cured permanently? And can the compressed disc become as it was earlier with Pranayam?

Occupational Therapy (OT)
Occupational Therapist, Jaipur
It's treatable and relieved from disability or pain with life style changes through Occupational therapy with work site and home modifications.
1 person found this helpful
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Benefits of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery!

Diploma in Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Gurgaon
Benefits of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery!

The spine plays a very crucial role, both from a person’s movement and sensation point of view. It carries the nervous supply for a lot of internal organs and the lower body. By virtue of its structure, it also helps in movement through the disks. Due to various reasons, spinal injury is common, causing pain along the back, lower extremities, neck etc.

Medicines and exercise are the first line of treatment for most spinal injuries. The issue, however, is that these only provide relief from the pain and the medicines, but do not actually ‘rectify’ the underlying problem. Whether it is a herniated disk or a pinched nerve, the medicines and exercise can relieve the symptoms, but the disk continues to be herniated and the nerve continues to be pinched. Definite treatment is in the form of surgery, and with recent advancements in the field of spinal surgery, there are minimally invasive surgical options, which provide complete cure with minimal recovery time. Some of the benefits of this are listed below-

  1. Smaller incision compared to traditional surgical procedures, where only the injured area is accessed

  2. The surrounding tissues are untouched, unless they are injured and require repair

  3. Lesser bleeding compared to earlier techniques

  4. Lesser painful procedure

  5. Reduced hospitalization period

  6. Quicker recovery and return to normal activities

The question, however, is whether this is indicated in everybody. A detailed discussion with your surgeon keeping the below points in mind will help identify the answer for this. The main driver should be the answer to the question – will the surgery be able to effectively relieve you of the pain and symptoms? Additionally, the following factors help in getting better results out of a minimally invasive spinal surgery.

  1. Presence of symptoms relating to nerve compression, including pain from the spine down the leg.

  2. Recent onset of symptoms, with pain starting days to months before seeing the doctor. This indicates the condition is relatively new and so damage is minimal, indicating favorable outcome. Chronic pain conditions take slightly longer time compared to recent injuries.

  3. People with active lifestyle who engage in regular physical exercise are likely to have better benefits from the minimally invasive procedure.

  4. Smoking reduces blood flow to the spine, leading to disk degeneration and weakening of bones. Healing is highly slowed down and recovery is overall delayed.

  5. Excessive weight puts strain on the back, and so healing can be delayed or badly affected with more complications. It is not a contraindication, but be prepared for a longer recovery period.

Talk to your doctor keeping these points in mind, and you can bid farewell to your back pain forever. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.

3420 people found this helpful

I met accident and my back disk d8 and d12 injured and operted in banglore now i am paraplegia patient from 7 years any treatment to cure it please reply me i went for stem cell in chenni also

MS ORTHOPEDIST, MBBS
Orthopedist, Noida
Its sad to know about your conditions. Stem cell can provide little help on immediate spinal trauma... there r other parameters to evaluate the neurology which is not possible with chatting.. prognosis is not good in long standing cases...
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I am 40 years old I was suffering from disc dislocation and recovered from it in 2007, but now I am suffering from Neck pain at vertebral column and my left Knee is also paining.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Faridabad
I am 40 years old I was suffering from disc dislocation and recovered from it in 2007, but now I am suffering from Ne...
Warm mustard oil or sesame oil (1 teaspoon) with 3-4 cloves of crushed garlic and 1 tsp of ajwain (carom) seeds until it roasts to a reddish brown colour. Ensure that it does not get burned. Massage this oil on your affected areas. After that do hot fomentation with salt potli (bag). take 1 tsf triphala churna daily....n practice yoga daily twice. Go for fasting once a week. You can go for absolute fasting or rely on a liquid diet to digest ama (toxin). Fasting should be followed by hot fomentation or by taking a bath with lukewarm water or steam bath. After fasting and fomentation, mix powdered long pepper, black pepper and dried ginger in equal quantities and take 1 teaspoon of this powdered mix with lukewarm water twice a day. This will help you restore your digestive fire.
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Breast Cancer - In A Nutshell

Post Doctoral Research (Ph.D.) (A.M) (Oncology), Integrative Oncology for Physicians (MSKCC, N.Y, USA), Doctor of Natural Medicine (N.D/ N.M.D), Ayurveda (I) Cert., Advanced Strategic Management (APSM), B.E (Computer Sc. & Engg.), Clinically Relevant Herb-Drug Interactions (CME) - (Cine-Med Inc. USA)
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Bhubaneswar
Breast Cancer - In A Nutshell

Breast cancer begins when cells in the breast(s) start to grow out of control. It is understood as being the most common cancer, seen predominantly in females, globally. It is reasonably treatable and often curable.

