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Management of Abortion
Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
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Gestational hypertension normally resolves following birth, and blood pressure returns to normal. But women with elevated blood pressure during pregnancy are at higher risk of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Sabour and colleagues evaluated 491 healthy postmenopausal women selected from participants enrolled in the PROSPECT (Predictors of Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study from 1993?1997. Women with a history of gestational hypertension had an almost 60% increased risk of having coronary calcification several decades later compared with women who had normal blood pressure during pregnancy. The relationship held for women who had mild elevations in blood pressure during pregnancy as well as for those who developed preeclampsia ? a more serious complication of pregnancy characterized by very high blood pressure, edema, and risk of organ damage.
My gf is 19 years old she is 2 weeks pregnant we can't consult to anyone we don't want pregnancy can anyone please help us.
Is having a period cycle of 22 days normal? if not then what can be problem area? my thyroid is normal. I would like to have homeopath treatmnt
I am a 20yrs old girl and I am suffering from severe stomach ache during my periods. So I am taking a tablet" meftalspas" I got married also. So I want to know whether it will cause harmful for my body or any side effects? How can I reduce my pain?
Hi. My wife had a miscarriage 3 months back. We were again trying for pregnancy and visited a doctor. The doctor advised for a UV. The result is that there is a cyst 7 cm in the right ovary. The doctor advised for Yasmin and visit after 3 months. My question is that if does Yasmin help is removing the cyst? Will Yasim effect the future fertility of my wife? She has already taken 3 pills. Somebody has poisoned her that it will have future effects. Is it advised to stop in between? Please advise. Thank you very much in advance.
Hello Doctor. While making love I rubbed vagina of my girlfriend, I may have also inserted fingers inside. She is virgin. I never inserted penis and it was always very far from vagina. But I may have sperms on my hand but not a lot in amount. Can my girlfriend become pregnant just by this. What are chances of pregnancy. We are very worried. She also has PCOS.
I am trying to conceive. My doctor ask me to follicular monitoring. I do follicular monitoring this month. My egg got ruptured at day 18 after take a hcg injection. 16 may is my last period date. Till now I don't got my period. But my left leg is paining. Can it symptoms of pregnancy?
Most dieticians are of the opinion that limiting your salt intake is essential, as an increased amount of salt in the system can damage your kidneys, heart and may increase your blood pressure, and chances of stroke. On the other hand, decreasing it beyond a point can prove to be detrimental to your health in various ways as well.
However, when relating to blood pressure, an increased salt intake can prove harmful to you only if you already have high blood pressure. In the case of normal levels of blood pressure, excess salt consumption will not prove to be too dangerous. Here are the ways in which low salt intake can prove to be detrimental for your health:
- Increases chances of heart diseases: Having a lower amount of salt in your diet - i.e. less than 2000 mg per day increases the risk of heart-related disorders, which include, but may not be limited to, strokes or heart attacks, exponentially.
- Decreases the body's level of sodium: Decreased levels of sodium in the body, often a direct byproduct of a reduced salt intake, can lead to a number of complications. Sodium is essential for maintaining electrolyte and mineral balance in the body. A decrease in sodium levels in the system, in extreme cases, can lead to hyponatremia, which can prove detrimental for the kidneys or liver.
Salt, which mainly contains two radicals - sodium and chloride ions, are essential for life. However, they can be obtained only through food as it is not manufactured intrinsically. There are several essential reasons for why salt intake in the optimal amounts is absolutely crucial in maintaining healthy body functioning:
- It is an essential component of blood plasma, as well as several other crucial body fluids such as extracellular fluid, lymphatic fluid, and amniotic fluid.
- It is important for maintenance and regulation of a proper level of blood pressure.
- Sodium, in the context of body physiology, is critical in maintaining a proper acid-base level in your system and in controlling the levels of your body fluid.
- The exchange of sodium and potassium ions, both obtained from salts, is also essential for muscle movement and in sending signals from the brain to the muscles.
Related Tip: Why Sodium is So Bad? + How to Control it with Diet?
