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Caesarean Section Procedure
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
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Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Pregnancy brings with it a whole lot of body system changes and oral health is no exception. Some simple careful planning, however, can help avoid a lot of oral health complications associated with pregnancy. The hormonal changes during pregnancy have a direct effect on the oral health and has higher incidence of decay, pregnancy gingivitis, and pregnancy tumors. Additionally, morning sickness affects the regular oral care, leading to more plaque and decay.
Before pregnancy: If you are planning to get pregnant, then a dental visit can help you get a thorough check-up ahead of the pregnancy. A routine cleaning and check for cavities should be sufficient to avoid any urgent treatment need during the period of pregnancy.
During pregnancy: If you were not able to do your pre-pregnancy dental visit, inform the dentists about pregnancy as early as possible. All elective procedures can be done after the delivery. Only really essential treatment that cannot wait until the delivery should be undertaken during pregnancy, most safe if done during the 4th to 6th months.
Listed below are some points to consider as far as oral/dental health is considered during pregnancy:
- Scaling and polishing can be done as usual
- Inform the dentist about all the medications that you are advised by your gynecologist
- Periodic check-up once in 3 months to reduce severity of gum disease and decay
- Good oral hygiene measures including brushing, flossing, and rinsing
- Try a bland toothpaste if morning sickness is very severe
- Eat a healthy, balanced diet. Tooth formation happens in the third month and requires diet rich in calcium and minerals
- Avoid sweet snacks which can lead to greater plaque formation
The hormone changes combined with oral infection (could be gum disease or tooth decay) can lead to severe effects on the developing baby. It is extremely important to avoid dental infections, as these may necessitate antibiotics, require x-rays and even require treatment like root canal and/or extraction, all of which are best avoided until after the baby is delivered. It is considered safe for dental procedures to be done during the 4th to 6th month. Though now there are safer measures to do x-rays and dental procedures, they are best avoided, unless in case of emergency. This emergency situation can be avoided by better planning and some minimal care. Severe gum disease could also lead to premature or low birth weight of the baby. So plaque buildup should be avoided which leads to both decay and gum disease.
After delivery: After the delivery of the baby, please visit your dentist to ensure that there is no emergent dental condition requiring attention. Resume your regular dental care after delivery.
Garlic is used as a home remedy for most of the ailments in this world. Since it is a wonder home remedy, it treats nightfall too. Garlic will help you to get rid of the problem because it has a special ingredient in it.Allicin which is present in garlic helps in raising the blood flow to a man’s penis. If you chew raw garlic for few days, your nightfall problem will go away on its own. You can also saw the garlic cloves but make sure you drink a glass of water right after that.
When my menses comes, I faces heavy abdominal cramps. I can't tolerate. I have to take pain killer. I have hormonal imbalance also. I also have pile, fissure problem, before some days of menses, constipation get severe, hard stool, please help me.
I have ovaries but no uterus by birth. All tests are negative and good resulted (chromosomes tests. Only my problem is absence of uterus rest all I have same as like all girls. Absence of uterus and absence of periods is my problem.
Hello Dr. My age is 40 and wife 38 age. 4 years completed for our marriage. She has low amh level. We are trying for natural conceive from last year. I did semen test is 40m and other test are reports are normal for both. Is it possible to natural conceive or any medicine and suggestion for this. Or any test remaining for us to get result for natural conceived. I do not want to do ivf but if not possible I will go for this. Pls suggest how to get natural conceive with any medicine. Should I do the fallopian test for my wife. Pls help.
It's my 47th day of pregnancy. I am feeling so tired all the time. I feel giddiness, body pains, hunger ,I always want to sleep. Can you suggest me if I can work?
Hello doc, my periods lasts for 7 to 8 days. For doing intercourse. I am confused to count my. Ovulation day. As it lasts for 8 days. please suggest me exactly how to calculate. My ovulation days. For doing intercourse.
A healthy and physically fit body is a prerequisite of a happy life, thus it is important that we prevent our body from STDs. STDs are nothing, but those diseases that are usually invited by sexual intimacy or intercourse. Some of these diseases are even life threatening at times, and if you want to prevent them, then you have to adopt a few preventive measures.
Best preventive measures for preventing STDs:
- Using latex condoms: Latex condoms need to be used during sex every time, and these condoms are the safest of all condom varieties available in the market. Both pregnancy and STDs can be easily and efficiently prevented by means of these condoms, and this is the reason everybody is using the same. But you should have the knowledge of correct usage of these condoms.
