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Dr. Dhananjaya

Radiologist, Bangalore

Dr. Dhananjaya Radiologist, Bangalore
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I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family....more
I'm dedicated to providing optimal health care in a relaxed environment where I treat every patients as if they were my own family.
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Dr. Dhananjaya is a renowned Radiologist in Pai Layout, Bangalore. You can consult Dr. Dhananjaya at Vidya Diagnostic Center in Pai Layout, Bangalore. Book an appointment online with Dr. Dhananjaya and consult privately on Lybrate.com.

Lybrate.com has a number of highly qualified Radiologists in India. You will find Radiologists with more than 29 years of experience on Lybrate.com. You can find Radiologists online in Bangalore and from across India. View the profile of medical specialists and their reviews from other patients to make an informed decision.

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Herniated Disc - What are the Risks Involved in it?

MCh - Neurosurgery, MBBS
Neurosurgeon, Chennai
Herniated Disc - What are the Risks Involved in it?

The symptoms caused due to herniated disc can be very severe and can also cause a bit of disability. The disc of the spine is like a cushion and separates the set of bones on the backside. The discs are shock absorbers of the spine and are mainly composed of 2 parts, a soft jelly centre called the nucleus and a tough outer covering called the annulus.

Effects of Herniated Disk
A herniated or cracked disc is a severe condition and it seems to happen most commonly in the lower back.  It happens when a fraction of the soft centre gets pushed through the destabilized area due to degeneration, trauma or by putting pressure on the spinal cord. 

Nerves are located precisely at the back of every disc and are responsible for controlling everything in our body. While a disc gets herniated, the external covering of the disc tears and creates a bulge. The soft jelly gets shifted from the centre of the disk to the region where the damage has occurred on the disc. Most commonly, the bulge occurs in areas where the nerve is located and it causes strain on the affected nerve. It has been observed that individuals do not feel any painful sensations even if their disc gets damaged.

When is Surgery Recommended for Herniated Disc?
Surgery for herniated disc is recommended only after options like steroid injections, pain relievers, exercise and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs do not work. If the pain persists even after these options, then it becomes important to go for surgery. There are certain risks involved in this surgery like infection, bleeding or nerve damage. 

There are chances that the disc may get ruptured again if it is not removed. If you are a patient suffering from degenerative disc disease, then there are chances that problem occurs in other discs. It is very important that a patient maintains healthy weight to prevent any further complications.

The main factor that increases the risk of herniated disc is excess body weight, which causes a lot of stress on the lower back. A few people become heir to a tendency of developing this condition. Even individuals with physically demanding jobs are prone to this condition. 

Activities like bending sideways, pushing, twisting, repetitive lifting can increase the risk of a herniated disk. At times, emergency surgery is also required to avoid paralysis in a patient. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an orthopedist.

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My MRI report of LS Spine is as: Diffuse Disc bulge at L3 /L4 indenting the thecal sac Partial desiccation of L4 / L5 with diffuse posterior disc bulge Indenting the thecal sac encroaching bilateral neural foramina (left>right) Partial desiccation of L5 / S1 Please tell. Me the seriousness of the problem with precautions Is this normal.

MBBS
General Physician, Bangalore
My MRI report of LS Spine is as:
Diffuse Disc bulge at L3 /L4 indenting the thecal sac
Partial desiccation of L4 / L5...
hello, this means a part of your spine is bulging out and in later cases it may compress your nerve roots and may cause pain of your lower back and your one or both of your lower limbs causing sciatica. but then, there are two things one is simple bulging of the disc and another is herniation of the disc where there is a tear in the cartilage, the later condition more often causes pain. bulging usually causes no pain. i would like to advice you to have a good posture, sit straight. prefer chairs without cushion. your mattress should not be too soft. sleep on a regular less bulky mattress where you can keep your spine straight. while trying to get up from a lying down position do it from one side. never try to sit up straight from the lying down position. change your position to left or right lateral then take support with your hands and get up. do a set of spinal exercises at least 20 minutes a day. you can do twice a day of 10 minutes duration too. you can consult me for the types and instructions of the exercises. if you have not get pain yet, consider yourself fortunate and start making these lifestyle changes.the pain you get in sciatica is ugly. prevention is better than cure. wish you a very good health.
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I am a 38 year old married lady with 2 kids. I have herniated disc of l5 s1 with mild detention as detected in mri. What is the treatment? I am really scared. Is it dangerous?