Pregnancy gives a woman completeness by turning her into mother from a simple woman. It is the thing which makes the couple parents, the dream which they nurture right time from their marriage. Of course there are many couple s who are not fortunate enough to achieve pregnancy and they are usually termed infertile and we have discussed it in separate post. But there are other couple s who may or may not (as this is the usual case) find difficult to conceive but the pregnancy does not continue to the age of viability. Age of viability means the age, when a baby born can survive. Thanks to the improvement in neonatal care by leaps and bounds and availability of NICU which made it possible to survive even a baby born at 22 weeks. For example last month we delivered a baby at 28 weeks of pregnancy, who is fine now. But if the baby is 'born' before 20 weeks, it is called MISCARRIAGE. This is because these babies who weigh less than 500 gram cannot survive outside the uterus. It is seen that 10-15% couples who conceive successfully may not be able to carry pregnancy beyond 20 weeks. Thus the miscarriage rate for a single pregnancy is 10-15%. But in most of the time this mishap does not recur in future. We call it 'sporadic miscarriage' and often the cause is not known. But almost 1% of the couples who wamt to get pregnant may suffer from repeated miscarriage. That means the unfortunate events can repeat. These are called 'RECURRENT MISCARRIAGE' or 'REPEATED PREGNANCY LOSS *RPL).
So, what's the reason for RPL which is equally frustrating for the patients as well as the doctors? First of all let me honestly confess that in most of the cases the cause is not known (50-60%) and this is called 'UNEXPLAINED RPL'. Again we have to admit that despite tremendous advancement in science, the knowledge behind RPL is limited. Many theories and causes have ben proposed but most of them could not withstand the taste of time. That means if a problem is found in husband or wife, we are not certain whether the treatment of that problem will prevent future miscarriage. This should be explained properly to the couples to have realistic expectations and avoid unnecessary frustration s in future. Only factors which are definitely associated with RPL are only two- anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and chromosomal problem of either of the couples. Detection and treatment of these problems are often rewarding as after treatment pregnancy continuation rate us very high. The other causes have been proposed but as mentioned above the link between RPL and these causes are not yet very clear and need further scientific research. Please remember according to the timing, RPL may be divided into two categories- the 1st trimester RPL (occurring before 12 weeks in each pregnancy) or second trimester RPL (12-20 weeks in each pregnancy).
4-5% cases may be due to genetic or chromosomal problem of the couples. These problems can affect the egg (ovum) and/or the sperms. Even if the couples are normal, the baby may have abnormal chromosome.It is blessing that a genetically abnormal baby is miscarried by the nature, otherwise if it survives there is high chance that it may be mentally or physically handicapped. The reason may be increased age of the mother (above 35 years especially), exposure of mother to some environmental pollutants or sometimes increased age of the father (the latter is controversial). The diagnosis is done by chromosomal analysis of the couple by Karyotyping or FISH from blood samples. If the baby has been miscarried, it may be rational to send the tissue of the baby for chromosomal analysis to find iut the cause. The treatment option in next pregnancy in such cases is genetic counseling by an expert and in most cases unfortunately ine option remains- that us IVF and PGD (pre implantation genetic diagnosis) where only genetically tested normal embryos are transferred by IVF ('test tube baby').
Anatomical factors are responsible for 12-15% if RPL, in most cases the second trimester RPL. The most common cause is 'CERVICAL INCOMPETENCE'. The cervix is the mouth of the uterus which should remain closed in pregnancy to support pregnancy and should only open during delivery. But in some cases it xan open prematurely leading to miscarriage. Usually this causes apparently painless miscarriage. In many women fibroid is found as a tumour of uterus. Whether fibroids cause RPL is again very controversial among the scientists and doctors. In some women who had repeated abortion or surgery to uterus and even tuberculosis (TB) there may be adhesion (binding together) between the walks of uterus. This is called Asherman Syndrome which causes scanty or absent periods and RPL. In few women there may be Congenital Anomaly of the uterus- that is yhere is some abnormalities inside uterus from birth. Thesr xan sometimes caus RPL, although controversial. These anatomical problems are diagnosed by proper examination, some tests like HSG (hystero salpingogram), SSG (sono salpingogram), 3D ultrasonography (USG), MRI, hysteroscopy and/or laparoscopy, depending on the women and test results. The treatment should be dobe cautiously as treatment may not always prevent RPL. For cervical incompetence usually we put stitch in the cervix in pregnancy or sometimes before pregnancy. Operation xan be done, before pregnancy for fibroids, Asherman and congenital anomalies.
In many cases (more than 70%) cases hormonal problems may be there and these may cause both 1st and 2nd trimester RPL. However whether treatment us beneficial or not, is again controversial. The commonest pattern is Luteal Phase Deficiency (LPD) due to deficiency of hormone progesterone. PCOS (Polycystic Ovaries) is also asdociated with RPL. The other causes are uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid problems, high prolactin and high testosterone, high insulin and low ovarian reserve. As mentioned earlier, it is not clear whether they all need testing and treatment but usually tests advised for these are blood for progesterone, TSH, Prolactin, FSH, LH, AMH, Insulin, Testosterone, sugar, HbA1C etc. Treatment is usually progesterone supplement along with correction of hormonal imbalance. It is to be mentioned that these patients need high dose of thyroid drugs (TSH normal for other people may be considered abnormal for RPL) and more tight control of blood sugar in diabetes.
