The oral cavity serves as both a site of and a gateway entry of disease for microbial infections, which can affect general health status. In addition, some studies have demonstrated a relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, the report establishes a relationship between oral health and quality of life, including functional, psychosocial, and economic indicators. Poor oral health can affect diet, nutrition, sleep, psychological status, social interaction, school, and work.
Protection and control of oral health and diseases safeguards a woman?s health and quality of life before and during pregnancy.Also, it has the potential to decrease the transmission of pathogenic bacteria that occurs from mother to child. Along with pregnancy, come physiological changes for a woman. The changes, including fluctuating hormones, increase the woman?s susceptibility to oral infections such as periodontal disease. This disease impairs the body?s ability to repair and maintain soft tissues.It also causes indirect damage through bacterial induction of both inflammatory and immune responses of the host. During pregnancy, mild inflammation of the gums, ?pregnancy gingivitis, is quite common and if left untreated can lead to periodontal disease. There have been an increased number of studies establishing associations between, periodontal disease and negative health outcomes, which include tooth loss, cardiovascular disease, stroke, poor diabetes control, and adverse birth outcomes. Another notable oral disease pertinent to maternal child health is dental caries. Dental caries is the process of tooth decay, and the development of what is commonly known as cavities. Dental carries are transmitted from mother to child vertically; colonization of cariogenic bacteria primarily occurs from mother to child through saliva-sharing activities. Maternal oral flora can ultimately foretell oral flora in offspring. In addition, other maternal factors such as social, behavioral, and biological factors can predispose a child?s experience with tooth-decay. Some of these factors include the lack of knowledge a mother possesses concerning oral health, which can influence the development of caries among her children. Compared to children whose mothers have good oral health, children whose mothers have bad oral health are five times as likely to have poor oral health.Poor maintenance of oral health has profound implications on the development of children. Oral health affects the quality of life, especially children, with respect to functional, psychological, economic, and overall emotional well-being of an individual.Adverse effects of poor oral health, take for example the consequences a simple cavity can have on a child. First, it is painful. This might cause a child to miss school or have poor concentration, eventually compromising school performance. In addition, due to the pain, it might result in poor weight gain or growth. Also, children may exhibit reduced self-esteem because of cosmetic issues. Furthermore, it can affect language and impair speech. Impaired speech development can also result in low self-esteem. Finally, cavities although easily preventable, can pose a financial burden of a family. Poor oral health permeates into other aspects of life, posing threats to overall well-being, if not handled timely and effectively