1. Type: Adenocarcinomas constitute more than 95% of breast cancers with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) being the most common form of invasive breast cancer.

Frequently occurring breast cancers present as one of the following types mainly

1. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer and is confined to the milk ducts of the breast. There is no invasion in the basement membrane. Pure DCIS metastasizes rarely. Non comedo cribrioform carcinoma is the most common DCIS found which, when compared to the comedo type, is mostly non-aggressive.

2. Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): Represents majority (about 3/4th) of the breast cancers, and is known to metastasize commonly to bones, lungs and liver.

3. Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS): Develops in multiple lobules of the breast (bilaterally). LCIS is less commonly seen, compared to DCIS.

4. Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): Represent about a tenth of all breast cancers and tends to metastasize to other regions of the body.

Less commonly occurring breast cancers such as

5. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: Is relatively uncommon and are caused probably owing to viral infections. The breast is warm, red and swollen.

6. Paget’s disease of the nipple: Is a rare form of breast cancer. It begins in the milk ducts and spreads to the nipple and areola.

7. Medullary Carcinoma

8. Mutinous Carcinoma

9. Tubular Carcinoma

10. Phylloides tumor etc all.

2. Gender: Affects the female populace predominantly. However, a small percentage of breast cancer is attributable to the male populace as well.

3. Etiology: No definite cause is known. However, diet, lifestyle, environment, hormonal/ reproductive factors, personal or family history of breast cancer especially in first degree relatives and also any benign breast disease history etc all are known to increase the risk of breast cancers. Specifically, excessive fatty diet, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, benign breast disease, heredity/ inheritance of mutated breast cancer genes 1 (BRCA1) and 2 (BRCA2), smoking, alcohol intake, infertility, estrogen therapy/ hormone replacement therapy (long term) in post menopausal women, delayed age at first pregnancy, nulliparity (not having child), early menstruation, delayed onset of menopause, lactating mothers not breast feeding, exposure to ionizing radiation, sedentary lifestyle, depression, exposure to MMTV virus etc all can potentially increase the risk for breast cancer.

4. Features: Signs & symptoms, of breast cancer, manifest majorly in the following ways

  1. Lump/ nodule in the breast that gets attached to the skin of the breast over time. The lump / nodule could be hard and painless with irregular edges or it could also be soft, rounded, tender and painful.

  2. Enlarged lymph nodes in the axilla which are palpable.

  3. Swelling of whole or a part of a breast. This is even if there is no distinct lump felt.

  4. Retraction or thickening of the nipple(s).

  5. Pain in the breast or nipple.

  6. Discharge from nipple other than breast milk.

  7. Irritation/ scaliness of skin over the breast.

  8. Redness of nipples

  9. Rarely, red, swollen and tender breast.

5. Screening: Is generally recommended for asymptomatic populations goal of which, as usual, is to be able to detect & diagnose breast cancer at an early stage which is potentially curable. It is mostly radiologic with mammography/ USG being instrumental in raising suspicions for further diagnostics (i.e. biopsy) that help detect breast cancer, if any, early.

6. Diagnosis: A self-examination/ clinical exam of the breast(s)/ axilla that reveals a palpable mass prompts the following diagnostics. Abnormal blood test results may be indicative of malignancy, but a follow up imaging/ biopsy is always the gold standard for accurate diagnosis.

  1. Blood: ER/ PR/ HER2/neu, uPA, PAI-1, CA15-3, CA27.29 etc all tumor markers are helpful.
  2. Imaging: Mammography/ USG Scan usually, as relevant. Again, CT Scan of abdomen & pelvis and chest, PET CT scan, bone scan etc all help detect metastasis, if any, for cancers in stage III & above.
  3. Biopsy: either excisional, incisional, fine needle aspiration (FNA) or core biopsy technique, as contextually appropriate, is frequently employed and a histopathological examination (HPE) thereof clinches the diagnosis and the nature of the disease.