In 60-70% cases the cause Thrombolphilia, that is tendency to thrombosis or blood clotting. The most common is anti phospholipid antibofy syndrome (APS) which nay or may not be associated with thrombosis in other sites but can cause thrombosis if blood supply to the baby and thus causes stopage of its heart and miscarriage. Although more common in the Western World, some Hereditary Thrombolphilia may be found in other family members and commonly cause miscarriage and thrombosis. Deficiency of folic acid and vitamin B12 rarely xan cause thrombosis and RPL. The APS testing is often successful, so as the treatment with aspirin and heparin injection throughout pregnancy. With this 80% women can expect full term pregnancy. Folic acid and B12 vitamin supplement is commonly given to RPL patients. Whether testing for hereditary thrombophilia is needed in our country ir not is controversial. But treatment is like APS- that is aspirin and heparin injection.
Diseases of mother like diabetes, epilepsy, liver or kidney diseases, SLE etc can cause miscarriage. Exposure of mother to harmful substances like environmental pollution, radiation, chemotherapy and some toxic drugs, smoking, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis etc are alse responsible but the latter usually cause sporadic miscarriage rather than RPL. So these drugs should be stopped and replaced by safer drugs anf the diseases mudt be treated properly. Even exposure of father to some drugs can cause RPL. Again some abnormalities of sperms may cause RPL. So, semen analysis of the husband is usually done as a test for RPL.
The most controversial topic for RPL is the infections. But itbis the fact proved by scientific studies that only infection in current pregnancy causes miscarriage. So infection is a cause of sporadic miscarriage, not RPL. In the past TORCH testing was very much popular but nowadays it is obsolete test and there is no scientific ground for tests or treatment of TORCH. Only test we recommend is rubella testing. If rubella IgG is negative that means you may get infection in pregnancy so we advice to take rubella vaccine and avoid pregnancy for one month. On the other hand, rubella IgG positive neans you are already imune and thus you can never get rubella. So vaccine is not useful in those cases. If any genital infection is found in husband or wife, both if them should be tested and treated aggressively.
First of all we ned to know when we should advise tests. Assuming that most cases of miscarriages are SPORADIC, we usually di not advise investigation after single miscarriage unless the couple insists or there is some reason by the doctor to suspect some abnormalities that might cause future miscarriage. In the past testing was started after 3 miscarriages. But nowadays we do not want to give the couple, especially the woman a third trauma. So we usually advise tests after 2nd miscarriage. The tests usually start with checking for chromosome of the baby. It is followed by chromosome analysis of both the partners along with proper history taking and physical examination. Semen analysis us fone for the husband. The wife is advised ultrasonography, routine blood, thyroid testing, testing for APS and blood group. These are tests usually dine everywhere. Further tests are done depending on the results if initial tests ans0d especially if no cause us found after initial tests. It should be mentioned to the couples that the 2nd group if tests often do not have scientific grounds and are done only on benefit of doubt. They may not change the management plan. TORCH test is not done in modern era.
The basic treatment is support if the couples, reducing stress as stress can be responsible for RPL. When a cause is found this should be treated. While an optimistic approach should be taken with expectations for normal pregnancy in future but this should be based on scientific and realistic approach to avoid future frustration. The treatment may not be 100% effective and most treatment may not have scientific base but are usually not harmful. Treatment may not guarantee a successful future pregnancy but a positive attitude is necessary. This is called TENDER LOVING CARE (TLC where proper support and discussion can help more than explanation if mere statistics. Treatment should be continued both before and after pregnancy confirmation, as mentioned above. This isbto be mentioned thst even after 6th miscarriage, the chance that future pregnancy will be normal is more than 50%. So, the message should be not to give up hope.
Hi my baby girl is one year old and I have not had my periods yet ,is it common I am still breast feeding. I have not conceived again for sure please tell me if it is common.
Me and my gf had unprotected sex on 21 jan. She had her periods after that. I.e. On 18 feb, 22 march. But she is still confused whether that was periods or just a bleeding. In between she conducted too many tests and all were negative. And now in april she had no signs of periods. What to do? She conducted home pregnancy for two times before 3 days and it was also negative. Help her to induce periods.
I think I'm pregnant because I missed my period. Its been 10 days since I had sex, I've taken pregnancy test twice and it shows negative. There's been spotting once but my periods hasn't come. We used protection and There are no signs of pregnancy as such, I don't want me to be pregnant and I'm under a lot of stress right now. Please help and clear up my mind.
