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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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I'm a 23 years old female. From some days I m experiencing burning sensation in my left nipple which occurs for a short period of time and then fades away. I also observed changes in my left nipple. Sometimes it becomes flat and on next day it raised above the surface of breast. The skin in the nipple becomes light pink. However, it becomes normal in some days, but appear light pink frequently. I also came across the breast pain in both breasts which also occurs for a short period of time and then fades away. One week before I experienced pain in armpit which fades away after some days. Is it normal or I have to seek advice from a doctor? Is it a sign of Breast cancer or Breast infection. I m very worried. please Help me out.
I am eight months pregnant and having gestational diabetes what to do now. And does it effect my baby? Please advise.
Sleeplessness and iron deficiency can cause dark circles; and in such cases, adequate rest and plenty of iron-rich foods and supplements are enough. But sometimes, dark circles can be resilient and refuse to go away. If you find your dark circles not receding, no matter how much supplements you take and rest you get, chances are they are caused by hyper pigmentation.
What is Pigmentation?
When patches of skin darken due to excessive melanin (a skin pigment) production, it is called pigmentation. Common manifestations of pigmentation are freckles, age spots, brown spots and, most primarily dark circles. The causes of pigmentation include:
1. Sun exposure- age spots are caused by sun exposure, especially in older skin
2. Scarring- acne, burns or abrasions can cause scarring, which darkens the skin
3. Genetics- freckles are genetic, and factors such as hormones or sun exposure can worsen them
4. Pregnancy- patches of skin on the face or abdomen darken during pregnancy
The most common method to treat pigmentation caused dark circles is hydroquinone, which is an ingredient that lightens skin. When hydroquinone is used in creams, it takes a long time for it to come into effect. Dark circles may take a long time to completely fade away.
Laser Treatment for Dark Circles
If all the anti-pigmentation creams fail you, and even the dermatologist said that hydroquinone would take too long, the best option available for you is laser treatment for hyper pigmentation. Laser treatment uses beams of concentrated light to remove the pigmentation from underneath your eyes. At the same time, it reduces any other problems you may have, such as acne, fine lines or wrinkles. Sometimes, laser skin resurfacing would be used together with laser treatment for pigmentation. This ensures lasting effects and clearer complexion. However, you must consult a dermatologist before opting for laser treatment, since it is not recommended for everyone. For instance, people with sensitive skin must talk to a doctor before undergoing treatment. Also, laser treatment should be your last resort if other methods fail (such as limiting sun exposure or changing cosmetic creams).
My sister had a operation of spleen her spleen got removed what precautions should be taken now after operation?
I am married, and in physical relationship for 4 years. But presently I am experiencing that elasticity of my vagina has loosened up. And during sex I don't Get that feeling anymore. How to get rid of this problem? If any cream or medication or anything else might help. Please let me know. As this is very urgent. I feel that my husband is dissatisfied sometimes.
Hello doctor, I am 9 week 2 days pregnant and I am using susten 200 twice daily, but now I have slight burning sensation while urinating. As earlier I had miscarriage and this is my first pregnancy so I am very much concerned. So, please guide me with proper advice for carrying my healthy pregnancy.
I'm Not Pregnant, But Why Is My Breast Leaking? What are the causes, diagnosis and treatment. From last 2 weeks m on medication for acidity and vitamin B12. On my last period I had white discharge or clot.
I am 30 years old and off late, I am starting to have facial hair, esp. Around chin area, not much just 7-8. I did not have it earlier but for some time now its growing dark n thick. I do threading to get rid of them but that's painful. Can you please tell me the cause for it and the permanent solution but not laser? My periods are normal n regular n m married with no kid as of now. Please help.
Q1. What exactly is Laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is an alternative to 'Open' surgery wherein the abdomen is opened by tiny 'key hole' incisions and surgery is done. 'Scopy' means the use of an endoscope or telescope to see inside the abdomen. This is attached to a camera and a light source and the inside of the abdomen is projected on to a monitor. The surgeon performs surgery looking at this screen. The surgeon makes a total of 2-4 small cuts on the abdomen ranging from half to 1 cm through which the telescope and other thin surgical instruments are passed into the abdomen. When the uterus is removed , known as hysterectomy, there is also a cut at the top of the vagina where the uterus is attached.
