Doctors in Aster CMI Hospital
Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery
Liver Transplant Surgery
Nuclear Medicine Physician
Patient Review Highlights
Naveen Kumar G
very very good and caring, friendly doctor, may god bless him
Very nice and she explained the problem indetail
The liver plays an important role in the digestion process and filtration of toxins from the body. In rare cases, a person with no history of liver problems may suddenly begin to show symptoms of decreased liver functioning. If this deteriorates quickly over a few days or weeks, it is known as acute liver failure. This condition is also known as fulminant hepatic failure. If left untreated, it can cause a number of fatal complications including excessive pressure on the brain and uncontrollable bleeding.
Treatment for acute liver failure depends on the factors triggering the condition.
- If it is caused by an overdose of certain medication, the condition can be reversed. In such cases, medication is the first form of treatment. Similarly, acute liver failure caused by poisoning may also be reversed with medication. These medications help control and reverse the effect of the toxins and thus reduce liver damage. Acute viral hepatitis is the commonest cause of acute liver failure in India.
- If the condition cannot be reversed, a liver transplant may be the only available form of treatment. This surgery is considered a relatively safe procedure and has proved to be very effective in treating acute liver failure.
- A liver transplant involves removing the damaged liver and replacing it with a healthy liver from a cadaver donor or part of a healthy liver from a living donor. Earlier it was only children who could be treated by transplanting a part of liver donated by a living family member. But in the recent years, there are many patients that are being treated by the same procedure.
- By receiving a liver transplant from a living donor, patients do not have to be placed on the waitlist for a liver and thus have a higher survival rate. To be a living donor, the person must have the same blood type as the patient, must be healthy enough to undergo surgery and must have a liver that is large enough to be divided into two parts.
A liver transplant procedure is performed while the patient is under general anaesthesia. Hospitalization is required after the procedure for the doctor to see that the incision is healing properly and to ensure that the body does not reject the transplanted liver. To reduce chances of a rejection, the patient is given medication to suppress the immune system. Hence, it is very important for the patients to stay in a hygienic environment and reduce their exposure to infections.
The liver has a significant role to play in metabolism and digestion. The failure of a liver can lead to significant health issues. There are some causes for liver failure, which cannot be treated with medications. In these people, a transplant, which is replacing the diseased or injured liver with another liver, is the only definitive treatment option.
Some conditions which can require a liver transplant are:
- Severe cirrhosis with a life expectancy of less than a year
- Severe liver failure
- Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)
- Liver cancer
- Chronic hepatitis C
- Biliary atresia in children
Types of transplant:
- Living donor transplant: In some patients, partial liver can be removed from a close family member and transplanted into the affected individual. The liver is known for its regeneration ability, and over time, will grow in the recipient.
- Cadaveric transplant: Immediately after death, a liver can be removed and transplanted.
While the concept of a transplant sounds quite convincing and appealing for those with a severe liver disease, it is also important to note that not all would qualify for a liver transplant. The conditions which would disqualify a recipient are discussed below:
- Significant heart disease: Those with severe coronary artery disease, valvular disease, cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and cardiomyopathy are not candidates for a liver transplant.
- Severe lung disease: Those with poor lung perfusion do not qualify for a liver transplant.
- Advanced age: Greater the age, lesser the survival rates. So, people aged more than 70 are usually not considered for a transplant.
- Obesity: A person with a BMI of more than 35 is often not a good candidate for a transplant. The overall health should be managed in these people.
- Malnutrition: On the other extreme, severely malnourished individuals are also not considered for a transplant.
- HIV infection: A person who is HIV-infected does not qualify for a liver transplant.
- Substance abuse: Anyone who is actively abusing alcohol and/or substances is definitely removed from the list for a transplant.
- Metastasis: If a patient is looking for a liver transplant due to hepatic cancer, it is essential that the cancer is contained. If it has spread to various parts, then containing it would be difficult, and a transplant may not succeed.
- Multisystem organ failure: Other than heart and lungs, even people with poor renal function are not ideal candidates for a liver transplant.
A detailed liver recipient evaluation assessing the severity of liver disease, chances of survival, and overall health are done before a person is listed for liver transplant. This evaluation ensures a better success rate with the transplant.
