Doctor in Dr. Jaka's Clinic
Treatment of Cancer
Breast Cancer Surgery Treatment
Treatment of Breast Cancer
Treatment of Tumors
Treatment of Testicular Cancer
Treatment of Blood Cancer
Treatment of Brain Tumor
Treatment of Lung Cancer
Treatment of Colon Cancer
Treatment of Cancer Pain
Treatment of Oral Cancer
Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Treatment of Liver Cancer
Treatment of Throat Cancer
Treatment of Gastric Cancer
Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Treatment of Lymphoma
Treatment of Cervical Cancer
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More and more cancer types are being linked to air pollution. While the linkage is quite easily understandable between air pollution and lung cancer, the damage does not stop there. It is far more harmful, and whether or not it is part of the respiratory system, most cancers are linked to air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) has classified air pollution as carcinogenic to humans.
The amount of particulate matter in the air, especially in developing countries like China and India, are loaded with carcinogenic material. This is due to increased transport overload, power generation, industrial emissions, residential heating etc. The exact composition of the air can vary depending on the time of the year, the location, weather, etc. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) also is spending a lot of time and money to find out the connection between these two. Establishing the link can help in preventing cancer.
Read on to understand the correlation between factors affecting air pollution and cancer incidence.
- Air pollution is not uniform and varies across the globe, depending on how some of the above mentioned factors are affected.
- Developing countries have more pollution levels, especially from vehicular fuel exhaust, metals, dust, and chemical solvents. These contaminate the air, making it carcinogenic.
- There is also lead, which is another “probable human carcinogen,” causing cancer of the liver, brain, and kidney.
- The other chemicals in polluted air include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and ozone.
- Also there are various compounds like volatile organic compounds, outdoor air pollutants, and other particulate matter, which are present in greater numbers in polluted areas.
- Paint thinners, dry cleaning agents, and other metals also contribute to increased air pollution. This, when inhaled, induces chronic inflammation in the tissues, making them react to the inflammation.
- Both outdoor and indoor agents cause pollution, and increases risk of developing cancer.
- Second hand smoke is a lot more dangerous than imaginable in inducing cancer.
Mechanism: Cancer is a result of chronic inflammation, which induces uncontrolled proliferation of the cells. A combination of the above mentioned compounds along with a strong predisposition (family history, for instance) puts the person at a very high risk to develop cancer. The symptoms may takes years, sometimes decades, to develop, but the onset starts off with continued exposure to these agents. So, if you are predisposed to developing cancer, ensure your exposure to the above pollutants is reduced, even if it cannot be completely avoided.
Breast cancer is the most common forms of cancer in females, affecting one in every eight women in the US. There are huge awareness campaigns, which revolve around ways to recognize if you are prone for it and how to identify the disease in its early stages. Knowing the symptoms can help in early diagnosis and thereby early intervention and better prognosis.
How and why of breast cancer?
The breasts produce milk through the glands, which also contain connective tissue including fat, fibrous tissue, nerves, blood vessels, etc. The milk reaches the exterior through a fine network of ducts. Most cancers develop as small calcifications in these ducts, which continues to grow and spread to distant organs.
Warning signs and symptoms: Given the high incidence of breast cancer, knowing the symptoms helps in early identification. Read on to know more, especially if there is a family history.
- Any change in the size, shape, or contour of the breasts
- Appearance of a lump in the breasts or the armpits
- Presence of a clear or bloody discharge from the breast
- The breast or the nipple turning red
- Sudden thickening of breast tissue or skin that continues for a while
- Change in the feel or look of the skin (dimpling, puckering, scaliness, reddishness, warmth, etc.)
- Hardening of the tissue under the breast skin
- Difference in appearance or feel of one area in comparison with other areas
The presence of any of these or a combination of these symptoms should be an indication for a detailed checkup. As mentioned, early diagnosis helps in reducing complications and improving prognosis. It is also good to know risk factors, which also indicate if you need to watch for symptoms.
- Family history: Breast cancer runs in families, and if you have a first-degree relative with breast cancer, watch out for symptoms.
- Tested positive for BRCA1 and BRCA2
- Family history of other cancers
- Age: Women over the age of 50 are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
- Race: Caucasian women carry greater risk than African-American women.
- Hormones: Increased use of estrogen increases the chances of developing breast cancer. Therefore, women who have used birth control for long time or are on hormone replacement are at greater risk.
- Abnormal gynecologic milestones: Women who have abnormal menstrual milestones are more predisposed to developing breast cancer. For instance, girls who attain menarche before age of 12, get pregnant after 30, and reach menopause after 55. Women with menstrual irregularities including cycles earlier than 26 days and later than 29 days are also likely to have hormonal issues and are, therefore, at higher risk of breast cancer.
- Other factors: Smoking, alcohol abuse, and obesity also increase the chances of a woman developing breast cancer.
Cancer in colon forms due to uncontrolled cell growth in the large intestine cells. Most colon cancers originate from the healthy cells in the lining of the colon that grow into tumors called adenomatous polyps. These polyps can be cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant and may spread to the other parts of the body by traveling through blood and lymph systems, this process is known as metastasis. Whereas a benign tumor can grow but don’t necessarily spread to other parts of the body. It takes years for these changes to develop depending upon both genetic and environmental causes.