7. Treatment: Conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy/ chemotherapy as deems appropriate. Simultaneously, an adjunctive or integrative naturopathic treatment with suitable complementary & alternative medicines (CAM) too can help improve clinical outcomes and facilitate recovery as would be feasible contextually.

8. Prognosis: Preventive measures, earlier diagnosis and right early treatment is key for an effective therapeutic management & better prognosis. Like most other cancers, the chances of cure for an early stage breast cancer are more. The cure/ recovery chances are influenced by the type, grade, stage of cancer, recurrence and the patient’s general health & vitality etc all. Above-mentioned apart, age, menopause status, lymph node status, ER/ PR/ HER-2/ neu status, size & extent of breast cancer etc all also influence the treatment outlook in breast cancer. The five year survival rate is strongly correlated with the stage of breast cancer.

9. Prevention: Rightly said, prevention is always a better choice. Although genetic risks are difficult to modify, still an increased focus on protective factors and avoidance of the risk factors can be of help. An adherence to a Mediterranean diet, maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle with due emphasis on regular exercising (for at least 30 minutes daily), de-stressing and relaxation is highly recommended for reducing the risks of breast cancer. A healthy eating plate comprises essentially a low fat diet, fibre rich foods including whole grain cereals, green leafy vegetables cooked using healthy vegetable oils, fresh fruits of all colours as seasonally available and healthy proteins/ fats including fresh fish, poultry, beans, nuts etc all. It is advisable to limit milk/ dairy, preferably of low fat content, to 1 to 2 servings max daily. Although alcohol is optional and is not for everyone, the consumption of the same, if any, has to be strictly in moderation, and is best avoided. Smoking is to be avoided as well. Again, red meat, butter, refined grains, sweets, sugary drinks including carbonated beverages and other high calorie foods etc all, if any, are to be taken sparingly or are best avoided too. Limiting dosage/ duration of hormone therapy, if any, especially to counteract post menopausal symptoms and also avoiding exposure to radiation and environmental pollution can help reduce the risks of breast cancer. Apart from the above-mentioned, for high risk cases, a prophylactic oophorectomy, prophylactic radical mastectomy, long term hormone therapy etc all can help reduce the chances/ risks of developing breast cancer significantly. Breastfeeding is known to confer protection against breast cancer risk too.

3654 people found this helpful

Dear sir For last 1month I am suffering from severe pain in L5S1 region in lower back .done MRI also n compression is seen. Now what precautions should I take on daily basis as I m on bed rest for last one month..

BPTh/BPT, MPT - Orthopedic Physiotherapy
Physiotherapist, Jamshedpur
start wid lower back muscle exercise, core stability exercise..stretching of gluteal hamstring n pyriformis muscle..get ift n ultrasound therapy
1 person found this helpful
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Uterine Cancer - Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Uterine Cancer - Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Uterine cancer is also known as endometrial cancer. It is a cancer which begins in the lining of the uterus. The uterus is the part of a woman's body where the fetus develops. Uterine cancer is one of those rare cancers in India, which can be diagnosed in its early stages. This is because excessive vaginal bleeding occurs, thus making it a very serious and an apparent symptom. It is also one of the few forms of cancer which can be cured as removing the uterus is often more than enough to cure the patient of uterine cancer.

Here are the causes, diagnosis and treatment of uterine cancer:

Causes

The exact cause of uterine cancer is not yet known, however, there is a theory on what causes uterine cancer. Hormones in a woman's body have been thought to increase the chances of getting uterine cancer. This is because it has long been thought that having high levels of estrogen is the cause of uterine cancer. Increased estrogen thickens the endometrium and thus, increases the likelihood of uterine cancer.

Diagnosis

There are several tests used to diagnose whether you have uterine cancer including:

1. Pelvic exam: This is an examination in which the vagina, bladder, rectum and uterus are scanned for lumps. If they are found, it might be due to uterine cancer.
2. Pap test: A pap test is a special test designed to scan for uterine cancer.
3. Transvaginal ultrasound: A transvaginal ultrasound uses high-intensity sound waves so that pictures of the uterus can be taken.
4. Biopsy: During a biopsy, the doctor will remove tissue from the endometrium and it will then be analyzed for cancerous growths.

Treatment

1. Surgery: This is the most common treatment as it removes the entire uterus and prevents the spreading of the cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves giving drugs which kill cancerous cells. They are given through either an intravenous line or even in pill form.
3. Hormone therapy: This is a therapy in which either progesterone levels are increased or estrogen levels are decreased.
4. Radiation therapy: In this treatment, high energy laser beams are used to destroy cancerous cells.