A liver is the largest organ in the human body, weighing about 1.5 kg and has a significant role in terms of digestion and metabolism. It also helps remove toxins and fight infections. Therefore, when a liver fails, the overall health of an individual is significantly affected. Often a liver transplant is required where the affected liver is removed and a new liver from a donor, either living or deceased, is placed and sutured in place. The success rate, if done early and well, can be close to 80% at three years. Over a period of time, this new liver gets accepted by the body to perform various functions that were done by the original liver.
The people affected by the following diseases could benefit significantly from a liver transplant.
- Chronic liver failure: This is not easily identifiable and the condition develops over a period of time, usually over years. Chronic liver failure is produced by many conditions, the most common being cirrhosis. Due to chronic alcohol abuse, the liver tissue undergoes scarring. This scarred tissue replaces the normal liver tissue and the liver functions are affected. This leads to poor metabolism, indigestion, toxin accumulation, etc. The most typical symptoms include accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and black, tarry stools. Once diagnosed, evaluation is done to find out the MELD score. This determines the severity of cirrhosis and overall prognosis. For most cases of severe cirrhosis, transplant is almost a definitive treatment with 3-year survival rates of close to 75%.
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH): People who are not alcohol abusers, but have a fatty accumulation within the liver, often face a liver failure. This again can require a liver transplant.
- Biliary conditions: The bile ducts transport the bile that is produced in the liver to the stomach. If these are not functioning properly, either due to cirrhosis, blockage, or improper development, then a liver transplant may be required. This is often done in younger patients, less than 15 years old.
- Congenital conditions like hemochromatosis and Wilson’s disease: These are genetic conditions, often identified in children, and require a transplant at a young age. A full liver transplant may not be required in these cases.
- Acute liver failure: This is often a side effect of medications and can onset within a few weeks. This can necessitate a liver transplant as in most of the cases, the patients are young.
The liver is the largest organ in a human body and plays a key role by secreting various digestive enzymes and hormones. It also stores various nutrients required by the body and helps fight infection and remove toxins. For various reasons, the liver can fail to perform its function at optimal levels. This can lead to a liver failure, and in severe cases, a transplant may be the most definitive treatment. Liver transplant is when the diseased liver is removed and replaced with a new liver.
There are various types of liver transplants, depending on the donor and the amount of liver transplanted.
- Living donor: In people with severe liver failure, a close family member is identified who is also willing to donate. A donor evaluation is then done and a part of the liver is removed and transplanted in the patient. The liver, known for its regenerative properties, grows in the recipient, and over a period of time, gets accepted by the recipient.
- Deceased liver transplant: Also known as an orthotopic liver transplant, this involves removal of the liver from a matched donor and placing it in the affected individual. The liver should be replaced within few hours of death. For people who are expecting a liver transplant, they are often evaluated and placed on a waiting list. Also, a list of those willing to donate is maintained. As soon as a person dies, the potential recipient is called and then a transplant is conducted. In the USA, it could even be years before a donor becomes available. In countries like India, a non-family donation is not legal as it could lead to rackets.
- Split type or partial transplant: As noted, it is not necessary in some cases that a full liver be available for transplant. A part of the liver can be transplanted in the recipient, and it continues to grow there. Sometimes, the liver from a deceased person is split into a larger and a smaller portion and transplanted in an adult and a child respectively.
- Auxiliary liver transplantation: In some cases, for instance, in people with a metabolic disease, the recipient’s liver is only partially removed and replaced with a new partial liver. The original liver could be used for gene therapy to help in recovery.
In all these cases, it is very essential to choose an appropriate transplant center and undergo a thorough evaluation to ensure a successful liver transplantation. When properly done, liver transplants have a success rate of 85% in 5 years.
Ovaries are a part of a woman’s reproductive system. The primary function of ovaries includes producing ‘ova’ or eggs and secreting hormones such as progesterone and estrogen. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form the ovaries; they usually do not cause any symptom and are not painful.
There are primarily two types of ovarian cysts:
1. Follicle cysts: During a woman’s menstrual cycle, the egg develops in a sac known as the follicle. Under normal circumstances, the sac breaks open and releases the egg. When this doesn’t happen, fluids start accumulating in the follicle to form a cyst.
2. Corpus luteum cysts: Follicle sacs dissolve after releasing the egg, but in some cases, these sacs remain and the opening of the sacs gets sealed. It again results in fluid accumulation, leading to the formation of corpus luteum cysts.