- Keeping intimate areas clean: Do not ever forget to wash your genitals after or before making intercourse with your partner and this is needed for preventing sexual diseases. Sometimes, excessive lubrication during sexual intercourse brings infectious diseases and thus, your genitals get exposed to sexual diseases.
- Stop sharing items: Sharing undergarments or towels with your friends or close mates can be very much dangerous as you might develop STDs. Even if you have allowed somebody using these personal items of yours, you have to wash them carefully before using the same.
- Avoid multiple sex partners: Both the sex partners should be loyal to each other and should not make sex with multiple partners as that will invite STDs. Having sex with more than one partner can be quite dangerous as a result of which your genital organs get infected and this infection later on turns into serious sexual diseases that cannot be easily treated.
- Avoiding unhealthy lifestyle: If you are exposed to excessive smoking, drugs and alcohol, then you might develop different kinds of STDs. Therefore, you are highly recommended to lead a completely healthy lifestyle so that a healthy sexual life can be enjoyed. You will never be able to have safe sex if you are so very addicted to alcohol, smoking and drugs.
- Have vaccination: Vaccination is now considered as one of the safest methods for preventing STDs. HPV vaccines are the popular, and the most recommended ones and thus, teenagers can take them before getting sexually active. Hepatitis-B vaccinations are also required for getting increased protection against serious sexual diseases, especially AIDS and others. HIV testing is also very much essential in this regard, and you should not avoid the same.
Related Tip: "6 Types of STDs You Need to Be Aware of"
I went for IVI treatment 2 months before as my Gynecologist suggested us. On May 2016 there was a miscarriage. When I completed 2 moths. From November 2016 I used to go gynecologist for getting pregnant. He made our all tests which are good. There is not a single problem in both of us. please suggest me for getting pregnant without any miscarriage.
I am 23 years old & I have recently born my twins after two month once again I am pregnant which is unwanted & I have taken medicine for that but after taking medicine I have lots of unstoppable blooding what should I do?
Please suggest me what is the best time for sex without protection. Before,during and after periods. Which never cause a chances of pregnancy?
We r trying for a baby since 6 month. But not successful. After semen analysis test I found that my sperm count is 20millions/ml. Quantity-1.5 ml.Reaction _alkaline, liquefaction time_30 min, Motility: Actively motile-50℅ Sluggishly motile-20℅ Non motility-40% Morphology: Normal forms-60% Abnormal form-40℅ Pus cells-04 -06/jpg Epithelial cells-nil Rbc-nil Doctor suggest me to take coq-forte capsule for 2 month. Is disabled capsule increase the sperm count and please tell me how much time it will take.
Bleeding in early pregnancy or during the first trimester may or may not be a serious reason for concern, depending on the cause. But because bleeding can sometimes be a sign of something serious, it's important to know the possible causes, and get checked out by your doctor to make sure you and your baby are healthy. About 20% women have some bleeding during first 12 weeks. The possible reasons are implantation bleeding, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy, cervical changes and infection. So how do you deal with it? Here's a quick list.
- Hygiene: Ensure that hygiene is your first priority, especially during pregnancy.
- Light Bleeding: Light bleeding or spotting that is dull red or brown in colour is a normal occurrence for many pregnant women. This can point to the foetus getting lodged and pressing against your womb's lining, or even the cervical changes that you may be going through due to the implantation and impending trimesters and eventual delivery. The best thing to do in such cases is to not panic.
- Sex: Having sexual intercourse can also sometimes lead to mild spotting. Also, you should avoid using abrasive material and clothing during this time.
- Ultrasound: Go for an ultrasound and ensure that your pregnancy is normally placed and not ectopic. An ectopic pregnancy can lead to bleeding which can later become fatal. It may cause cramps in the lower abdomen region as well.
- Infection: Speak with your gynecologist and ensure that there is no risk of infection. Usually, many women suffer from infection (can be on cervix or vagina) during the early stages of pregnancy. This may give rise to spotting and mild bleeding. Take necessary actions and precautions to ensure that the infection does not get out of hand and is treated right away. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Hi. I am 28 years male. Married for 1 year. Me and my wife were trying to conceive for past 8 months and was not successful. On checking with Gynaecologist, it was found that I have <1 million sperm count. I repeated sperm analysis 3 times and result was same every time. Following are my blood reports summary. FSH - 26.1 inhibin B - 0.72 Y chromosome microdeletion - none deleted Karyotyping - normal Can I be positive for a successful IVF with my own sperms?