Diploma in Radio-Diagnosis
Radiologist, Shimla
-nothing to worry -no jerky movements -avoid long standing, sitting posture. -hard bed rest. -no pillow -take Ms. Relaxant, analgesic. -click on private questions for further treatment.
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Dear sir For last 1month I am suffering from severe pain in L5S1 region in lower back .done MRI also n compression is seen. Now what precautions should I take on daily basis as I m on bed rest for last one month..

BPTh/BPT, MPT - Orthopedic Physiotherapy
Physiotherapist, Jamshedpur
start wid lower back muscle exercise, core stability exercise..stretching of gluteal hamstring n pyriformis muscle..get ift n ultrasound therapy
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I have disc bulge and getting pain in my left leg. I have MRI report my nerve is compressed of left leg.

MS - Orthopaedics, MBBS
Orthopedist, Hyderabad
I have disc bulge and getting pain in my left leg. I have MRI report my nerve is compressed of left leg.
If it's small disc bulge then it's treated with medication, exercises, physiotherapy. If no much relief then needs epidural steroid injection. Last resort with no improvement then needs discectomy.
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I have severe lower back pain for last 18 years which increases during periods. I'm 32 years old and unmarried. It's constant, it always pains. Is it slip disc or what Please help.

MPT - Orthopedic Physiotherapy, BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I have severe lower back pain for last 18 years which increases during periods. I'm 32 years old and unmarried. It's ...
For confirmation x-ray and mri must so tk heat fermentation twice a day avoid toward bending and long standing or sitting.
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Natural Ways to Treat Swollen Legs, Ankles and Feet

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Natural Ways to Treat Swollen Legs, Ankles and Feet

You know that feeling after a long day when your feet are so sore or swollen that you can’t bear the thought of standing on them for any longer? once you take off your shoes and sit down, or even soak them in a warm bath, it’s still an unpleasant experience. Luckily, I’ve collected 10 natural remedies for such an occasion and I want to share them with you.
 
Important: regular swelling vs potential health risks
When experiencing swelling in the feet and legs, apply pressure to the area with a finger. If the dimple created by the finger remains for more than a couple of seconds, it may indicate oedema, which can be the result of heart, liver, or kidney problems. When this occurs, see a doctor at the first possible opportunity.
If you experience swelling in one leg but not the other, you should also see a doctor as this may be an indication of deep venous thrombosis (a blood clot blocking the blood vessels).
If the swelling is accompanied by shortness of breath, fever, bluish skin, and chest pains, get immediate medical attention.
 
10 natural remedies:

1. Soak your feet in epsom salts
Pour 250g of epsom salt into a hot bath, and take a nice long soak. You can also add essential oils to the mix for enhanced relaxation. Your feet will thank you, your body will thank you, and you’ll emerge from that bath a happier person.
2. Massage the area
Massaging the painful area increases blood flow and moves the fluids that accumulate and cause the swelling. If you want to indulge, get someone to massage your feet for you, preferably with hot essential oils.
3. Stop smoking
If you smoke tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, etc.), you should know that one of the many negative effects of nicotine is constriction of blood vessels, which can lead to sore feet.
4. Stay hydrated
When the caffeine and sodium we consume accumulate in the body, they can cause swelling and pain in the limbs. The best way to dilute them and flush them out is by drinking water. If you want to maximize the efficiency of hydration, squeeze a lemon or lime into the glass of water for a boost of vitamins and antioxidants.
5. Eat healthy, avoid excess salt
While we need salt for our body to function well, when we overdo it, it can have adverse effects. Reduce the amount of salt you consume every day, and consider cutting down on caffeine as well.
6. Elevate the legs
If you’re suffering from chronically sore legs/feet, try keep your legs elevated for 30 minutes, three times a day. You will notice a difference within a couple of days. Also, when you’re in bed, use a couple of pillows to prop up your feet. Elevating the legs helps to drain the excess fluids that causes the swelling and pain.
7. Avoid sitting for prolonged periods
Whether you’re flying, taking the bus, or just sitting in an office all day, keeping your legs stationary can lead to pain and swelling. If you know you’re going to sit for a long period of time, make sure to stand up, stretch, and walk around every 20 minutes or so.
8. Use compression socks when traveling
If you’re going to fly overseas, another excellent solution is to use compression socks. These socks apply pressure to your feet, preventing fluid from building up – the main cause of swelling and pain in the feet.
 9. Exercise
Exercise will help boost your cardiovascular system, which in turn will reduce the possibility of swelling in the limbs. Exercise increases blood-flow in the body and reduces weight. 
10. Take magnesium supplements
Magnesium is essential for our body’s function. That said, many people suffer from a magnesium deficiency. By adding magnesium to your system, you will improve your overall health, reduce hangover symptoms and suffer less pain in your extremities

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I am suffering from slip disc l4 l5 problem from last 5 yrs. I have tried all the treatment. But. please provide some tips.

Fellowship in Shoulder and Knee Surgeries, DNB (Orthopedics), Diploma In Orthopaedics (D. Ortho), MBBS
Orthopedist, Nagpur
Do not lift weight Use hot fomantation twice daily Don't bend forward Show MRI for further information on the problem
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Sir I am FROM CHENNAI having back pain when mri scanned impression as follows Early lumbar spondylosis. Mild disc bulge with focal posterocentral and bilateral postrtolateraldisc at l3_ 4 disc level causing thecal sac ibdentation and bilatrral mild beural foranimal narrowings (L>R) MILD ligamentum flavum hypertrophy at L3_4 & L4_5 disc level causing mild posterior thecal sac indention Disc desiccation in L4_5 & L5_ S1 DISC LEVEL AS LOSS OF HYPERINTENSE SIGNAL ON T2W1 PLEASE HELP I REPLY ME POSITIVELY

Dip. SICOT (Belgium), MNAMS, DNB (Orthopedics), MBBS
Orthopedist, Delhi
Hello Sir, This is Dr Akshay from Fortis Hospital, New Delhi. It appears from your report that you have degenerative spine with multiple levels more at L3/4 level. I need to understand from you - How is your back pain? - Leg Pain? - How much distance can you walk? - Is there any numbness in legs, wekaness in legs etc? Please get back to me with answers and then we can start your treatment accordingly. Thanks & Regards Dr Akshay Email : akshaysaxena2004@yahoo.co.in
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I am having problem in my spinal cord disc L4 -L5. With some loss of fluid. Now my knee joint also getting pain. What you wil suggest.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I am having problem in my spinal cord disc L4 -L5. With some loss of fluid. Now my knee joint also getting pain. What...
Core strengthening exercises- straight leg raised with toes turned outward, repeat 10 times, twice a day. Back stretching- lie flat, pull one of the knee forward to chest, hold for 3 seconds, then bring the other knee forward to the chest and again hold for 3 seconds. Then pull both knees towards the chest and hold for 3 seconds. Repeat 10 times each exercise twice a day. Do the cat/cow stretch. Get on all fours, with your arms straight and your hands directly under your shoulders; your knees hip-width apart.
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Herniated disk l3-14 mm L4-11 mm L5-10 mm S1-8 mm My age 23 /M Dr. suggest for surgery but I didn't want that any chances for normal.