Usually, cysts do not cause any symptom. If the size of the cysts increases, they may cause symptoms such as stomach pain, pain during bowel movements and sex as well as pelvic floor pain. The breasts may become tender and one may experience rapid breathing. Other symptoms of ovarian cysts are fever, nausea and dizziness. Usually, rupturing of a cyst leads to these symptoms surfacing; hence you would know when exactly to call the doctor.
The treatment options for ovarian cysts are:
- Laparoscopy: Laparoscopy is carried out if the cysts are small in size. An incision is made close to the navel, through which an instrument is inserted to get rid of the cyst.
- Birth control pills: For chronic ovarian cysts, oral contraceptives are prescribed to stop the ovulation process in order to arrest the formation of cysts.
- Laparotomy: In case of large cysts, this procedure is recommended. A relatively bigger incision is made in the abdomen, through which the cyst is removed.
Ovarian cysts, if left untreated, can certainly cause infertility. Pre-menopausal women and who suffer from frequent hormonal imbalances in the body are the most vulnerable to this condition.
Breast Cancer - What exactly is it?
‘Breast cancer’ is a term that is used to refer to a malignant tumour, which has developed from cells present in the breast. Generally, all tumours can be divided into two categories i.e. benign and malignant and it is the malignant tumour that is responsible for causing cancer. Breast cancer generally originates in the cells the milk producing glands of the breast's or the passage, which carries milk from the glands to the lobules. Additionally, breast cancer can also originate in the stromal tissues, including the fibrous and fatty connective breast tissues.
Breast Cancer: Treatment Options
Treatment for breast cancer depends upon two things: the exact type of the cancer and how advanced the cancer is. Treatment options for breast cancer can thus be broadly divided into two categories as Local treatments and Systemic treatments.
Treatments that target the tumour without having any effect on the rest of the body are called local treatments. The following types of local treatment options are available for treating breast cancer:
- Surgery: Surgical breast cancer treatment involves removal of the malignant cancerous tumour in an operation. Smaller tumours can be removed using a surgical process referred to as ‘lumpectomy’, wherein the tumour along with a small amount of healthy tissue surrounding the tumour is removed. For larger tumours, removal of the entire breast becomes mandatory, in a surgical process known as ‘mastectomy’. Women who undergo mastectomy can choose to undergo reconstructive plastic surgery for reconstruction of the removed breast(s).
- Radiation Therapy: This basically involves using radiation to kill cancer cells present in the body. Radiation therapy is a long-drawn process that usually involves a set number of treatments administered over a long period of time. Radiation therapy is also generally the follow-up procedure after a lumpectomy, or more rarely, a mastectomy.
Treatments involving drugs that are administered via either the mouth or direct injection into the bloodstream are called systemic treatments. These include:
- Chemotherapy: This includes using drugs to destroy the cancer cells present in the body by stopping the cancer cells from growing and dividing. Chemotherapy can be administered using either an IV (intravenous) tube or via pills that can be swallowed.
- Hormone Therapy: This treatment option is used for treating tumours which have tested positive for progesterone or oestrogen receptors. Blocking hormones that fuel the tumour’s growth is the basis of this therapy.
- Targeted Therapy: This targets specific proteins and genes which contribute to growth and survival of the cancer cells. Targeted therapy is an extremely focused treatment, and is very effective in blocking the growth and division of cancer cells, as well as minimizing damage to surrounding healthy cells.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The liver is the engine of the human body. It is basically composed of 2 types of cells (a cell is the basic building block of the human body) – hepatocytes (liver cells) and cholangiocytes (bile duct cells). It also has other supporting tissue and their respective cells. The hepatocytes are by far the most numerous cell type, not surprisingly tumours (otherwise called mass or lump. “Tumor” means lump in Latin), of this cell form the majority of abnormal growths in the liver. Abnormal growths can be benign (that is, they do not grow rapidly, spread to other parts of the organ or to other parts of the body) or malignant (grow rapidly, spread to other parts of the organ and to other parts of the body, i.e. cancer). These abnormal growths from liver cells are Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), Adenomas (the benign variety) and hepatocellular cancer (otherwise called Hepatoma/HCC, the cancerous type). What we need to recognize is that certain adenomas can turn into HCC, over a period of time. The other type of growths in the liver are those that have originated elsewhere in the body and spread to the liver, for example a growth of the breast spreading to the liver. These are in fact the commonest tumours of the liver. I will discuss these at a later date.
