Doctor in MACS Clinic (Dr. Sandeep Nayak)
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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sandeep Nayak to be very helpful. Sir, CT Scan results says that the infection is in the limited area only and hasn't spread out. Should we wait for the biopsy report or go for surgery?
Dr. Sandeep Nayak provides answers that are professional. Thanks a lot for the answer.
The fallopian tubes are a couple of thin tubes that act as a vehicle in transporting a woman’s eggs (ova) from her ovaries (where they are housed) to her uterus (otherwise known as the ‘womb’) where they are either fertilized by the male sperm or disposed off during menstruation. Fallopian tube cancer, otherwise known as tubal cancer, forms in the fallopian tubes that connect the ovaries and the uterus.
It is hard to see a tumour or growth developing within a tube. This makes fallopian tube cancer hard to diagnose and complicated to manage as well.
If you do have fallopian tube cancer, it is vital to get a quick diagnosis as promptly as possible. This will help you to get effective treatment. However, diagnosing fallopian tube cancer can be challenging because of the following:
It is an uncommon kind of cancer.
The indications are vague and like those of different other conditions.
Discovering a tumour inside the Fallopian tube is troublesome.
In case you have symptoms that may point at fallopian tube cancer, your specialist will conduct a thorough physical examination and get some information about your lifestyle and your family history. A pelvic examination will be done to examine your uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina. If a tumour is found, your specialist will do some more tests.
At least one of the accompanying tests might be utilised to see whether you have fallopian tube cancer and if it has spread. These tests additionally might be used to see whether the treatment is working. These diagnostic tests may include the following:
Ultrasound of the Pelvis: This test is helpful. However, in case that your specialist still suspects fallopian tube cancer, he or she will arrange a transvaginal ultrasound. During this test, a probe will be put into the vagina to deliver a photo of the inner organs. A transvaginal ultrasound is the best method for imaging the fallopian tubes.
CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scan
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
CA125 test: This blood test checks the levels of CA125, a known tumour marker for gynecologic cancers. An abnormal state of CA125 may mean you need to have more tests. However, it does not necessarily mean you have fallopian tube cancer. Serum levels of a marker called CA-125 can be unusually high in patients with gynecologic infections in cancer and non-cancer sorts, that is, pelvic inflammatory infection, endometriosis and early pregnancy. CA-125 can be non-specific and might be elevated because of numerous issues that are not cancer related.
Robotic surgery as the name suggests is a high-end robot-assisted surgery which lets the doctors perform various types of complex procedures that would be difficult otherwise. They are a type of minimally invasive surgery and is one of the most technically advanced treatment methods across the world.
About Robotic Surgery:
One of the common misconceptions is that in a robotic surgery often the robots would take care of the surgery. This is incorrect. Robotic surgeries involve an expert surgeon who performs the surgery and it is exactly as per his/her maneuver that the robotic surgery takes place. The procedure includes a high precision camera that is placed into our systems.
This gives a 3D high definition vision to the surgeon, who sits at the console and operates. The controls on the console resemble a joystick, the doctor proceeds with the actual surgery – where the mechanized arms of the robot perform the surgery. So be rest assured! Nowhere does the robot perform the surgery with a mind of their own.
- Flexibility: In spite of tremendous advancements in the medicinal field, human error is still the leading cause of surgery failures. The ENDO-WRIST of robot makes this precision possible, this considerably reduces the errors and one gets a precise and flexible option.
- Better Visuals: Since almost the entire operation is done with the help of a high precision 3D HD monitor, doctors are able to identify the predicaments better. Also, their judgment becomes of high value when surgeries are opted for.
- Minimal Blood Loss: The very factor that many individuals still dread is the loss of blood during a surgery; the risk of the same is also minimised to a great extent with the use of a robotic surgery. Also, the pain after the treatment is comparatively lesser.
- Fewer Complications: One of the major effects of a regular surgery is the complications that might arise post the treatment. This is considerably reduced when opting for a robot surgery. The treatment plans are precise and to the point.
- Less Recovery Time: Your recuperation period is considerably reduced when you opt for robotic surgery, as the procedures are minimally invasive. Also, your stay in the hospital too doesn’t require more than few days.
Robotic surgeries have gained popularity in the recent years as they are accurate, less painful and carried out with utmost meticulousness. It is a special branch of medicinal science and only a doctor who is qualified for it can opt to give the services. Robotic surgeries cannot be done for every part and is advancing by the day. Currently, the most common robotic surgeries are performed in the complex procedures of oncology.
Tobacco is supposed to be the most preventable cause of cancer. With regard to the number of years of research, there is a clear connection between the two. As per the predictions made by several experts, by the time we step into the year 2020, people in India are going to have a staggering record of 1.5 million deaths each year as a result of tobacco.