Q2. What kind of gynaecological surgeries can be performed by Laparoscopy?
Most surgeries done in gynaecology can now be performed by Laparoscopy and do not require the large incision as for open surgery. Laparoscopy can be done sometimes only for diagnosis and is called Diagnostic Laparoscopy, as in checking whether the tubes are open or not and to look for any causes of infertility or pain outside the uterus. In women who are unable to conceive, Diagnostic Laparoscopy is often combined with Hysteroscopy (endoscope inside the uterus, inserted from below, via the vagina). When laparoscopy is done to perform some surgical procedure inside the abdomen it is called Operative Laparoscopy. This may be for simple procedures like sterilization, minor adhesions, drilling ovaries; or for intermediate or major reasons like fibroids, endometriosis, removal of ovaries or tubes or both or removal of uterus, for staging of cancers or radical surgeries for cancer. However, about 5% of all surgeries including those for cancer or very large tumours may benefit from open surgery.
Q3. Why does an expert surgeon recommend Laparoscopy over Open Surgery?
Laparoscopic surgery has many advantages above open surgery: the incisions are much smaller (open surgery incisions are 8-10 cms long), therefore pain is much less; requirement for pain killers (which can have side-effects like sleepiness, impaired judgement) is lesser; hospital stay is shorter; complications fewer; requirement for blood transfusions infrequent; recovery in terms of physical, emotional and mental state is much better and quicker; return to work is faster with consequent lesser loss of working and earning days. Surgery with laparoscope is more precise because it is magnified view. Further vision is much better because it's like having your eye behind the structure because you can see with the telescope at places where the surgeon's eye cannot reach.
Q4. If the cuts on the abdomen are so small in Laparoscopic surgery, how do you remove the uterus or a large tumour from inside the abdomen?
Quite often if the tumour is not malignant and contains fluid, it is punctured to collapse it into a smaller size. If it is solid, it can be cut into smaller pieces inside the abdomen using a special instrument. The collapsed or cut structures can be removed gently through the 1 cm cut on the abdomen which may be increased a bit if required. After hysterectomy, the uterus can be removed easily from below, through the vagina.
Q5. Will there be much pain or discomfort after Laparoscopic Surgery?
There may be some pain and discomfort in lower abdomen for one day to few days after Laparoscopic surgery but this is much less as compared to open surgery because the incisions on the abdomen are much smaller and there is much less tissue handling inside the abdomen by fine instruments instead of rough, big, gloved hands which can cause tissue injury in open surgery. There may be some pain in the shoulder following laparoscopy. This is not serious and is due to the gas used in the surgery to make space for instruments.
Q6. When can I be discharged from hospital?
Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or with simple Operative Laparoscopy you can expect to be discharged from hospital latest by the morning after surgery. In most other cases of intermediate or even major surgery, discharge is generally 1-2 days following the surgery unless there is some health issues prior to the surgery or any complication during the surgery. The complication rates for Laparoscopic surgery are not more than for open surgery and depend upon patient factors like anaemia, diabetes, obesity and skill of the surgeon.
Q7. When can I perform routine household activities or return to work after Laparoscopic Surgery?
Recovery after surgery depends upon many factors: presence of health problems before surgery; why the surgery is required; what surgery is being done; problems or complications of surgery, anaesthesia or blood transfusions. If all is well, one can perform routine household activities by 1 week, provided one doesn't feel tired. Although there may not be any harm, it may be unwise to be normally active within 48 hours of procedure. Following Diagnostic Laparoscopy or Operative Laparoscopy for simple procedures, one can return to work in 1 week. For other procedures, a 2-3 week off from work is reasonable. It depends on the type of work you are returning to. Avoid too rapid return to work if it is manually hard or requires standing for long durations of time. Sometimes a surgical procedure brings on a well needed rest and break from a lifetime of work. Mostly, when you return to work depends upon your own body and its signals of tiredness. You need to listen to those signals.