Every month at period it continue bleeding for 8-10 days. For this reason I am so week. What is the solution doctor? Is it possible to cure?
Mai pichle 1 sal se ek relationship me hu aur kai bar physical ho chuki hu. Pr ab shadi aur khi ho rhi hai. Plzz mujhe vagina k size reduction ki koi medicine btayen.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin or the body is unable to use the insulin that is made. Insulin is the hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to make fuel. When glucose cannot enter the cells, it builds up in the blood and the body’s cells starve to death. If not managed properly, diabetes can have serious consequences for you and your growing baby.
If you already have diabetes and become pregnant, your condition is known as pre-gestational diabetes. The severity of your symptoms and complications often depends on the progression of your diabetes, especially if you have vascular (blood vessel) complications and poor blood glucose control.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which the glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy. Unlike other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes is not caused by a lack of insulin but by other hormones that block the insulin that is made. This condition is known as insulin resistance. If you have gestational diabetes, you may or may not be dependent on insulin.
In most cases, all diabetic symptoms disappear following delivery. However, if you experience gestational diabetes, you will have an increased risk of developing diabetes later in life. This is especially true if you were overweight before pregnancy.
Causes of Gestational Diabetes
Although the specific cause of gestational diabetes is unknown, there are several theories about the origin of this condition. For example, the placenta supplies the growing fetus with nutrients and water. It also makes a variety of hormones to maintain the pregnancy. Some of these hormones (estrogen, cortisol and human placental lactogen) can have a blocking effect on the mother’s insulin, which usually begins about 20 to 24 weeks into pregnancy.
As the placenta grows, it produces more of these hormones, increasing the level of insulin resistance in the mother. Normally, the mother’s pancreas is able to make additional insulin to overcome insulin resistance. However, if the mother’s production of insulin is not enough to overcome the effect of the placental hormones, gestational diabetes results.
Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes
The following factors increase your risk of developing gestational diabetes:
Age (over 25 years old)
A family history of diabetes
Previous delivery of a very large infant, a stillborn or a child with certain birth defects
Although increased glucose in the urine is often included in the list of risk factors, it is not believed to be a reliable indicator for gestational diabetes.
Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes
A glucose screening test is usually done between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. To complete this test, you will be asked to drink a special glucose beverage. Then, your doctor will measure your blood sugar level one hour later.
If the test shows an increased blood sugar level, a three-hour glucose tolerance test may be done. If the results of the second test are in the abnormal range, you will be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.
Treatment Options for Gestational Diabetes
Your health care provider or midwife will determine your specific treatment plan for gestational diabetes based on:
Age, overall health and medical history
Condition and the severity of the disease
Long-term expectations for the course of the disease
Tolerance for specific medicines, procedures or therapies
Treatment for gestational diabetes focuses on keeping blood glucose levels in the normal range. Your specific treatment plan may include:
A special diet
Daily blood glucose monitoring
Insulin injections or oral medications
Possible Fetal Complications from Gestational Diabetes
Unlike other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes generally does not cause birth defects. Birth defects usually originate sometime during the first trimester of pregnancy. They are more likely if you have pre-gestational diabetes, as you may have changes in blood glucose during that time. If you have gestational diabetes, you most likely had normal blood sugar levels during your critical first trimester.
The complications of gestational diabetes are usually manageable and preventable. The key to prevention is careful control of blood sugar levels as soon as the diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made.
Infants of mothers with gestational diabetes are vulnerable to several imbalances, such as low-serum calcium and low-serum magnesium levels. In addition, gestational diabetes may cause the following:
Fetal macrosomia. This condition describes a baby that is considerably larger than normal. All of the nutrients your baby receives come directly from your blood. If your blood has too much glucose, your baby’s pancreas senses the high glucose levels and makes more insulin in an attempt to use this glucose. The extra glucose is then converted to fat. Even when you have gestational diabetes, your fetus is able to make all the insulin it needs. The combination of your high blood glucose levels and your baby’s high insulin levels may result in large deposits of fat that cause your baby to grow excessively large.
Birth injury. If your baby is large in size, it may be difficult to deliver and become injured in the process.
Hypoglycemia . This refers to low blood sugar in your baby right after delivery. This problem happens if your blood sugar levels have been consistently high, causing the fetus to have a high level of insulin in its circulation. After delivery, your baby continues to have a high insulin level, but it no longer has the high level of sugar from you. This results in the newborn’s blood sugar level becoming very low. Following delivery, your baby’s blood sugar level will be tested. If the level is too low, it may be necessary to administer glucose intravenously until your baby’s blood sugar stabilizes.