3754 people found this helpful

Back bone slip disk, sitika. I ask in Hindi rid ki haddi ke manke sarke hue hai. Unka koi ilaj hai kya. Koi bhi ilaj jese aurved ya koi or ilaaj hai to please batana. Unko bahut pain hota hai. Or koi kam bhi nahi kar sakte hai. Pura bed rest hai.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
Back bone slip disk, sitika. I ask in Hindi rid ki haddi ke manke sarke hue hai. Unka koi ilaj hai kya. Koi bhi ilaj ...
Apply hot fomentation twice daily. Avoid bending in front. Postural correction- sit tall, walk tall. Extension exercises x 15 times x twice daily. Bhujang asana. Core strengthening exercises. Back stretching. Do the cat/cow stretch.
3 people found this helpful
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Please tell me what can I do in slip disk problem please explain preventive & treatment methods without using drugs because I need not anymore drugs because I already taken lots of drugs.

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
you have to avoid lifting heavy weight and doing strenuous activities. Core muscle strengthening exercises helps. weight reduction is necessary.
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Left paracentral L5-S1 disc protrusion causing compression of left traversing nerve roots associated with diffuse L1-L2 Disc bulge. Now what is best treatment for me.

MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
Best treatment is to do go for laparoscopic surgery and treatment depends on the symptoms and if there are bearable symptoms than we can do ESWT through a physiotherapist.
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4 Ways To Prevent Breast Cancer!

MBBS, DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
4 Ways To Prevent Breast Cancer!

One of the things that Shannen Doherty and Rita Wilson, the wife of Tom Hanks, have in common, apart from their fame is that both were affected by breast cancer. No matter how normal a person may seem, breast cancer can strike anyone. In fact, it usually strikes one in eight women. So, it makes good sense to know what it can appear as!

Breast cancer makes up a rather big amount of the general cancer cases as 15% of the cancer cases which are reported on a yearly basis are usually breast cancer cases. That being said, there are quite a few things which can be done in order to reduce a person’s risk to breast cancer.

Effective ways to prevent breast cancer-

As with any other types of cancer, breast cancer is a condition characterized by uncontrolled and rapid cell proliferation and division in the breast, resulting in the formation of a malignant tumor. While breast cancer is known to be one of the most common types of cancer affecting women, men are also susceptible to the condition.

An early diagnosis of the condition gives a mercurial boost to the treatment for breast cancer, often ensuring a full recovery. Unfortunately, in most cases, breast cancer gets diagnosed at a later stage. Some of the symptoms commonly associated with breast cancer include:

  • A change in the breast shape, size, or even the contour.
  • The appearance of a lump in the breast, often pea sized.
  • There may be a fluid discharge (can be clear or blood-stained) from the nipples. In addition to this, the skin around the nipples or the breast may undergo some change. It may appear red, inflamed, scaly or even puckered and dimpled.

In addition to the medications and treatment, a person with breast cancer can benefit by practicing the following tips diligently:

  1. Self-awareness: Nobody can know your body better than yourself. The associated complications of breast cancer can be averted if only people stop overlooking the early signs and symptoms. There are many government sponsored campaigns and programs to create awareness about breast cancer. Once a while, self-examine your breasts. Feel your breasts for any lumps or thickenings. If you notice any abnormalities, waste no time and consult a doctor at the earliest.
  2. BRCA1 and BRCA2 human genes: The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are important with regards to the breast cancer. These genes are responsible for the production of tumor suppressor proteins, which play a pivotal role in the repair of DNA damage (often resulting from mutations or diseases). A mutation (often genetically triggered or hereditary trait) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can wreak havoc, elevating the instances of breast cancer and many other types of cancer (ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and pancreatic cancer, to name a few). Thus, people who have a family history of breast cancer triggered by a mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes should get themselves tested as a precautionary measure.
  3. Obesity is a big No: Maintaining a healthy body weight is the need of the hour. Various research has found a link between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II, women who put on extra weight (60 pounds or more) after the age of 18, are at a greater risk of developing breast cancer post-menopause as compared to their healthy counterparts. Thus, it is important to keep the body weight within healthy limits. Take care of your diet. Indulge in physical activities and exercise.
  4. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: People, particularly women who consume alcohol in excess (2-6 drinks daily) are at an increased risk of breast cancer. Limit your daily dose of alcohol (1 drink or less per day).