Causes and risk factors:
In a healthy body, the cells normally grow, divide and then die. Cancer is the result of uncontrollable cell growth where the cells do not die. Aging is one of the important risk factors for colon cancer; other risk factors include a family history of colon cancer. As per Johns LE and Houlston RS individuals with a family history of colon cancer have a high risk of developing this form of cancer as compared to those with no such history. A study conducted by Giovannucci and others in 1995, successfully established the relation between physical activity, obesity and colon cancer. As per the research lack of physical activities elevates the chance of getting colon cancer. Individuals who regularly smoke, are obese and use aspirin have a higher risk of developing this form of cancer. Diet is also an important factor, diets that are high in fat and low in fiber may elevate the risk.
The symptoms of colon cancer are varied, depending upon the condition of the tumor. At the early stage, patients may experience no symptoms. However, as cancer grows, symptoms arise. Diarrhea or constipation are common; patients may see changes in stool consistency and narrower stool. Abdominal discomfort, bloating, fullness and cramps may also indicate colon cancer. Sudden weight loss and unexplained iron deficiency (anemia) are also associated with this form of cancer. If these symptoms last for several weeks, don’t hesitate to consult your physician.
Colon cancer is highly treatable and depends on the type and the stage of cancer along with health and other characteristics of the patient. However, there is no single treatment; the most common options are – surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The surgery for colon cancer is known as colectomy and involves removing the affected part of the colon and the adjoining areas including nearby lymph nodes. Chemotherapy involves killing the cancer cells by utilizing certain chemicals that interfere the cell division process and damage the proteins or DNA. In the radiation therapy, high-energy gamma rays are used to target and destroy the cancer cells. Radiotherapy can be used both as a standalone treatment and also along with other treatments.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Testicular cancer is a rare and serious disease in which malignant or cancer cells form in one or both tissues of testicles. It is the most common type of cancer in the males aged between 20 to 30 years. Testosterone and sperms are produced in the testicles of the males. Almost all testicular cancerous cells begin from germ cells. There are two types of germ cell tumors - Seminomas and Non-Seminomas respectively.
Seminomas and non-seminomas occur almost about equally. But a mixture of the two types of cells is treated as non-seminomas only. Further, the seminomas and non-seminomas are subdivided. The seminomas are divided into classical seminoma and spermatocytes-seminoma. And the non-seminomas are further divided into embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and teratoma.
What causes testicular cancer?
The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Researchers have not been able to find out the reason that causes it. However, there are certain risk factors that increase the chances of having testicular cancer. An undescended testicle might be the cause of testicular cancer. Abnormal testicle contributes to the risk factors of the disease. If anyone has had the disease previously in the family, then it increases the risk factor. Also, research shows that white people are 4.5 times at more risk for testicular cancer than black people.
What are the symptoms?
Some may experience no symptoms of it at all, while others have symptoms like aching, the swelling in the scrotum, and sudden weight gain. A lump might also be noticed on either side of the testicles if affected by this disease. Hence, if these symptoms are observed, it is important to get a diagnosis by a medical expert. The symptoms are not yet clearly stated by the researchers, but the above-mentioned symptoms are said to be prevalent in people with testicular cancer.Do not try any measures to diagnose on your own, refer to the concerned doctor as this is a serious disease.
How to diagnose testicular cancer?
If a person, experiences any of the above-mentioned symptoms, the person must seek the medical help immediately. The doctor will prescribe a few tests to diagnose the condition. The tests include an Ultrasound to get the image of Scrotum and testicles and a few blood tests to know the levels of tumor markers in the blood. If these tests confirm a lump then a surgery is done to remove the lump and further test if the lump is cancerous. Also, the type and the stage of the cancer is determined.
What are the treatment options?
Treatments are decided depending on the stage and type of cancer. The different treatment options available are Surgery to remove testicles, Surgery to remove the nearby lymph nodes, Radiation therapy, and Chemotherapy. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Are you aware of the link between air pollution and cancer? Air pollution refers to the mixture of several harmful substances, which lead to various serious health hazards on exposure. The primary sources of air pollution are man-made, including fumes from automobiles and the smoke from burning fuels. Desert dust, radon gas, and several other natural sources of air pollution are equally dangerous. Air pollution is classified into outdoor and indoor air pollution. It is highly associated with increased risks of developing cancer. Smoking is considered to be one of the major agents, which pollute the air and increase the chances of cancer to a large extent.
Outdoor air pollution
- Outdoor air pollution is strongly linked with cancer development.
- As every person is exposed to some form of air pollution, it has a more harmful effect on the whole population across the globe as a general threat.
- A certain part of outdoor air pollution referred to as PM 2.5, or solid dust particles, are highly responsible for the development of cancer.
- The chances of cancer increase with the increase in PM 2.5 levels in the air.
Indoor air pollution
- There are several sources of indoor air pollution that are closely associated with an increased risk of cancer.
- The sources include fuels used for heating homes and for cooking, radon, and tobacco smoke.
- Second hand smoke is another harmful indoor air pollutant that causes cancer.
Second hand smoke
- Secondhand smoke increases the risk of cancer development, along with the risk of developing other diseases such as stroke and lung disease.
- A lot of people all over the world get exposed to second hand smoke.
- A lot of deaths occur due to cancer because of second hand smoke exposure which is common every year, all over the globe.
- Radon is a natural radioactive gas, which is associated with increased risks of developing lung cancer.
- It is found at low levels outdoors. It may also build in high concentrations indoors.
- Although radon exposure does not pose a huge threat for cancer, a lot of radon-associated cancers develop due to exposure to radon, along with tobacco smoke.
- This is a flammable liquid having no color and with a sweet odor.
- It is closely associated with the development of leukemia and cancers affecting other cells of the body.
- Cigarette smoking and tobacco smoke are major cancer causing elements that are found in the air commonly. Both of these are quite harmful. It is recommended that you not only quit smoking, but also keep away from passive smoking.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!