Benign growths of the liver
Common benign growths are Haemangiomas, FNH and Adenoma. Most of these are identified when a scan is performed as investigation for some other problem. Accurate diagnosis of the nature of these lumps is important to determine the type of treatment needed. This can be ascertained by a carefully selected scan like an Ultrasound, CT scan or an MRI. The technology of these scans is continuing to evolve and get better year on year. There are different types of Ultrasound, CT and MRI scans with different applications, based on whether contrast is used or not, the different phases of scanning, the type of MRI scanning sequence etc. Therefore, these scans although commonly available and used very frequently, need to be performed under the supervision of a team involving Liver doctors and radiologist who is well versed in the diagnosis of liver lumps, for accurate diagnosis without the need for unnecessary tests (Box 1).
Haemangiomas are by far the commonest. It is estimated that 5% of the adult population harbor this lump in their livers! They occur in both sexes and at all ages but are commonest between 30 to 50 years in women. Most of them are small, less than 4-5 cms in diameter and are are identified on Ultrasound. MRI and its various applications is the scan of choice for accurate diagnosis. This is crucial as most of them do not need treatment.
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia (FNH) are the second most common liver lumps. They are usually single and small (less than 4 cms) and occur in women between 35 – 50 years of age. About 2.5-3% of population harbor this lump in their livers. Special MRI techniques using special contrast agents is diagnostic and the findings are quite distinct from haemangiomas. Again treatment is not recommended apart from selected circumstances. Assessment in a dedicated Liver team is recommended for accurate diagnosis and a proper management plan to be formulated.
Hepatic adenomas (Hepatocellular adenoma, HCA) are rare lumps and occur in 0.2 to 0.3% of the population, again occurring mostly in young women during their reproductive period. They are again solitary and most usually 3-4 ms in diameter.
There are a couple characteristics which make this lump different from the previous 2, there is a strong relation between hormones the development of HCA and some of these HCA can turn into the malignant Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, accurate characterization and diagnosis of these HCA is essential. Sometimes biopsy of the lump, molecular and genetic tests maybe necessary to determine if the HCA has a high chance of progressing to HCC. Imaging tests are generally adequate, contrast MRI Liver and its different techniques is accurate in diagnosing HCA and sub-typing it, however CT and contrast-enhanced Ultrasound is sometimes necessary along with MRI.
Generally, a HCA in a male is recommended for surgical resection. While in women, discontinuation of the OCP pill/ any other such hormone is recommended for a period of 6 months, if the HCA does not have any worrying features and size is less than 5 cms. IF HCA is larger than 5 cms and has features suggestive of a high risk for change to HCC, surgery is advised. Again these decisions have to be made as a part of a Multi-disciplinary team (Box 1)
Malignant growths beginning within the Liver
As mentioned earlier, usually malignant growths which are seen in the liver spread to it from elsewhere in the body. Hepatocellular cancer/Hepatoma (HCC) is the commonest malignant tumour beginning within the liver, as apposed to those that spread to the liver from elsewhere. It occurs between 40-70 years of age and occurs commonly in men. It is estimated that 17000 new patients develop this tumour every year in India. The vast majority (> 80%) of these develop in patients who have chronic liver disease (cirrhosis). Importantly the number of HCC cases is increasing year on year as cirrhosis due to fatty liver disease, Hepatitis B (3% of Indian population carry this virus, ie nearly 40 million individuals) and alcohol are continuing to increase in India. Nearly overall it is the 4th or 5th most common cause of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. This is continuing to increase too. We do not have a national policy in India to screen and diagnose these lumps in the liver at an early stage. Most patients present at a late stage when effective treatment is not possible.
Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease, there are good drugs to treat it and decrease the risk of cirrhosis and HCC in HBV patients, therefore it is important to test for this virus infection. The fatty liver disease can cause chronic liver damage and HCC, regular exercise and consuming a balanced diet can reduce the risk of fatty liver disease.
The usual mode of detection of these growths is when a scan is done for some other reason. Occasionally patients can develop pain in the abdomen or jaundice which leads to an investigation. The treatment of HCC depends on the extent of tumour, the extent of the chronic liver disease (the stage of cirrhosis) and the overall condition of the patient. These patients are best seen, assessed and treated in a team (Box 1) which specializes in the treatment of Liver disease.
The best treatment for HCC is surgery. However, this is suitable only for certain carefully selected patients. This can take the form of liver resection (where a portion of the liver with tumour is removed) or liver transplantation (where the whole liver is removed and a donated liver (full or partial) is replaced into the patient. Indeed surgical has excellent survival rates; more than 75% of patients survive for more than 5 years after resection or transplantation making treatment for these cancers one of the most satisfactory.