C-section or Caesarean section is a surgery performed to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out from the abdomen through an incision in the abdominal wall. This surgery is performed when there is some sort of physical difficulty in natural childbirth through the vagina. Other reasons for performing a C-section are when the mother is carrying more than one baby, or the health of the baby is in danger. It could also be because of an undesirable fetal position, or when the mother is physically unable to push the baby out of the uterus.
Procedure followed in C- Section
The procedure is most often done when the mother is in her senses and awake. However, epidural or spinal anaesthesia is provided to numb the body from chest to the feet, before the surgery is performed.
An incision is made on the lower abdomen, above the pubic area. A cut is made through the uterus and amniotic sac. The baby is pulled out from this opening. The umbilical cord is cut and cleaned. The fluids are cleaned from the baby’s mouth and nose. The infant’s breathing rate, heart rate and other vitals are kept under observation.
Recovery from a C-section can take several weeks. The stitch wounds need to heal, including the recovery of pelvic muscles. It is important to walk around and do some very light exercises to boost the healing procedure. Doctors may prescribe painkillers in some cases and advice on effective post-operative care. Though the surgical procedure is quite safe now, with the use of highly advanced technology, there are risks that cannot be entirely ignored.
Risks associated with C-section
Infections: Any surgery has some risk of infection associated to it. In the case of a C-section, an infection can occur around the site of incision that may rapidly spread in the uterine wall and other internal pelvic organs.
Haemorrhage: Blood refuses to clot and dangerously high quantity of blood is lost in the process. In such a case, it requires immediate transfusion and intensive care.
Injuries: The mother or the baby, both have a risk of getting injured during the surgery. Although these are rare, but the infant may suffer nicks and cuts while being manually pulled out from the womb. Other organs of the mother located near the pelvis may suffer minor or major wounds.
After the C-section, the mother and child will be retained in the hospital for 2 to 3 days, under intense care and constant monitoring. It is important to exercise and take the medications as advised by the physician to prevent any complication. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
You are just a few weeks away from the greatest joy of your life. As you keep counting moments, do not be afraid. The journey to the greatest joy can be a joyride too. Your doctor will take care ot your worries, clear all tour doubts. Just follow some simple dietary and exercise regimens, maintain basic hygiene and it will make things a lot easier for you.
1. Exercise regularly, after consulting your doctor e. G. Walking, yoga and meditation.
2. Maintain personal hygiene by bathing, brushing teeth, trimming nails regularly.
3. Wear clean, loose, comfortable clothes.
4. Keep surroundings clean.
5. Get enough sleep, minimum 8 hours.
6. Consult your doctor before taking any medicine and take them regularly.
The doctor will ask you to:
#take medications like folic acid during months 1-3, iron & calcium supplement from the 4th month onwards.
# get 2 tetanus toxoid (tt) injections after the 5th month, 4 weeks apart
# get your blood and urine tests done.
7. Visit your doctor for routine check up every month.
In case of emergencies such as severe abdominal pain or cramps, leaking of fluids from the vaginas even if there is no pain, swelling of feet or hands, bleeding from the vagina & decrease of foetal movement, contact your doctor.
1. Smoking & smoke filled surrounding, lifting heavy weights, wearing high heels.
2. Long journeys, crowded transport and bumpy rides. Consult your doctor before travelling.
3. Sex if you have unexplained bleeding, history of miscarriage or premature labour, pregnancy with twins or triplets or disorders of the placenta.
Consult your doctor regarding sex during pregnancy.
4. Getting up suddenly from the bed if you feel dizzy or giddy. First turn to the side, sit and then stand up slowly.
1. Avoid consumption of coffee, tea, preservatives (e. G ajinomoto, alcohol, spicy and fried foods.
2. Avoid excess taking salt intake in case of history of hypertension.
3. Take a diet that is rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins. Foods that are rich in nutrients and could be taken during pregnancy are -
-proteins - milk, pulses, legumes, nuts, cheese, whole grains, soybean, egg, meat.
Green leafy vegetables, dry fruits, whole grains, dates, lean red meat, fish, poultry.
Berries, green leafy vegetables, beans, orange juice, broccoli, nuts, fortified cereals
Green leafy vegetables, milk & milk products like cheese, ice cream, curd, fish.
Oil, ghee, sweets in small quantities.
Vitamins, minerals- fruits (2-4 servings daily, vegetables (3 -5 servings daily)
Nausea, vomiting & acidity are common during pregnancy and can be managed by taking toast, biscuits, frequent small meals, medications and plenty of fluids.
Average weight gain during pregnancy
1st trimester: 1 kg
2nd trimester: 5 kg
3rd trimester: 5 kg
Total: 11 kg minimum
The weight gain depends on your weight prior to pregnancy.