Prevention is Prudent-

  1. Get Fit: The first thing which should be done is that a reasonable level of fitness should be maintained. Many studies have found that if a person is significantly heavier than her recommended weight, she is at a far great risk to develop all sorts of cancer and breast cancer, in particular, than a person who is able to keep her weight in check. The difference in cancer risk rates is about 40%. This is because a greater amount of fat leads to more estrogen being produced, which increases the risk of breast cancer.

  2. Quit Smoking: While most people associate smoking as something which increases the risk of cancer to the lungs and are not aware that it increases the risk of breast cancer, too. So, the best solution is to kick the habit!

  3. Get Off the Pill: Once a woman crosses past her mid-thirties, she should try to avoid relying on birth control pills to reduce the risk of pregnancy. This is because these pills have an effect which increases the risk of breast cancer, which heightens as a woman gets older. As long as the woman cuts out the use of the pill, the risk quickly gets cut, as well.

  4. Get Regular Check Ups: While screening for breast cancer by making use of mammograms does not cut the risk of it, the screening helps detect breast cancer early if it does exist. As a result, a woman has a much better chance of fighting breast cancer. So, a woman who is past the age of forty should try to have a mammogram on an annual basis with the frequency of the same increasing as she gets older. However, it is to be kept in mind that going for a mammogram too often is also not a good idea as the tests themselves pose risks of DNA changes.

Women all around the world are susceptible to breast cancer. While there isn’t a 100% chance of avoiding it, taking care of yourself and leading a fit and active lifestyle can significantly cut down your risk of contracting this condition. Remember, your health is in your hands, so the earlier you start, the better! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

2 people found this helpful

5 Ways to Reduce Your Breast Cancer Risk

MRCOG, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
IVF Specialist, Delhi
5 Ways to Reduce Your Breast Cancer Risk

While you cannot cure breast diseases, family history and maturing, but there are some hazards or risks that you can control. Keeping in mind the fact that there is no certain approach to forestall breast cancer, there are things you can do that may bring down the hazard. Here are five approaches to ensure your breast's well-being:

  1. Watch your weight: Being overweight or hefty expands breast cancer chances. This is particularly true after menopause and for women who have put on weight as grown-ups. After menopause, the vast majority of your estrogen originates from fat tissue. Having more fat tissue can heighten your chances of getting breast cancer by raising the estrogen levels. Additionally, women who are overweight have a tendency to have more elevated amounts of insulin, than other hormones. Higher insulin levels have been associated with a few tumors, including breast cancer.
  2. Exercise routinely: Many reviews have found that exercise is the sign of having a healthy breast. Studies show that one to two hours of energetic walking each week, lessened a woman’s cancer risk by eighteen percent. Walking ten hours seven days decreased the hazard all the more.
  3. Constrain liquor: Women who have two to five mixed beverages every day have a higher danger of breast cancer than women who have just one drink a day or none . As much as three to six glasses of wine seven days have been found to somewhat increase breast cancer chances. It is not clear how or why liquor raises the hazard. In any case, constraining liquor is particularly essential for women who have other hazard variables for breast cancer, like, breast cancer running in their families.
  4. Restrain time spent sitting: Research has shown that sitting time, regardless of how much exercise you get when you are not sitting, increases the probability of growing cancer, particularly for women. Women who sit six hours or more a day outside of work have a ten percent more serious risk for breast cancer compared to the ladies who sit under three hours a day, and an increased hazard for other cancer types as well.
  5. Stay away from or confine hormone substitution treatment: Hormone Replacement Treatment (HRT) was utilized frequently in the past to control night sweats, hot flashes, and other troublesome manifestations of menopause. In any case, specialists now realize that postmenopausal ladies who take a blend of estrogen and progestin might probably create breast tumors or cancer. Breast cancer disease seems to come back within five years in the wake of ceasing the blend of hormones. Therefore, get a breast cancer test even if you feel a small lump.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3105 people found this helpful

All About Breast Cancer

MS, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
All About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a type of cancer, which occurs due to the development of cancerous cells in breasts. Women are usually affected by breast cancer and breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer after skin cancer. Usually fatal if not diagnosed in its early stage, breast cancer is a very serious medical ailment. Read on more to find all about the different symptoms, causes, preventive measures and treatment of breast cancer.