Other treatments which can be combined with surgery in selected patients or can be combined with patients not suitable for surgery are different types of Interventional radiological therapy – chemotherapy or radiotherapy delivered through fine catheters introduced into the blood vessels of the liver (TACE: Transarterial chemotherapy, TARE: Transarterial radiotherapy) and or heat energy delivered to the tumour area by means of carefully placed needles/probes (RFA: radiofrequency ablation, MWA: microwave ablation).
HCC is unique cancer as its treatment should be tailored to the patient, the treatments are varied and range from catheter-based non-invasive treatment to major surgery and transplantation. This necessitates that HCC patients are best managed in a multidisciplinary team which is highly skilled in and specializes in the management of liver diseases.
Box 1: A liver tumour multidisciplinary team – Integrated Liver Care team
The team should be one with expertise in the management of benign liver lesions and should include a Hepatologist, a Hepatobiliary & Transplant surgeon, Diagnostic and Interventional radiologists, Medical oncologist and a Pathologist.
Each member of the team must hold specific and relevant training, expertise and experience relevant to the management of benign liver lesions.
The team should be one with the skills required not only to appropriately manage these patients but also to manage the rare but known complications of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I am 35 years old and still no baby. Got married before 1 year. TTC from last 5 months but suddenly I came to know I had an endometriosis and I had a surgery on 1st June. At the time of surgery Dr. Checked my tubes and all. Everything was ok. On 2nd of June Dr. Gave me an injection LUPRODEX 3.75 only one shot and added no need for more shots. 15th June I got my periods but dat was the day when I got my periods last time and no periods yet today is 20th August. Dr. Asked me to TTC. I have gone through a test beta HCG and there is no pregnancy. When I will get my periods. Dr. Asked me to wait. How long will it take? It has already been more than 2 months. I want to conceive. It's already too late.
Dear madam, I need a verification for PCOD Problem I am pcod patient .what is the normal range (volume) of right and left ovary. I am taking a medicine for past one year but I didn't cure my problem what is the solution for this?
A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that can help improve the hearing of people with severe, irreversible hearing loss. Although a cochlear implant does not restore normal hearing, it can allow a person to hear and understand more speech than was possible with a hearing aid. For a child, this could mean an opportunity to develop listening and speech skills and the potential to attend school with hearing peers. For adults, a cochlear implant could reduce social isolation and improve communication.
The cochlear implant is a device that is placed in the inner ear. The implant system has three primary parts:
- Microphone and Transmitter —The headpiece and transmitter is worn above the ear to pick up sounds. These sounds are sent to a speech processor.
- Speech Processor — A speech processor is worn externally, behind the ear like a hearing aid, to convert sound into a digital code that is transmitted to an implanted stimulator.
- Implanted Stimulator — The implanted stimulator is a small component placed under the skin behind the ear. It receives a digital code from the speech processor and sends it to the auditory or hearing nerve.
The brain interprets this signal and it is recognized as sound. The small headpiece and transmitter is held in place by a magnet coupled the implanted stimulator, under the skin.
Tests are done to determine if a child is a candidate for a cochlear implantation. Patients are selected based on medical and hearing histories and test results as well as findings. The evaluation, which differs slightly for children and adults, includes the following: *
- Medical Evaluation — Conducted by the cochlear implant surgeon who will take the medical history, examine your ears and explain the surgical process.
- CT Scan of the Temporal bone and MRI Brain and Cochlear imaging - This computerized tomography (CT) scan allows the surgeon to evaluate the ear's internal structure, recommend which ear to implant and may provide information as to the cause of deafness.
- Audiological Evaluation — This evaluation involves a hearing test to confirm the type and degree of hearing loss, hearing aid evaluation to assess the benefit provided by a hearing aid and aided speech recognition testing to determine if a hearing aid might provide greater benefit than an implant.
- Psychological Screening — This screening is conducted by psychologist to assess the feelings about hearing loss and the cochlear implant, such as the reasons for seeking the implant and the expectations.
- Cochlear Implant Counseling — At this time, if one is a candidate for cochlear implant, possible benefits and limitations will be explained and one will be provided with information to select the device.