MBBS, MD (Anaesthesiology)
Pain Management Specialist, Varanasi
It seems that you are having multiple disc herniation. I cannot comment unless I see you MRI but definitely you having at least two slipped disc at L4/5 & L5/S1. These days non surgical treatment are available like TFSI, Disc Fix and Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy (PLED) done under Local anaesthesia, no blood loss, no stich required, patient walks within next few days. We will provide you detailed information if you wish or you may see on website. I may need your blood inv. Like TLC/DLC/ESR/CRP/HLA B-27 before giving further opinion.
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This is my Mri report impression. Disc degeneration and disc bulge is seen at L5/S 1 level indenting the thecal Sac without any nerve root compression. Annulus tear is noted. 2 this r my x ray report impression. Pid L5. S 1.

FRHS, Ph.D Neuro , MPT - Neurology Physiotherapy, D.Sp.Med, DPHM (Health Management ), BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
This is my Mri report impression. Disc degeneration and disc bulge is seen at L5/S 1 level indenting the thecal Sac w...
Do Take Physiotherapy treatment of IFT and vacuum Therapy Physiotherapy treatment for pain relief for 12 days followed by strengthening exercise from physiotherapist Best wishes.
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I am 26 years old boy, I am suffering fron hip disorder problem, Avn. How to get rid out of this, I do not have money for operation,

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS)
Orthopedist, Trichy
AVN of the hip at this age is usually due to either Alcohol intake or Steroid intake. Once AVN has developed then it depends on the stage of the disorder. if its advanced then only hip replacement will help.
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Breast Cancer - Local and Systematic Form of Treatment!

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MNAMS, Training in USG
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Breast Cancer - Local and Systematic Form of Treatment!

Breast Cancer - What exactly is it?
‘Breast cancer’ is a term that is used to refer to a malignant tumour, which has developed from cells present in the breast. Generally, all tumours can be divided into two categories i.e. benign and malignant and it is the malignant tumour that is responsible for causing cancer. Breast cancer generally originates in the cells the  milk producing glands of the breast's or the passage, which carries milk from the glands to the lobules. Additionally, breast cancer can also originate in the stromal tissues, including the fibrous and fatty connective breast tissues.

Breast Cancer: Treatment Options
Treatment for breast cancer depends upon two things: the exact type of the cancer and how advanced the cancer is. Treatment options for breast cancer can thus be broadly divided into two categories as Local treatments and Systemic treatments.

Local Treatments
Treatments that target the tumour without having any effect on the rest of the body are called local treatments. The following types of local treatment options are available for treating breast cancer:

  1. Surgery: Surgical breast cancer treatment involves removal of the malignant cancerous tumour in an operation. Smaller tumours can be removed using a surgical process referred to as ‘lumpectomy’, wherein the tumour along with a small amount of healthy tissue surrounding the tumour is removed. For larger tumours, removal of the entire breast becomes mandatory, in a surgical process known as ‘mastectomy’. Women who undergo mastectomy can choose to undergo reconstructive plastic surgery for reconstruction of the removed breast(s).
  2. Radiation Therapy: This basically involves using radiation to kill cancer cells present in the body. Radiation therapy is a long-drawn process that usually involves a set number of treatments administered over a long period of time. Radiation therapy is also generally the follow-up procedure after a lumpectomy, or more rarely, a mastectomy.

Systemic Treatments
Treatments involving drugs that are administered via either the mouth or direct injection into the bloodstream are called systemic treatments. These include:

  1. Chemotherapy: This includes using drugs to destroy the cancer cells present in the body by stopping the cancer cells from growing and dividing. Chemotherapy can be administered using either an IV (intravenous) tube or via pills that can be swallowed.
  2. Hormone Therapy: This treatment option is used for treating tumours which have tested positive for progesterone or oestrogen receptors. Blocking hormones that fuel the tumour’s growth is the basis of this therapy.
  3. Targeted Therapy: This targets specific proteins and genes which contribute to growth and survival of the cancer cells. Targeted therapy is an extremely focused treatment, and is very effective in blocking the growth and division of cancer cells, as well as minimizing damage to surrounding healthy cells.
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Hello doctor. I am I 32 years female and I have slip disc problem from last two years .I have 2 years baby vd normal delivery. I am not able to sleep properly because when I sleep suddenly I awake 2-3 times at night nd I try to sleep again but I sleep after 30 to 40 min. Now I am gaining fat and weight also. I take proper meal and I don't take more junk food also. Please tell me what to do? My all checkup report are normal & thyroid also.