Symptoms: Breast cancer has few distinct characteristics and if you have a few or all the following symptoms you could be more likely to suffer from breast cancer. 

  • The formation of a lump in your breast, which is different from the surrounding tissue and usually more thickened.
  • The discharge of bloody fluid  material from the nipples.
  • Sudden change of the size, shape and appearance of the breast.
  • Certain distinct changes to the skin over the breast for example an indentation in the skin similar to that of a dimple.
  • Appearance of an extra nipple which is inverted.
  • If the darkened area around the nipples known as the areola is flaking or peeling off. 

Causes: Studies and researches remain inconclusive on what causes breast cancer. Breast cancer occurs due to abnormal division of the cells located in the breast, which over time accumulate and form lumps. They
might spread to other parts of the body. Breast cancer is caused mainly due to a complex interaction of personal genetics, environment and lifestyle choices. Breast cancer can also be caused due to genetics as about 5% to 10% of cases are due to gene mutations which pass onto generations.

Risk factors: There are certain factors, which increase the probability of contracting breast cancer. Increasing age, personal and family history of breast cancer, obesity, radiation exposure, pregnancy at an older age, postmenopausal hormone therapy are some of the factors that increase the chances of breast cancer.

Treatment: Several forms of surgical methods exist to treat breast cancer. Depending on the condition and spread of the disease a suitable surgery is performed. These include mastectomy, lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection and removal of both breasts. Other forms of treatment include chemotherapy or the use of high doses of drugs to destroy cancerous cells. Radiation therapy where X-rays are used to destroy the cancer cells is also effective.

3359 people found this helpful

What should I be doing to releave the pain for two herniated disc's one above and one below a fusion surgery of the cervical spine.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. SPRING BEDS, FOLDING BEDS OR THICK MATRESS ARE HARMFUL Use no pillow under the head. DO HOT FOMANTATION. Paracetamol 250mg OD & SOS x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab OD x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 4-5days, contact me again.. Do not ignore .It could be beginning of a serious problem.
1 person found this helpful
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Prolapsed Uterus - 7 Conditions That Can Cause It!

DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Faridabad
Prolapsed Uterus -  7 Conditions That Can Cause It!

The uterus is set up inside the pelvis with different muscles, tissue, and tendons. Due to pregnancy, labour or complicated delivery, in a few ladies, these muscles tend to weaken. Additionally, as a woman ages and with a loss of the hormone oestrogen, her uterus can drop into the vaginal canal, bringing about the condition known as a uterine prolapse.

The following conditions can bring about a prolapsed uterus:

  1. Pregnancy with complicated or even ordinary delivery through the vagina.
  2. Weakness in the pelvic muscles with the increase in age.
  3. Weakening and loss of tissue after menopause and loss of normal oestrogen.
  4. Conditions leading to increased weight in the abdomen, for example, constant coughing (with bronchitis and asthma), straining along with constipation, pelvic tumours (uncommon), or clogging of liquid in the abdomen.
  5. Being overweight puts extra strain on pelvic muscles.
  6. Previous surgery in the pelvic region leading to loss of outer support
  7. Smoking

However, this condition can be treated effectively:

  1. Self care at Home: You can strengthen your pelvic muscles by performing Kegel workouts. You do these by contracting your pelvic muscles, as though attempting to stop the stream of urine. This exercise makes the pelvic muscle strong and gives some support. Have your specialist train you on the best possible approaches to exercise your muscles.
  2. Medications: Oestrogen (a hormone) cream or suppository ovules or rings embedded into the vagina help in strength and endurance building of the tissues in the vagina. However, oestrogen is just for use in some of the postmenopausal ladies.
  3. Surgery: Based on your age and whether you wish to conceive a child naturally, surgery can repair the uterus or remove it. The uterus as in many cases can be expelled with a hysterectomy. During the surgery, the specialist can repair the hanging or saggy vaginal dividers, urethra, bladder, or rectum. The surgery might be performed by an open abdomen procedure, through the vagina, or through little cuts in the abdomen or vagina with particular instruments.
  4. Other Therapy: In case that you do not need surgery or have a poor possibility for surgery, you may choose to wear a steady gadget, called a pessary. It is worn in the vaginal tract to strengthen the falling uterus. It can be utilised briefly or can be long-lasting. They come in different shapes and sizes and should be fitted according to the person. In case that the prolapse is extreme, a pessary may not work. Prolapse surgery is always preferred by vaginal route. Likewise, pessaries can disturb the insides of the vagina and may bring about a noxious release.