Respiratory distress (difficulty breathing). Too much insulin or too much glucose in a baby’s system may delay lung maturation and cause respiratory problems. This is more likely if it is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy.
High Blood Pressure and Pregnancy
High blood pressure during pregnancy can lead to placental complications and slowed fetal growth. If left untreated, severe hypertension may cause dangerous seizures, stroke and even death in the mother and fetus.
If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will perform kidney function tests, ultrasounds for growth and testing of your baby more frequently to monitor your health and fetal development.
If you have high blood pressure before pregnancy, you will likely need to continue taking your antihypertensive medicine. Your health care provider may switch you to a safer antihypertensive medicine during pregnancy to help manage your condition.
Gestational hypertension occurs most often during a young woman’s first pregnancy. You are more likely to develop gestational hypertension during a twin pregnancy or if you had blood pressure problems during a previous pregnancy.
Pre-eclampsia (formerly called toxemia) is characterized by pregnancy-induced high blood pressure. This condition is usually accompanied by protein in the urine and may cause swelling due to fluid retention. If you have pre-eclampsia, you may need bed rest. Eclampsia, the most severe form of this condition, is diagnosed when you have a seizure caused by pre-eclampsia. Your doctor may recommend hospitalization, medications and often delivery to treat pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.
High-Risk Pregnancy: What You Need to Know
Many conditions affecting a mother or her baby before, during or after pregnancy can designate a pregnancy as high risk. Learn what causes a high-risk pregnancy and how maternal-fetal medicine specialists can help.
Infectious Diseases and Pregnancy
Infections during pregnancy can pose a threat to your baby. Even a simple urinary tract infection, which is common during pregnancy, should be treated right away. An infection that goes untreated can lead to preterm labor and a rupturing of the membranes surrounding the fetus.
Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Although many people may have toxoplasma infection, very few exhibit symptoms because the immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. Babies who became infected with toxoplasmosis before birth can be born with serious mental or physical problems.
Toxoplasmosis often causes flulike symptoms, including swollen lymph glands or muscle aches and pains, which last for a few days to several weeks. You can be tested to see if you have developed an antibody to the illness. Fetal testing may include ultrasound and/or testing of the amniotic fluid or cord blood. Treatment may include antibiotics.
The following measures can help prevent toxoplasmosis infection:
Have someone who is healthy and not pregnant change your cat’s litter box, since cat feces can carry T. gondii. If this is not possible, wear gloves and clean the litter box daily. (The parasite found in cat feces can only infect you a few days after being passed.) Wash your hands well with soap and warm water afterward.
Wear gloves when you garden or do anything outdoors that involves handling soil. Since cats may use gardens and sandboxes as litter boxes, be cautious when handling soil/sand that could contain the parasite. Thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water after outdoor activities, especially before you eat or prepare any food.
Have someone who is healthy and not pregnant handle raw meat for you. If this is not possible, wear clean latex gloves when you touch raw meat. Wash any surfaces and utensils that may have touched the raw meat. After handling the meat, wash your hands with soap and warm water.
Cook all meat thoroughly. It should be cooked until it is no longer pink in the center or until the juices run clear. Do not sample meat before it is fully cooked.
If you are pregnant, you should avoid eating undercooked or raw foods because of the risk of food poisoning. Food poisoning can dehydrate a mother and deprive the fetus of nourishment. In addition, food poisoning can cause meningitis and pneumonia in a fetus, resulting in possible death.
Follow these tips to prevent food poisoning:
Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources, such as beef, pork or poultry.
Wash raw vegetables before eating them.
Store uncooked meats in an area of the refrigerator that’s separate from vegetables, cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods.
Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or foods made from raw milk.
Wash hands, knives and cutting boards after handling uncooked foods.
Sexually Transmitted Disease
Chlamydia may be associated with premature labor and rupture of the membranes.
Patients with hepatitis experience inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common type that occurs during pregnancy in the United States.
HBV spreads mainly through contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact, and contaminated intravenous needles. The later in pregnancy you get the virus, the greater the risk of infecting your baby.
HBV Symptoms and Related Conditions
Although HBV resolves in most people, about 10 percent will develop chronic HBV. HBV can lead to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, liver failure and death. Infected pregnant women can pass the virus to their fetus during pregnancy and at delivery.
HBV Screening and Vaccination
A blood test for HBV is part of routine prenatal testing. If a risk of HBV is present, the following should occur:
Infants of HBV-positive mothers should receive hepatitis B immune globulin and the hepatitis B vaccine during the first 12 hours of birth.
