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Alzheimer's Disease is a neurological problem that is characterised by a cognitive decline and memory loss. It is a type of neurodegenerative dementia. The symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease include not being able to absorb and retain new information, lack of reasoning and judging, not being able to take on complex tasks, impaired visuospatial abilities, problems in reading, writing and speech, among many others. If a person has at least two of these symptoms in a debilitating manner, then the diagnosis can be made in favour of Alzheimer's Disease. The main causes of Alzheimer's are shrinkage of the brain size and death of the brain cells. The immune system is also said to trigger this neurodegenerative disease.
Let us find out what medical science has found so far:
- Connections: Many a times, in Alzheimer's disease, the memory and behaviour of the person changes because the brain is unable to make proper neural connections which can lead to memory loss of how a person behaved and the elements that formed the basis of the patient's cognition. Apparently, the immune system behaves in the same way within the brain and blocks the connection. This happens because there is constant communication between the brain and immune system along neurological lines, which is where the disease first emanates.
- Inflammation: The brain is prone to inflammation or swelling that is not the normal kind. This inflammation happens as a result of the activation of the infection fighting neurotransmitters and the chemical changes that happen in the brain when an infection strikes. The inflammation usually happens in the plaques or clumps which the brain tries to protect. These clumps are made up of a protein called Amyloid. The immune system is responsible for creating this inflammation in the brain of the patient.
- Pattern Recognition Receptors: Many of these receptors work in different manners and cooperate with each other to create a response in the brain. These PRRs can be found in the brain plaques, and they develop the signs of danger which further fuels the inflammation in the brain as a matter of protection.
- Activation of Cells Linked with the Immune System: When the PRRs begin to respond, it basically activates the immune system and the cells of the same. This is the basic reaction that causes the changes in brain which then leads to the attachment of the protein to the tissue that is diseased, in which case Alzheimer's Disease starts. The inflammation that we had spoken about earlier basically happens in the nervous tissue.
It is important to recognise and act on the initial signs of Alzheimer's Disease before it progresses beyond one's control.
Small multiple brown spots have appeared on the inner lips of the genitals. Does not itch. Is it normal?
As summers are setting in, do increase your water intake. But be aware that too much of lemon also erodes teeth like areated drinks. If your intake of areated and citrus drinks is more then use a staw which will lessen direct exposure of teeth to chemicals. Rubbing lemon slices on teeth. Vodka drink is also very harmful for teeth. Take care of your teeth.
I'm 22 year old female. I am experiencing receding hairline issue and my hairline has reduced considerably since 4-5 years. I don't have thyroid issues and no iron deficiency. I also have an itchy scalp. Kindly suggest home remedies to help hair regrowth in the affected area and please suggest the approximate duration of this remedy. Thank you.
Most women attain menopause between the ages of late 40s and early 60s, the average age being about 51. This is an important milestone in a women-s gynecological history. One major change is altered female hormone levels, and this leads to a lot of physiological changes. From hot flashes to mood swings, there is also increased predisposition to osteoporosis and uterine cancer.
If you have not had your menstrual cycles for close to 12 months, chances are you are into menopause. So, that means absolutely no vaginal bleeding anymore whatsoever. However, if you experience bleeding, even spotting, be on the alert. It is not normal and needs to be examined, and if required, diagnosed and treated.
Postmenopausal bleeding or PMB as it is popularly called can be due to a variety of reasons. While it could be something as trivial as inflammation of the uterine or vaginal lining, it could also be an indication of more severe issues like cancer.
- Atrophic vaginitis - Decreasing hormonal levels lead to increased dryness and therefore inflammation of the vaginal and uterine tissue. This is one of the common causes of bleeding after menopause.
- Endometrial atrophy - Also caused by lower hormone levels, the lining of the body of the uterus gradually thins down and can get inflamed.
- Polyps - Noncancerous growths in the uterus, cervix, vulva, or vagina can also lead to bleeding
- Infections - General infection of any area along the uterine tract could lead to occasional bleeding
- Cancers - Though only 1 in 10 PMB cases turn out to be cancers, the prognosis improves with early diagnosis and intervention.
Diagnosis: As repeated above, reach out to your doctor if you notice postmenopausal bleeding. Diagnostic methods could include the following:
Treatment: Needless to say, this would depend on the diagnosis.
For very minor cases with diagnosis like altered hormone levels, no treatment may be required other than modification of the hormone replacement therapy.
- For endometrial atrophy and atrophic vaginitis, use of estrogen creams and pessaries would be sufficient.
- Polyps would require removal followed by cauterization (application of slight heat) to stop the bleeding.
So, if you have had bleeding of any sort after ayear of menopause, do not ignore it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
My hearing and eyesight have become weak. And I am stiffness in neck and back. Could this be due to weak nervous system. Which tests need to be done.
I lost my hair in front portion. So I completely shaved it for 4 times. I found the volume of hair increased but there is no result from some area what should I do? Presently, Am using hair building fibre. Suggest me best way to increase volume of hair and growth of new follicle.
Sir is more use of brain can affect on our eyes because my eyes power is in negative even I don't watch tv and not study so much but I use my mind so much So is more use of brain can affect our eyes.
Panic disorder is a serious condition that can strike without any reason or warning and the symptoms last for about 10 minutes, such as; a fear for imminent death or losing control, chills, numbness of toes or fingers, stomach ache problem or nausea, trembling, dizziness, chest pain, shortness of breath and difficulty in breathing.
Over time, a person with panic disorder develops a constant fear of having another panic attack, which can affect daily functioning and general quality of life.
Is it a heart attack or a panic attack?
Most of the symptoms of a panic attack are physical, and many times these symptoms are so severe that people think they are having a heart attack. In fact, many people suffering from panic attacks make repeated trips to the doctor or the emergency room in an attempt to get treatment for what they believe is a life-threatening medical problem. While it’s important to rule out possible medical causes of symptoms such as chest pain, heart palpitations, or difficulty breathing, it’s often panic that is overlooked as a potential cause—not the other way around.
What are the causes behind Panic Disorder?
Although the exact causes of panic attacks and panic disorder are unclear, the tendency to have panic attacks runs in families. There also appears to be a connection with major life transitions such as graduating from college and entering the workplace, getting married, and having a baby. Severe stress, such as the death of a loved one, divorce, or job loss can also trigger a panic attack.
Panic attacks can also be caused by medical conditions and other physical causes. Panic Disorder usually begins during late adolescence and early adulthood and is twice as common with women as compared to men.
How can Panic Disorder be treated?
Psychotherapy- It is a type of counseling wherein trained professionals assist people by discussing strategies for comprehending and stabilizing this disorder.
Cognitive Behavioral Theory- Cognitive behavioral theory aims at identifying possible triggers of panic attacks and helps one recognize and change their thought patterns and behaviors that stimulate such behavior.
Medication- Anti-depressant medicines are used to cure panic disorders, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI), medications for reducing anxiety and certain cardiovascular medications such as beta-blockers to cope with situational anxiety.
When it comes to panic attacks, professional treatment and therapy can make a big difference. But there are many things you can do to help yourself, too:
Learn about panic, read up on anxiety, panic disorder, and the fight-or-flight response experienced during a panic attack.
Avoid smoking and caffeine.
Learn how to control your breathing.
Practice relaxation techniques regularly like Yoga and meditation.