It can be prevented in the following manner:

  1. Decrease your weight.
  2. Try to avoid constipation by consuming a high-fiber diet.
  3. Do Kegel exercises to strengthen the pelvic muscles.
  4. Stay away from heavy lifting or straining.
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How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?

Breast cancer is a form of cancer which develops from the breast tissue. Breast cancer is indicated by signs such as a lump in the breast, changes in breast shape, fluid flowing from the nipple, dimpling of skin, or the development of red scaly patches. Breast cancer is a fatal form of cancer in women and immediate diagnosis is required on observing the symptoms.

Diagnosis of breast cancer
Other than the regular breast screening, the diagnosis of breast cancer involves the following steps and methods:

  1. Seeing your general practitioner (GP): It is very important to visit your GP soon after noticing the symptoms of breast cancer. Your GP will examine you properly and in case your symptoms need more assessment, he/she will refer you to a breast cancer clinic.
  2. Mammogram and breast ultrasound: You will be required to have a mammogram, as recommended by a specialist breast unit. This is an X-ray of the breasts. An ultrasound scan may also be required. Breast ultrasound should be undertaken only if you are less than 35 years of age. This is because, young women have denser breasts and a mammogram is not as effective as ultrasound in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In ultrasound, high frequency sound waves are used for obtaining an image of your breasts. It is observed to notice any abnormality or lumps. A breast ultrasound is also important for determining whether a lump is solid or contains liquid.
  3. Biopsy: In this diagnosis process, a sample of the tissue cells is taken from the breasts and tested under a microscope to find out if it is cancerous. A scan and needle test for the lymph nodes present in your armpit is also done to check whether they have also been affected. A biopsy is undertaken in several ways, depending upon the condition and severity. A needle aspiration biopsy is used for testing a sample of your breast cells without the removal of the tissues. This is the most common form of biopsy and it is also used for draining a small fluid-filled lump or benign cyst. During the process, you will be given a local anesthetic. Usually, a needle biopsy is carried out guided by an X-ray, ultrasound and an MRI scan as well. This helps in distinguishing it from non-invasive changes such as ductal carcinoma in situ.

Another form of biopsy used for the diagnosis of breast cancer is called vacuum assisted biopsy or mammotome biopsy. In this process, a needle gets attached to a suction tube, which helps in obtaining the sample and for clearing the bleeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general-surgeon.

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Should You Get a Mammogram?

MHA, PGDPMC, DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Should You Get a Mammogram?

A mammogram is an imaging test where an X-ray is taken to recreate the internal imagery of your breasts. This is a screening test that is widely used to find the earliest signs of cancer. There have been instances where the early signs of cancer have been found up to three years before the actual development of the same. There are a number of benefits and risks in this screening method. So let us find out more about getting a mammogram, and whether or not you should get one.

  • Procedure: A special X-ray machine is used for conducting a mammogram. There is a clear plastic plate on which the specialist will place the breast while another plate will press on the breast from above. While both the plates serve to flatten the breast and hold it still, the X-ray will be taken. Some pressure will be felt and the same steps will be repeated so as to get the side view of the breasts. The same procedure will be repeated for the other breast. Meanwhile, once it is done, you will need to wait so that the technician can check for clarity, and whether or not the procedure needs to be done again. The results of this procedure cannot be relayed by the technician, and all the images will be different because all breasts are slightly different from each other.
  • Preparation: You will need to remember that the process can be a slightly painful one, especially once the pressure gets applied. Many women complain of discomfort and pain. Yet, this discomfort gets over before you know it. The pressure and pain will depend on the size of your breasts and how much they will have to be pressed in order to get a picture. The skill of the technician will also come into play here. One must remember not to get this procedure done a week or so before or after the menstrual cycle, as the breasts tend to be tender around this time, and the pain will be much more.
  • Radiologist: Within a few weeks after the procedure, the radiologist will usually deliver the result. This is the professional who does an accurate reading of the X-ray.
  • Normal and Abnormal Readings: If your mammogram result has a normal reading, then you can resort to getting one done every once in a while. But an abnormal reading will require further X-ray and tests so as to be able to tell for sure.
  • Why should I get one: If you are over 40 and have a family history of such ailments, then you will have to get a mammogram done regularly. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
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