Babies of mothers with unknown HBV status should receive the hepatitis B vaccine in the first 12 hours of birth.
Babies of mothers with negative HBV status should be vaccinated before leaving the hospital.
Premature infants weighing less than 4.5 pounds who are born to mothers with negative HBV status should have their first vaccine dose delayed until one month after birth or leaving the hospital.
All babies should complete the hepatitis B vaccine series to be fully protected from HBV infection.
If you have HIV, you have a one in four chance of infecting your fetus with the virus if you are not on medication. AIDS is caused by HIV. This virus kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body’s ability to fight infections and certain cancers. The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of an HIV infection.
HIV is most commonly transmitted by sexual contact with an infected partner. HIV may also be spread through contact with infected blood. This happens mostly by sharing needles, syringes or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus.
According to the National Institutes of Health, HIV transmission from mother to child during pregnancy, labor/delivery or breast-feeding has accounted for nearly all AIDS cases reported among children in the United States.
Some people may develop a flulike illness within a month or two of exposure to the HIV virus, although many people do not develop any symptoms at all when they first become infected. In adults, it may take 10 years or more for persistent or severe symptoms to surface. Symptoms may appear within two years in children born with an HIV infection.
HIV Testing and Treatment
Prenatal care that includes HIV counseling, testing and treatment for infected mothers and their children saves lives and resources. Since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began recommending routine HIV screening for all pregnant women in 1995, the estimated incidence of mother-to-child transmission has dropped by approximately 85 percent.
If you have tested positive for HIV while pregnant, your doctor may recommend:
Having blood tests to check the amount of virus present.
Taking a number of drugs during pregnancy, labor and delivery.
Delivering via Cesarean section if you have a high viral load.
Administering medicine to your newborn baby. Studies have found that giving a mother antiretroviral medicines during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and then to the baby for six weeks after delivery can reduce the chance of a mother’s transmission of HIV to her baby. This reduction is from 25 percent to less than 2 percent.
Refraining from breast-feeding. Studies show that breast-feeding increases the risk of HIV transmission.
Herpes is a chronic, sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Herpes infections can cause blisters and ulcers on the mouth or face (oral herpes), or in the genital area (genital herpes).
A first episode of genital herpes during pregnancy creates a greater risk of transmission of the virus to the newborn. Because of this risk, it is important that you avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy. Protection from genital herpes includes abstaining from sex when symptoms are present and using latex condoms between outbreaks.
For severe cases of genital herpes during pregnancy, your doctor may administer an antiviral medicine. If you have active genital herpes (shedding the virus) at the time of delivery, your doctor will likely recommend a Cesarean delivery to prevent a potentially fatal infection in your baby. Fortunately, infection of an infant is rare among women with genital herpes infection.
A lot of pain, burning and hurt can be relieved by knowing properties of a few things from your kitchen. While minor burns and injuries can scare the wits out of anyone, young or old, the cure to relieving the pain and ensuring speedy healing lies in your cabinet.
Here are few things to do and to avoid:
1. No Ice on a Burn: ice is known to restrict the flow of blood to the skin. What you should do instead is put the burnt area immediately under running water. The idea is to cool the area. The water used should be cool and not ice cold.
2. Soothe with Aloevera. Aloevera is known to be a good remedy for burns and while it stops the pain, it also reduces the swelling and repairs the skin. Aloevera gel can be applied in sometime, but the gel should not be contaminated and should be clean.
3. Use Mint for Relief: After running cold water on the burnt area, pat it dry gently and apply a layer of crushed mint leaves, do not apply mint toothpaste over it. As toothpaste can get dried or stuck there and cause further injury. If mint leaves are used they should be clean and be thoroughly washed with water.
4. Try Tea Bags: If you have black tea bags at home, they can be of help. Moist wet, cooled tea bags, depending upon the area of the burnt skin and place over the area. Wrap with clean gauze. This can be used on slightly raw skin as it is astringent.
5. Puncture the Blisters: If there are blisters, never peel them off completely, you may puncture them to drain the fluid but do not remove the top layer of skin, as that serves as a natural protective dressing.
6. Apply Honey: A natural antibiotic, honey is used to prevent the burnt area from getting infected.
7. Rub Coconut Oil: Coconut oil has vitamin e and anti-bacterial properties which also stop the burnt area from getting infected. However, this should be used in healing phase when there are no blisters or they have started healing.
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