BAMS, MD (Panchkarma)
Ayurveda, Mumbai
Hello doctor. I am I 32 years female and I have slip disc problem from last two years .I have 2 years baby vd normal ...
Hello lybrate user, thanks for writing. If you want fast, permanent weight loss, you can try our research oriented holistic medicines for assures results. You can lose up to 10 kg weight per month, without crush dieting, with out side effect, without gym, without surgery. Tips for you: 1. Eat plenty vegetable and fruits. 2. Drink 9 glass of water per day. 3. Avoid dieting for weight loss. 4. Avoid oily thing. 5. Have 5to 6 servings of food per day. If you have any questions you can contact us by lybrate.
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I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess narrowing with mild thecal sac indentation and abutting transversing nerve fibres and existing neural foramen stenosis.(2) subtle L3 -L4 diffuse posture lateral iv disc bulge causing anterior epidural space and lateral recess effacement. What is the treatment of it .is surgery necessary for it.

BPTh/BPT, MPTh/MPT
Physiotherapist, Noida
I have got pain in my leg from two years. The MRI shows this diffuse posture lateral iv disc at L4-L5 level causing a...
: keep your leg raised while sitting or lying quadriceps strengthening exercises- quad clenches: lie flat on your back or sit upright on a chair with leg kept horizontally on another surface. Now, tighten the muscle on the front of the thigh by pushing your knee down. You should feel your thigh muscles clench, hold for 3 secs. Repeat 10 times twice a day. Short arcs: lie flat on your back or sit upright with your leg placed horizontally on a flat surface like a chair or bed. Place a rolled up towel under the knee. Pull your toes towards you and clench you thigh muscles. Slowly lift your foot up off the bed until your knee is straight (keep your knee resting on the towel). Hold for 3 secs and slowly lower them on the chair. Repeat 10 times twice a day. Straight leg raise: lie flat on your back. One leg and knee will be straight and other leg should be bent. Pull your toes towards you and tighten/clench the muscle on the front of the thigh, locking your knee straight. Lift your foot up in the air, about 6 inches off the bed. Hold for 3 secs and slowly lower the leg. The knee must remain straight the whole time you are doing this exercise.
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Know All About Gynae Laparoscopy Surgery

Panchkula & Delhi
Mother and Child Care, Panchkula
Know All About Gynae Laparoscopy Surgery

Q1. What exactly is Laparoscopy?

Laparoscopy is an alternative to 'Open' surgery wherein the abdomen is opened by tiny 'key hole' incisions and surgery is done. 'Scopy' means the use of an endoscope or telescope to see inside the abdomen. This is attached to a camera and a light source and the inside of the abdomen is projected on to a monitor. The surgeon performs surgery looking at this screen. The surgeon makes a total of 2-4 small cuts on the abdomen ranging from half to 1 cm through which the telescope and other thin surgical instruments are passed into the abdomen. When the uterus is removed , known as hysterectomy, there is also a cut at the top of the vagina where the uterus is attached.

Q2. What kind of gynaecological surgeries can be performed by Laparoscopy?

Most surgeries done in gynaecology can now be performed by Laparoscopy and do not require the large incision as for open surgery. Laparoscopy can be done sometimes only for diagnosis and is called Diagnostic Laparoscopy, as in checking whether the tubes are open or not and to look for any causes of infertility or pain outside the uterus. In women who are unable to conceive, Diagnostic Laparoscopy is often combined with Hysteroscopy (endoscope inside the uterus, inserted from below, via the vagina). When laparoscopy is done to perform some surgical procedure inside the abdomen it is called Operative Laparoscopy. This may be for simple procedures like sterilization, minor adhesions, drilling ovaries; or for intermediate or major reasons like fibroids, endometriosis, removal of ovaries or tubes or both or removal of uterus, for staging of cancers or radical surgeries for cancer. However, about 5% of all surgeries including those for cancer or very large tumours may benefit from open surgery.