There is neither any such thing as safe product of tobacco nor there is any safe limit for tobacco. Tobacco in all forms, including cigarettes, chewable tobacco, beedis, pipes, hookah and cigars cause harm to the body even if they get consumed in smaller quantities.
Different Types of Tobacco and How Do They Cause Cancer -
There are different types of tobacco, which after consumption, can lead to the development of cancerous cells in the body. They include:
- Smoking Tobacco: Different smoking variety of tobacco is cigarettes, cigars, hookahs and beedis. The Tobacco smoke consists of more than 7000 chemicals, including toxic ones like arsenic, nickel, methanol, cyanide, acetylene and cadmium. 70 out of these chemicals are carcinogens and more than 250 of them are extremely toxic in nature.
- Smokeless Tobacco: Smokeless Tobacco generally comes in the form of chewing tobacco, found in gutka, pan masala or just loose leaves. There are minimum of 20 known carcinogens, in the smokeless form of tobacco.
How Does It Cause Cancer?
Multiple harms are caused to the bodies of those who consume tobacco in any form. As and when a puff is taken from a cigarette, the following problems occur:
- One’s heart rate and blood pressure goes up instantly.
- There is an immediate rise in the level of carbon monoxide in the blood.
- Over a period of time, the lungs get damaged, thus hampering their function.
As time progresses, it tends to cause damage to the immune system, leading to the mutation of genes. The carcinogens in the tobacco act as irritants, which over a period of time cause damage to the DNA. Hence becoming a primary reason behind cancer.
Advice needed from oncosurgeon. She is 30 with 2 babies, has history of PCOD and delay menstrual. Breast cancer 3rd stage. No sign of metastatic. Right side Mastectomy with lymph node removal: Dec 2016 Chemo, radio: 2017 herceptin 2017-18 Currently on tamoxifen 20 mg PET scan Aug 2018, finding - 30x18 mm left adnexal solid mass with 12.7 SUV uptake. After PET SCAN test-CA 125, 15.3, usg abdomen, usg vaginal, mammography left side- all normal. Repeat PET SCAN Dec 2018- reports same left adnexal mass. Reports shown to 2 docs- 1 says will remove left whole ovary including mass by open surgery because if it is cancer so there is Chance of spread so open surgery will be best. Another doctor says 4 pin hole surgery to be done to remove mass. Then will check mass in lab. If mass will be suspicious then will remove left ovary whole. Now my problem is - I should follow which doctor advice? Doctor 1 or doctor 2. Request advice. please let me know if any further test is required and which doctor I follow.
I might have thyroid cancer in one side of the thyroid, shall I remove the entire gland or just the side affected? Is there any other medication that can cure me without surgery?
What is the Life of stent in the bile duct (intestine) the patient having tumor there. And if this cancerous tumor is not treated then what are the chances of survival of the patient?
Conventional wisdom makes us believe that the only type of cancer caused due to smoking is lung cancer. However, recent studies have greatly detailed the fact that smoking or the consumption of tobacco products can cause esophagus, pancreas, liver, kidney, stomach, among other types of cancer.
The Various Chemical Carcinogens Present In Tobacco
Thus, smoking is by far the largest preventable cause of cancer. The solution is simple: stop smoking. Tobacco products contain certain elements that are widely believed to cause cancer. These elements also referred to as carcinogens are either naturally part of the tobacco producing plant or are added to it by the tobacco manufacturer. The latter carcinogens include benzene, certain tobacco-specific nitrosamines, and formaldehyde. The quantity and the specificity of carcinogens differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and country to country.
Continuous consumption of products which contain carcinogens will inevitably result in the formation of cancer. The IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) has already designated certain chemicals found in tobacco and tobacco-related products as human carcinogens.
The Effects of the Chemical Carcinogens -
It must be emphasized that there is no safe way to consume tobacco. From cigarettes and pipes to smokeless tobacco and cigars – all of them lead to the same result. Chemicals found in tobacco reduce the ability of our immune system, making it harder for it to kill cancerous cells. This ensures that cancerous cells simply multiply without it being stopped or killed. Moreover, the same chemicals also alter the “DNA structure” and the instructions of the DNA which leads to cells growing out of control and abetting the cancerous tumor.
How do the carcinogens enter our bloodstream?
These chemicals are delivered into our bloodstream by virtue of us breathing in the smoke. Once the chemicals enter our bloodstream, it travels to all parts of our body – carrying this carcinogenic chemical. Non-smokers who stand beside individuals who are smoking (secondhand smoking) become passive smokers, also inhale the harmful smoke. The World Health Organization estimates that 10% of all smoking-related deaths are due to passive or secondhand smoking.
How long does it take for cancer to develop?