Implant surgery is performed under general anesthesia and takes about three hours. During the operation, a surgeon will anchor a receiver-stimulator device in the temporal bone in the skull and insert what is called an "electrode array" into the cochlea, the small snail-shaped structure in the inner ear that contains the hearing organ. First, an incision is made behind the ear to expose the temporal bone. The surgeon then positions the implant component against the bone. A hole is made in the temporal bone with a microscopic drill, allowing the surgeon access to the cochlea. A small hole is made in the wall of the cochlea and the electrode array is gently guided into the cochlea. The internal receiver is secured in place on the skull bone with sutures and the incision is closed. A sterile dressing is placed on the incision.
To qualify for a cochlear implant, patients must meet the following criteria:
Adults age 18 and older have:
- Overall good health
- Severe hearing loss in both ears
- Limited benefit from conventional hearing aids determined by a trial period, when appropriate, of about three months
- Psychological and emotional stability
- Realistic expectations of the implant
- No ear conditions or other medical conditions that would interfere with surgery
- Ability to participate fully in a follow-up
Children age 1 to 17 must have:
- Overall good health
- Severe hearing loss in both ears
- Limited benefit from conventional hearing aids
- Realistic expectations of the cochlear implant
- No ear conditions or other medical conditions that would interfere with surgery
- Family commitment to comply with all evaluations before and after surgery
- Enrollment in a post-operative rehabilitative and educational program that supports the use of cochlear implants and the development of hearing skills
Following surgery, patient will return home for four weeks to allow time for swelling to subside and the incision to heal. After several days, the incision may be wet during bathing or showering.
The externally worn speech processor is activated about four weeks after surgery. The processor converts speech into a special code for each user. The activation and programming is performed at the Hospital. Programming for each implant is customized for the patient and takes about six hours over a two-day period.
Visit at regular intervals for device checks and re-evaluation. During these visits, the implant and equipment are checked and performance is measured. Re-testing generally occurs at one, three and six months and one year following the initial device fitting. Then, semi-annual or annual evaluations are performed. Each session for adults involves about three hours.
Benefit from a cochlear implant usually improves with time but can't be guaranteed. Rehabilitation after surgery is key to maximizing the benefits of the cochlear implant. Most people with these implants are able to engage in hearing activities, such as listening to a Walkman, enjoying a movie, using a phone and participating in social activities. The motivation is critical to the success of the implant. Use the device during all waking hours, Listen, speak and interact with others as much as possible, Utilize visual cues when adjusting to the implant, but gradually decrease the use of visual cues when ready, Ask others to identify unfamiliar sounds so they become familiar.
Many people have questions about cochlear implants, how they work and what to expect from the surgery. Here are some common questions and answers-
Will a cochlear implant restore normal hearing for people who are deaf?
No, a cochlear implant does not restore normal hearing. It is a communication tool but not a "cure" for deafness. When hearing functions normally, parts of the inner ear convert sound waves into electrical impulses. These impulses are sent to the brain, where they are recognized as sound. A cochlear implant simulates that process. An implant, supplemented with listening therapy, can help people recognize sound, including speech.
Are there risks in cochlear implant surgery?
Risk is inherent in any surgery requiring general anesthesia. However, the surgical risks for cochlear implantation are minimal and most patients require only a one-day hospital stay and have no surgical complications.
Will I need more surgery as new technology becomes available?
The implanted unit is designed to last a lifetime. The externally worn speech processor, which is responsible for converting sound into code and sending the information to an internal unit, is dependent on software that can be upgraded as technology improves.
Will my child outgrow the internal device and require a new one?
No, the cochlea is fully formed at birth and the skull structures achieve almost full growth by age 2. The electrode array is designed to accommodate skull growth in children. Should I wait for new cochlear implant technology? No, the design of the surgically implanted receiver and electrode array has changed relatively little during the history of cochlear implants. However, speech-coding strategies, which are responsible for delivering the signal to the internal unit and are stored in the externally worn speech processor, have improved significantly over the years. The speech processor can incorporate new technology when available.
Can people with cochlear implants identify environmental noises as well as speech?
Cochlear implants provide a wide range of sound information. Performance in speech perception testing varies among individuals. With time and training, most patients understand more speech than with hearing aids and many communicate by telephone or enjoy music.
Can people with cochlear implants swim, shower and participate in sports?
Yes, people with implants can swim, shower and participate in virtually all types of sport activities when they are not wearing the external equipment. The only restriction relates to skydiving and scuba diving because significant changes in air pressure are not advised. Participation in all other athletic activities is unrestricted, although protective headgear is always recommended. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!