Q3. Why does an expert surgeon recommend Laparoscopy over Open Surgery?

Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages above open surgery: the incisions are much smaller (open surgery incisions are 8-10 cms long), therefore pain is much less; requirement for pain killers (which can have side-effects like sleepiness, impaired judgement) is lesser; hospital stay is shorter; complications fewer; requirement for blood transfusions infrequent; recovery in terms of physical, emotional and mental state is much better and quicker; return to work is faster with consequent lesser loss of working and earning days. Surgery with laparoscope is more precise because it is magnified view. Further vision is much better because it's like having your eye behind the structure because you can see with the telescope at places where the surgeon's eye cannot reach.

Q4. If the cuts on the abdomen are so small in Laparoscopic surgery, how do you remove the uterus or a large tumour from inside the abdomen?

Quite often if the tumour is not malignant and contains fluid, it is punctured to collapse it into a smaller size. If it is solid, it can be cut into smaller pieces inside the abdomen using a special instrument. The collapsed or cut structures can be removed gently through the 1 cm cut on the abdomen which may be increased a bit if required. After hysterectomy, the uterus can be removed easily from below, through the vagina.

Q5. Will there be much pain or discomfort after Laparoscopic Surgery?

There may be some pain and discomfort in lower abdomen for one day to few days after Laparoscopic surgery but this is much less as compared to open surgery because the incisions on the abdomen are much smaller and there is much less tissue handling inside the abdomen by fine instruments instead of rough, big, gloved hands which can cause tissue injury in open surgery. There may be some pain in the shoulder following laparoscopy. This is not serious and is due to the gas used in the surgery to make space for instruments.

Q6. When can I be discharged from hospital?

Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or with simple Operative Laparoscopy you can expect to be discharged from hospital latest by the morning after surgery. In most other cases of intermediate or even major surgery, discharge is generally 1-2 days following the surgery unless there is some health issues prior to the surgery or any complication during the surgery. The complication rates for Laparoscopic surgery are not more than for open surgery and depend upon patient factors like anaemia, diabetes, obesity and skill of the surgeon.

Q7. When can I perform routine household activities or return to work after Laparoscopic Surgery?

Recovery after surgery depends upon many factors: presence of health problems before surgery; why the surgery is required; what surgery is being done; problems or complications of surgery, anaesthesia or blood transfusions. If all is well, one can perform routine household activities by 1 week, provided one doesn't feel tired. Although there may not be any harm, it may be unwise to be normally active within 48 hours of procedure. Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or Operative Laparoscopy for simple procedures, one can return to work in 1 week. For other procedures, a 2-3 week off from work is reasonable. It depends on the type of work you are returning to. Avoid too rapid return to work if it is manually hard or requires standing for long durations of time. Sometimes a surgical procedure brings on a well needed rest and break from a lifetime of work. Mostly, when you return to work depends upon your own body and its signals of tiredness. You need to listen to those signals.

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I am male aged 57 years. In 1998, I had l4-l5 disc prolapse. After getting treatment for 5 years I was alright. But now since last 3 years, my calf muscles have become very stiff, unable to walk freely, developed gait problem (body disbalance) and sleeplessness. Presently I am using ropark 1 mg. Tab. Every night, but of no much help. Please Advise.