While there is no specific time-frame linking consumption of tobacco to development of cancer, it is estimated that it takes many years or even decades for the cancer to develop. Our body’s immune system is vested with the power to cope up with limited damage, however, persistent smoking tendencies and the chemical carcinogens entering our bloodstreams – irreversibly damage the DNA in many lung cells.
Thus, in conclusion, it is highly advisable to quit smoking sooner rather than later. Tobacco causes long-term and irreparable damage to our bodily organs. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Let’s start with some mind-boggling statistics: in India, over 2.5 million patients are diagnosed with cancer. Moreover, it is estimated that around 700,000 new patients are found to have cancer, each year, and around 550,000 annual deaths are related to cancer.
While these perturbing numbers might unnerve you, there is, however, a case for cautious optimism. While there are certain causes of cancer like genetics and environment which are beyond your realms of control; there are certain causes which can be controlled by you. Research shows that nearly 70% of cancer causes are in your hands – including your own diet.
Your daily nutritional intake is vital for two reasons:
- There are definite cancer-preventing nutrients and food items;
- Conversely, there are certain types of nutrients and food items which cause cancer.
While research typically points to links between food items and cancer than well-established cause-effect relationships, it is found that certain dietary items have a greater influence. Here are some general guidelines to guide you better:
- Avoid processed and red meat: Processed and red meat are generally considered as any meat which has been artificially modified for taste or purposes of preservation. It must be noted that during this process of preservation there are certain chemicals mixed with it which makes it carcinogenic in nature. Though the WHO (World health organization) hasn’t recommended any specific amount for consumption, it has categorized processed and red meats as a Group 1 – carcinogen.
- Consume more fruits and vegetables: Plant foods including fruits and vegetables contain essential micronutrients like flavonoids and carotenoids which researchers’ state are powerful antioxidants. Antioxidants help prevent the destruction of cells as they diminish free radicals. It is recommended to regularly consume fruits and vegetables like berries, broccoli, leafy greens, apples, papaya, among others.
- Reduce your alcohol and smoking habit: Along with processed and red meats, alcohol is designated as a Group 1 – carcinogen by the WHO. Cancer research has repeatedly linked consumption of alcohol to higher chances of cancer, irrespective of the alcohol type. A number of cancers including pharynx, liver, and breast are directly connected to alcohol.
Furthermore, it is suggested that an individual must limit to no more than a drink on any given day.
In conclusion, it must be stated that our diets play an indispensable role in the prevention of cancer. The consumption of healthy food items will only bolster our physical well-being along with the reduction of cancer occurrence. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Cardiovascular disease or heart disease along with cancer is two of the leading causes of death around the world. Both these diseases are generally thought of as two distinct diseases with separate causes, however, recent studies show that cancer and cardiovascular disease have an increasing number of similarities, potential interaction, and similar risk factors.
The intersection of these diseases, as recent studies have shown, is a cause for great concern as cancer survivors are now at a risk of developing a heart disease. On medical introspection, here are the similar risk factors:
- Diabetes and the risk of cancer and heart disease- Diabetes mellitus commonly referred to as Diabetes affects a varying number of our body systems. Although curable, Diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes significantly contribute to heart diseases by virtue of hypertension, unhealthy cholesterol levels, and lack of physical activity. Furthermore, it is suggested that in type-2 diabetes, insulin resistance usually produces more insulin than what is necessary and that the higher-level of insulin circulation can potentially aid the growth of cancerous tumors.
- Obesity as a risk factor- Obesity, cancer, and heart diseases share an intricate and complex relationship augmented by factors like diet, the presence of certain hormones, body fat distribution, among other factors. The World Cancer Research Fund in its report stated there is indisputable evidence connecting obesity to kidney, pancreatic, liver, and pharynx types of cancer. The carcinogenic effect increases when an individual’s Body Mass Index or BMI increases. Furthermore, the Framingham Heart Study showed that obesity and heart diseases are increasingly interconnected. This interconnection is expounded by the risk factors found in obese individuals which include atherogenic dyslipidemia, proinflammatory state, and rising insulin resistance.
- Consumption of Tobacco- Cigarette smoking is perhaps the most preventable cause of premature death in India. Cigarette smokers have a higher incidence of developing chronic disorders ranging from several pulmonary diseases, atherosclerosis or fatty particles in the arteries and types of cancer. Smoking increases our blood pressure and the tendency for blood to clot. Furthermore, it increases the recurrent risk of cardiovascular disease after a bypass surgery and decreases HDL or good cholesterol. Additionally, if you are from a family with a history of heart diseases then smoking increases your chances of having a coronary heart disease.
Thus, in conclusion, it can be stated that the risk factors of both cancer and heart diseases are interlinked and preventive action measures including not consuming alcohol, smoking and lowering your BMI can reduce your chances of having cancer or a heart disease. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!