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedist, Delhi
Kindly show me a photograph of the affected part. Rule out diabetes & vit. D deficiency or any other metabolic disorder. Sleep on a hard bed with soft bedding on it. Spring beds, folding beds or thick matress are harmful Do hot fomantation. Paracetamol 250mg od & sos x 5days. Caldikind plus 1tab od x10. Do neck, back & general exercises. It may have to be further investigated. You will need other supportive medicines also. Make sure you are not allergic to any of the medicines you are going to take. If it does not give relief in 1 wk, contact me again. Do not ignore. It could be beginning of a serious problem.
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Types and Diagnosis of Uterine Fibroids

Fellowship In Minimal Access Surgery, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Hyderabad
Types and Diagnosis of Uterine Fibroids

Noncancerous growths of the muscle tissue surrounding the uterus are known as uterine fibroids. This is a common disease which about 70 to 80% of women contract by the time they are 50 years of age. The uterine fibroids can sometimes be very big and cause heavy periods as well as severe abdominal pain while at other times, uterine fibroids give no signs or symptoms whatsoever and go away on their own. This is why it is crucial to know what type of uterine fibroids you have and how to diagnose them. Here are the types of uterine fibroids and how to diagnose them;

Types
There are three main types of uterine fibroids. They are;

1. Intramural fibroids
The most common type of uterine fibroids are intramural fibroids. They typically appear in the endometrium and may grow larger which results in your womb getting stretched.

2. Subserosal fibroids
Subserosal fibroids are called so because they form on the serosa. The serosa is the outside of your uterus. Sometimes, Subserosal fibroids may grow so large that your uterus appears bigger on one side.

3. Pedunculated fibroids
Pedunculated fibroids tumors are basically Subserosal fibroids with a stem. A base which supports the tumor is called the stem.

Diagnosis
There are a number of tests done to diagnose uterine fibroids. They are;

1. Pelvic exam
A pelvic exam is a thorough inspection of a woman’s pelvic area. The organs which are in the pelvic area include the cervix, ovaries, uterus and vagina. Normally, this and the next test in this article are enough to diagnose uterine fibroids.

2. Medical history
The history of your periods as well as the other symptoms you have will often be enough to diagnose the uterine fibroids. If your medical history is not enough, then you might need to undergo a pelvic exam.

3. Pelvic ultrasound
An ultrasound is when high-intensity sound waves are used to produce images of the pelvic area. This is only done when a pelvic exam and your medical history are not enough to diagnose uterine fibroids.

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Uterine Cancer - Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Chennai
Uterine Cancer - Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Uterine cancer is also known as endometrial cancer. It is a cancer which begins in the lining of the uterus. The uterus is the part of a woman's body where the fetus develops. Uterine cancer is one of those rare cancers in India, which can be diagnosed in its early stages. This is because excessive vaginal bleeding occurs, thus making it a very serious and an apparent symptom. It is also one of the few forms of cancer which can be cured as removing the uterus is often more than enough to cure the patient of uterine cancer.

Here are the causes, diagnosis and treatment of uterine cancer:

Causes

The exact cause of uterine cancer is not yet known, however, there is a theory on what causes uterine cancer. Hormones in a woman's body have been thought to increase the chances of getting uterine cancer. This is because it has long been thought that having high levels of estrogen is the cause of uterine cancer. Increased estrogen thickens the endometrium and thus, increases the likelihood of uterine cancer.

Diagnosis

There are several tests used to diagnose whether you have uterine cancer including:

1. Pelvic exam: This is an examination in which the vagina, bladder, rectum and uterus are scanned for lumps. If they are found, it might be due to uterine cancer.
2. Pap test: A pap test is a special test designed to scan for uterine cancer.
3. Transvaginal ultrasound: A transvaginal ultrasound uses high-intensity sound waves so that pictures of the uterus can be taken.
4. Biopsy: During a biopsy, the doctor will remove tissue from the endometrium and it will then be analyzed for cancerous growths.

Treatment

1. Surgery: This is the most common treatment as it removes the entire uterus and prevents the spreading of the cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves giving drugs which kill cancerous cells. They are given through either an intravenous line or even in pill form.
3. Hormone therapy: This is a therapy in which either progesterone levels are increased or estrogen levels are decreased.
4. Radiation therapy: In this treatment, high energy laser beams are used to destroy cancerous cells.

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